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by Frank B. Sarles, Jr. and Charles E. Shedd 
edited by John Porter Bloom and Robert M. Utley 

Volume VI 





This publication is one of a series designed to make available to the 
public the studies of the National Survey of Historic Sites and Build- 
ings. It is printed at the Government Printing Office and may be 
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Price $2.75. 



Foreword • xiii 
Introduction • xv 


Colonials and Patriots: The Historical Background • 3 

Population Growth and Territorial Expansion • 3 

Economic Development • 8 

Society and Culture • 12 

Architecture • 14 

Expansion and Conflict • 17 

America Crosses the Mountains • 22 

Mounting Political Tension • 25 

The Outbreak of War • 29 

^4 JV«0 Government • 32 

Naval Operations • 34 

Law^ Operations • 35 

TTtf War in fn* West • 47 

Victory at Torktown • 48 

77tf P*za? of Paris, 1783 • 49 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings • 51 

A. Sites in the National Park System • 54 

1. Fort Frederica National Monument, Ga. • 54 

2. Minute Man National Historical Park, Mass. • 55 

[ v 



3. Salem Maritime National Historic Site, Mass. • 57 

4. Morristown National Historical Park, NJ. • 58 

5. Federal Hall National Memorial, N.Y. • 60 

6. Saratoga National Historical Park, N.Y. • 62 

7. Guilford Courthouse National Military Park, N.C. • 63 

8. Moores Creek National Military Park, N.C. • 64 

9. Fort Necessity National Battlefield, Pa. • 65 

10. Hopewell Village National Historic Site, Pa. • 66 

11. Independence National Historical Park, Pa. • 68 

12. Cowpens National Battlefield Site, S.C. • 70 

13. Kings Mountain National Military Park, S.C. • 71 

14. George Washington Birthplace National Monument, 

Va. • 72 

15. Yorktown Battlefield, Colonial National Historical 

Park, Va. • 73 

B. National Historic Sites in Non-Federal Ownership 74 

1. Dorchester Heights National Historic Site, Mass. • 74 

2. St. Paul's Church National Historic Site, N.Y. • 76 

3. Gloria Dei Church National Historic Site, Pa. • 77 

4. Touro Synagogue National Historic Site, R.I. • 78 

C. Sites Eligible for the Registry of National Historic Landmarks • 81 

1. Webb House, Conn. • 81 

2. John Dickinson House, Del. • 83 

3. The Gundelo Philadelphia, Washington, D.C. • 85 

4. Lady Pepperrell House, Maine • 87 

5. Hammond-Harwood House, Md. • 88 

6. Whitehall, Md. • 89 

7. Buckman Tavern, Mass. • 91 

8. Bunker Hill Monument, Mass. • 93 

9. Christ Church (in Cambridge), Mass. • 93 

10. Faneuil Hall, Mass. • 95 

11. Isaac Royall House, Mass. • 97 

12. Jeremiah Lee Mansion, Mass. • 99 

13. King's Chapel, Mass. ■ 100 

14. Lexington Green, Mass. • 102 

15. Massachusetts Hall, Mass. • 103 

16. Old North Church (Christ Church in Boston), Mass. • 104 

17. Old South Meeting House, Mass. • 105 

Contents [ vii 

18. Paul Revere House, Mass. • 107 

19. Second Boston Town House, Mass. • 109 

20. Shirley-Eustis House, Mass. • 111 

21. Wright's Tavern, Mass. • 112 

22. Macpheadris- Warner House, N.H. • 114 

23. Monmouth Battlefield, N.J. ■ 115 

24. Nassau Hall, N.J. • 117 

25. Princeton Battlefield, N.J. • 119 

26. Washington Crossing, N.J. and Pa. • 121 

27. Bennington Battlefield, N.Y. • 124 

28. Fort Stanwix, N.Y. • 125 

29. Fort Ticonderoga, N.Y. • 127 

30. Johnson Hall, N.Y. - 128 

31. Morris-Jumel Mansion, N.Y. • 130 

32. Oriskany Battlefield, N.Y. • 131 

33. St. Paul's Chapel, N.Y. • 132 

34. Stony Point Battlefield, N.Y. • 133 

35. ValcourBay, N.Y. • 135 

36. Washington's Headquarters (Hasbrouck 

House), N.Y. • 137 

37. Brandywine Battlefield, Pa. • 139 

38. Bushy Run Battlefield, Pa. • 140 

39. Chew House (Cliveden), Pa. ■ 141 

40. Conrad Weiser Home, Pa. • 143 

41. Forks of the Ohio, Pa. • 145 

42. Graeme Park, Pa. • 148 

43. John Bartram House, Pa. • 150 

44. Mount Pleasant, Pa. • 151 

45. Valley Forge, Pa. • 153 

46. The Brick Market, R.I. • 154 

47. First Baptist Meeting House, R.I. • 156 

48. Old State House, R.I. • 157 

49. Redwood Library and Athenaeum, R.I. • 159 

50. Camden Battlefield, S.C. ■ 160 

51. Drayton Hall, S.C. ■ 161 

52. Miles Brewton House, S.C. • 163 

53. Mulberry Plantation, S.C. • 163 

54. Robert Brewton House, S.C. • 164 

55. St. Michael's Episcopal Church, S.C. • 165 


56. Long Island of the Holston, Tenn. • 166 

57. Greenway Court, Va. • 168 

58. Mount Airy, Va. • 169 

59. St. John's Episcopal Church, Va. • 170 

60. Stratford Hall, Va. • 173 

61. Westover, Va. • 173 

62. Wren Building, Va. • 175 

D. Historic Districts Eligible for the Registry of National Historic 

Landmarks 177 

1. OldDeerfield, Mass. ■ 177 

2. Huguenot Street, New Paltz, N.Y. • 180 

3. Elfreth's Alley, Philadelphia, Pa. • 182 

4. Charleston, S.C. • 186 

5. Williamsburg, Va. • 188 

E. Other Sites Considered 193 


1. Jonathan Trumbull War Office • 193 

2. Nathan Hale Birthplace • 194 

3. Newgate Prison and Granby Copper Mines • 194 


4. Cooch's Bridge • 194 

5. New Castle ■ 195 


6. Fort King George and Fort Darien • 195 

7. Kettle Creek Battlefield • 196 

8. New Ebenezer • 197 


9. Fort Sackville (George Rogers Clark Memorial) • 197 



Blue Licks Battlefield 



Fort Boonesborough • 



FortHarrod • 199 


Locust Grove • 199 


Arnold Trail • 200 


Fort George • 200 

Contents [ ix 

16. Fort Halifax ■ 200 

17. Fort Western • 201 


18. Brice House • 201 

19. Carroll-Caton House • 202 

20. Chase-Lloyd House • 202 

21. Fort Frederick • 202 


22. The Adams Birthplaces • 203 

23. Hancock-Clarke House • 203 

24. Jason Russell House • 204 

25. Munroe Tavern • 204 

26. Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House • 205 


27. General John Stark House • 205 

28. General John Sullivan House • 205 

29. John Paul Jones House • 206 

30. Moffatt-Ladd House • 206 

31. Wentworth-Coolidge Mansion • 207 

32. Wentworth-Gardner House • 207 


33. Boxwood Hall (Boudinot House) • 207 

34. Fort Mercer • 208 

35. Middlebrook Encampment • 208 

36. The Old Barracks • 209 

37. "Rockingham" (Berrien House) • 209 

38. Wallace House • 210 

39. Westminster • 210 


40. Conference House (Billopp House) • 210 

41 . Field of Grounded Arms • 211 

42. Fort Crown Point (Amherst) • 211 

43. Fort Johnson • 212 

44. Fort Ontario (Fort Oswego) • 212 

45. Fort William Henry • 213 

46. Fraunces Tavern • 213 

47. Herkimer Home • 214 

48. Knox Headquarters • 214 


49. Newtown Battlefield • 215 

50. New Windsor Cantonment (Temple Hill) ■ 215 

51. Old Fort Niagara • 215 

52. Schuyler Mansion • 216 

53. Senate House • 216 

54. Thomas Paine Cottage • 217 


55. Alamance Battleground • 217 

56. Bethabara • 218 

57. Brunswick Town • 218 

58. Cupola House • 219 

59. Historic Halifax • 219 

60. Tryon Palace • 219 


61. Schoenbrunn Village • 220 


62. Fort Augusta • 221 

63. Fort Mifflin • 221 

64. Golden Plough Tavern and Gates House • 222 


65. General James Mitchell Varnum House • 222 

66. General Nathanael Greene Homestead • 223 

67. Vernon House • 223 


68. Belleville Plantation and Associated Sites • 223 

69. Colonel John Stuart House • 224 

70. Colonel William Rhett House • 224 

71. Colonial Powder Magazine • 225 

72. Daniel Elliott Huger House • 225 

73. The Exchange (Custom House) • 225 

74. Eutaw Springs Battlefield • 226 

75. French Protestant Huguenot Church • 226 

76. Jacob Motte House • 227 

77. Star Fort and Village of Ninety Six ■ 227 


78. Bean Cabin Site ■ 228 

Contents [ *i 

79. Fort Loudoun ■ 228 

80. Sycamore Shoals and (lost site) Fort Watauga • 229 


81. Hubbardton Battlefield • 229 


82. Berkeley Plantation • 230 

83. Carter's Grove Plantation • 230 

84. Castle Hill • 231 

85. Christ Church • 231 

86. Gadsby's Tavern • 231 

87. George Wythe House • 232 

88. Germanna • 232 

89. Hanover Courthouse • 233 

90. Mount Vernon • 233 

91. Pohick Church • 234 

92. Scotchtown • 234 

93. Shirley Plantation • 235 

94. Springdale (Hite's Fort) • 235 

95. Tuckahoe Plantation • 236 


96. Point Pleasant Battlefield • 236 

F. Sites Also Noted • 238 


NOTES . 245 


VALUE • 254 
INDEX • 263 

Photographs are by the National Park Service except where specified 


i. Development of the English Colonies, 1700-1775 

. . . End papers and faces page 2 

ii. Before the Treaty of Paris, 1763 

. . . Faces page 8 

in. After the Treaty of Paris, 1763 

. . . Faces page 22 

rv. The War for Independence, 1775-1781, Northern Colonies 

. . . Faces page 32 

v. The War for Independence, 1775-1781, Southern Colonies 

. . . Faces page 44 

vi. Disputed Lands After 1781 

. . . Faces page 48 


The sources of history are many, involving written documents 
and physical remains. This volume deals with the great "outdoor 
archives" of American history as found in historic sites and structures. 
A visitor at one of these places may stop time at a great moment of history 
and look with increased understanding into the past. No amount of 
reading can ever supplant the vivid imagery and feeling of identity 
with the past which one contact with the site itself will evoke. 

Historians and archeologists of the National Park Service, U.S. De- 
partment of the Interior, after comprehensive fieldwork, prepared the 
basic studies from which this volume has been drawn. The studies were 
reviewed by the Consulting Committee, composed of eminent historians, 
architects, and archeologists not otherwise connected with the Park 
Service, and also by the Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic 
Sites, Buildings, and Monuments. The findings of the National Survey 
of Historic Sites and Buildings, achieved through this process, are made 
available to the public by means of this volume. 

The Survey's purpose is the evaluation of places important in U.S. 
history and prehistory. Some sites and buildings may be considered 
for addition to the National Park System. Others, also of outstanding 
importance, may be designated Registered National Historic Landmarks, 
showing that they have exceptional value for commemorating and 
illustrating America's heritage. The Secretary of the Interior will upon 
request provide engraved certificates and bronze markers for Registered 
National Historic Landmark properties, attesting to their value and 
encouraging the community and the owner to respect their integrity. 

r xiii 


Many other places of general interest have been included in the volume, 
selected from the large number of sites considered by the Survey. 

We believe that this book will be of widespread interest, especially 
to travelers, historians, students, and preservation groups. "The old 
order change th, yielding place to new," but, important as this progress 
is, it should not result in the thoughtless destruction of sites and build- 
ings of great historic value. We hope earnestly that this volume may 
focus attention on, and stimulate further activities in, the safeguarding 
and interpretation of an important segment of our heritage. 

George B. Hartzog, Jr. 


National Park Service 


The conversion of Colonials into American Patriots provides 
one of the most fascinating and significant chapters of the history of 
our Nation. The fascination derives in part from the unique circum- 
stances which caused the Colonials to migrate to the "New World," 
and the forces which molded and shaped their character as a people. 
The significance of the story is seen in the basic ideals and aspirations 
of the patriots that produced the independent United States of America, 
and changed fundamentally the pattern of world relationships. 

COLONIALS AND PATRIOTS has two parts. The first offers a 
brief historical background for the period 1700-83 in American his- 
tory. The second represents the major contribution made in this work. 
It consists of classified, carefully evaluated descriptions of historic places 
that should be visited by one who wishes to become acquainted with 
American history in its "third dimension." This is the dimension of place. 
Essential as academic learning is, written history cannot impress upon 
one's mind and spirit the feeling that comes from standing in the room 
where a great event transpired or walking the ground where a momen- 
tous battle occurred. It has been the privilege of the historians and 
archeologists of the National Park Service to work primarily in this "third 
dimension" of history and it is their privilege to communicate their find- 
ing to the public now in this form. It will be the reader's privilege and 
challenge to seek out the experience and inspiration offered by this guide- 
book into history. 

Part II of the Table of Contents gives one a quick notion of the 
major historic sites which pertain to 18th-century American history. 

[ xv 


Fifteen of these areas are units of the National Park System, and repre- 
sent the Federal Government's major share in the preservation of this 
particular segment of the national historical heritage. Four National 
Historic Sites in non-Federal ownership which pertain to this period are 
listed; and 67 places, including five historic districts, have been classified 
as being of exceptional value in commemorating and illustrating the 
history of the United States, and are therefore eligible for Registered 
National Historic Landmark status. These are preserved mainly by the 
efforts of historical and patriotic societies, State and local governmental 
agencies, and in some cases by private individuals. A much longer list 
of "Other Sites Considered," each described briefly, is included, as 
well as a list of "Sites Also Noted." Though not all-inclusive, this Table 
of Contents indicates the wide coverage provided by the Survey. 

Turning the pages of descriptions, farther on, one is struck by the 
rich variety of experience he may capture by visiting the many places 
described. Units of the National Park System, for example, capture 
this variety in the differences between the near-tropical rural setting of 
Fort Frederica, Ga., and the urban surroundings of Federal Hall in 
New York City. Or compare Salem Maritime National Historic Site, 
in Massachusetts, with Kings Mountain National Military Park, in South 
Carolina. One of these places will remind us of the imperial rivalry 
which required the English Government to make large expenditures for 
protection against Spaniards in Florida. At the next are reflected the 
arduous labors in committee and Congress, in urban centers, to form 
"a more perfect union." In Salem we may think of the magnificent 
trading ships that braved the seven seas to bring wealth to resolute New 
Englanders, and at Kings Mountain we do homage to equally resolute 
southern frontiersmen who contributed a notable victory of arms to the 
patriot record in the struggle for independence. 

Perusing the much longer lists of sites eligible to become Registered 
National Historic Landmarks, and other non-National Park Service sites, 
we find equal if not greater opportunities for drawing contrasts. Visit- 
ing the sites, one may imagine what life must have been like in a modest 
house on Elfreth's Alley, Philadelphia; or what suffering must have 
transpired in the hospital hut at Valley Forge, Pa., in the winter of 
1777-78; or what experiences the students encountered in the Wren 
Building of William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Va.; or where 
the men came from whose bones were discovered still aboard the Gundelo 

Introduction [xvii 

(small sailing vessel) Philadelphia when it was raised from the bottom 
of Lake Ghamplain, where it had lain since the Battle of Valcour Bay. 

Pursuing avenues of speculation or reverie, such as these sites may 
stimulate in one's imagination, it is easy to see that this book contains 
heady materials. Do not read it if you cannot cope with the possibility 
of arousing in yourself an irresistible urge to get out, to travel, to set 
your feet onto the ground trod by famous men of our country's earliest 
days — and trod also by anonymous men of humble birth who contributed 
their much or their little in the manner of people of all ages. 

This volume represents the work of several National Park Service 
historians. Frank B. Sarles, Jr., and Charles E. Shedd, Jr., prepared the 
major portion, as Survey historians for their respective Regional Offices 
in Richmond and Philadelphia. They did the original work in library 
research and study, the preparation of the inventory, and the major 
part of the on-site investigation of all sites that could be reached during 
a limited available time. Editorial labors were shared by Historian 
Robert M. Utley of the Santa Fe Regional Office and Historian John 
Porter Bloom of the Washington Office. Dr. Bloom was responsible 
for the final stages of preparation of the manuscript and related work of 
production. The Service's Branch of Publications also gave valuable 

As indicated in the acknowledgments at the back of the book, credit 
for collaboration on the finished product is shared widely by persons 
both in and out of the Service. This book and the work of the Na- 
tional Park Service in the general field of historic preservation have 
benefited inestimably from the assistance provided by the National 
Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States, which is a co-sponsor 
of the Survey. 

John O. Littleton, Chief 
National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 

National Park Service 

Washington, D.C. 

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Colonials and Patriots: 
The Historical Background 

The years sketched out here, 1700-1783, were very 
momentous ones in the history of our land. From shaky 
beginnings, and often through great travail, the English 
Colonies on the mainland of North America had for the 
most part passed through their infancy by 1700. Some were still quite 
young, and the 13th colony had not yet been established, but the point of 
no return had long since been passed for many Englishmen-turned-Ameri- 
cans. Long before 1 775 the colonials had drifted away from dependence 
upon the mother country. Along with independent thought came inde- 
pendent actions, which in time produced political maturity. The 
English colonials became American patriots, and a new nation emerged. 
The transition was not sudden, as it is sometimes represented. Max 
Savelle observed that the War for Independence was "not so much for 
independence, as for the recognition of a maturity and a de facto nation- 
hood that already existed." * 

Population Growth and Territorial Expansion 

Although firmly established by 1700, the Colonies exhibited few por- 
tents of the phenomenal growth that lay ahead. Fewer than 300,000 
colonists occupied the scattered settlements along the Atlantic coast. 




In the middle and southern Colonies, where the coastal plain extended 
far inland, settlement had just begun to spill beyond the fall line (head 
of navigation by seagoing vessels) toward the foothills of the Appa- 

Ten to twelve soldiers were billeted in huts like this, when Washington's 
army spent the winter of 1779-80 in Jockey Hollow, near Morristown, N.J. 
This log hut, chinked with clay and held together by nails and wooden pegs, 
was reconstructed on the site of one of the original structures at Morris- 
town National Historical Park. 

lachians. Seventy-five years later, 2 l / 2 million Americans blanketed the 
eastern seaboard and, here and there, had pushed even beyond the 
mountain barrier. 

A high birth rate explained part of the population increase, for strong 
sons and healthy daughters were an obvious answer to the problem of 
the scanty labor supply. Vastly more important was a flood of im- 

Colonials and Patriots: The Historical Background 

[ 5 

migration, part voluntary and part involuntary, that attained its greatest 
volume after the Peace of Utrecht in 1713. Rhineland Germans, 
Scotch-Irish, French Huguenots, Swiss, Irish, Scots, and Spanish and 
Portuguese Jews — all sought new lives in a new world. 

The French Huguenots achieved disproportionate importance among 
the newcomers, even though few in number, because of their compara- 
tively high level of culture and wealth. Essentially urban dwellers, 
they were attracted to the more thickly settled areas. Almost every 
colonial city had its Huguenot contingent, but the real stronghold of 
the Huguenots was Charleston, S.C. By the middle of the 18th cen- 
tury, French influence had stamped itself upon the dress, manners, 
and architecture of Charleston. 

The Germans settled largely in the middle and southern Colonies, 
and were far more numerous. Attempts were made to guide some of 
them into industry, but the vast majority preferred to push on to the 
frontier and become small farmers. Large numbers moved to the Penn- 
sylvania frontier, where they acted as a valuable buffer for the older 
Colonies to the east. "It has been said that Quaker blood was never 
shed by the North American Indian," remarked a noted historian; 
"to this the historians of the German migration reply that the Indians 
sheathed their knives in the bodies of the German frontiersmen." 2 

Charleston, S.C. : Aerial view of the historic district, looking north from The 
Battery. St. Michael's Episcopal Church is visible in the right background. 
Courtesy, Ronald Reilly Photo Shop. 



The Scotch-Irish were the most aggressive of the frontiersmen. They, 
too, found their way to the back country of the middle and southern 
Colonies, chiefly Pennsylvania. Famed as Indian fighters, they helped 
to protect the older Colonies and, at the same time, because of their 
fiery temperament and frontiersman's contempt for authority, they made 
infinite trouble for the governments nearer the coast. 

Of the other immigrant groups, the Swiss settled mainly in the Caro- 
linas; the Irish Catholics in Maryland and Pennsylvania; the Scots in 
Virginia, South Carolina, and Massachusetts; and the Jews in such 
metropolitan centers as Charleston, Philadelphia, New York, and New- 
port, R.I. 3 

Elfreth's Alley, a few blocks from Independence Hall, preserves today much 
of the genuine atmosphere of the Philadelphia of Benjamin Franklin's time. 
Courtesy, Philadelphia Historical Commission. 

Colonials and Patriots: The Historical Background [ 7 

These people came of their own free will, but the largest non-English 
element in the Colonies came involuntarily. By 1775, perhaps a fifth 
of the colonial population consisted of Negro slaves. The spread of 
the plantation system in the southern Colonies created a demand for 
slave labor, and by the close of the colonial period approximately six 
out of seven slaves resided south of the Mason-Dixon line. Slaves 
made up 40 percent of the population in Virginia, 60 percent in South 

Cities and towns reflected the population boom. In 1700, Boston 
was the colonial metropolis with 7,000 people, and only Philadelphia 
came close, with 5,000. By 1775, however, Philadelphia's population 
had risen to 34,000, making her the largest city, and 11 other cities 
had passed the 5,000 mark. During the same period, colonial 
towns increased in number by 3/ 2 . But the urban centers could ac- 
commodate only a fraction of the mushrooming population. The rest 
turned to the west and pushed beyond the 17-century colonial borders. 

In 1700, settlements dotted the seaboard from Penobscot Bay, in 
present Maine, southward to the Edisto River in South Carolina. They 
were not continuous, and only in the valley of the Hudson River had 
they penetrated inland more than 100 miles. Seventy years later, how- 
ever, settlement had spread down the coast another 150 miles, to the 
St. Marys River, and inland 200 miles and more, to the crest of the 
Appalachians. At intervals the restless frontier had swept beyond the 
Appalachian crest: in the south, to the headwaters of the Clinch and 
Holston (see pp. 166-168, 228, 229) ; in the north, up the eastern shore 
of Lake Champlain and west along the Mohawk Valley, with the lonely 
outpost of Fort Ontario, on Lake Ontario (see pp. 212-213); in the 
center — most significantly — past the former French post of Fort 
Duquesne (see pp. 145-148) , and thence 150 miles down the Ohio River. 

The westward movement flowed continuously but not evenly. Before 
1754 it was slowed by the hostility of Indian tribes angered by the 
English invasion and incited by French and Spanish agents. In western 
Pennsylvania, where Indian resistance was weaker than elsewhere, settle- 
ment had crossed the mountains before the outbreak of the French and 
Indian War. But during the next 9 years the frontier line receded to 
the east side of the Appalachians, and in 1763, with French power 
crushed, England sought to reserve the trans- Appalachian country to the 
Indians. The colonists were not to be stopped. Before the outbreak 
of the Revolution they were firmly established in the upper Ohio Valley. 

689-192 0-64 — 3 

A National Park Service archeologist works with potsherds excavated in the 
course of the continuing effort to illuminate all aspects of the early history 
of both Europeans and Indians in North America. 

Economic Development 

The expansiveness that marked all phases of colonial development 
characterized the colonial economy of the 18th century. Established 
production, with the added stimulus of a rapidly growing population, 
made for a generally healthy economy. The expanding frontier brought 
opportunities for profitable speculation in western lands, which were of 
particular importance to the "debtor" Colonies. These Colonies were 
underdeveloped and dependent upon investment and speculation from 
abroad, which had an inflationary effect that encouraged rapid eco- 
nomic development. 

On the other hand, mercantilist dogma ruled the minds of 18th- 
century economists, and the mother country assigned the Colonies such 
passive roles as supplying raw materials and providing markets for Eng- 
lish manufactures. Mercantilism actively discouraged the growth of 
American industries, except extractive industries. Economic depend- 

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Colonials and Patriots: T/ie Historical Background [ 9 

ence upon England produced a chronically unfavorable balance of trade 
that kept the Colonies drained of hard money. Expedients to relieve 
this condition, such as land banks and paper money, roused the British 
Parliament to enact prohibitions. The colonists ultimately found relief 
in building a favorable balance of trade with the West Indies, and 
Spanish coins softened the monetary impact of English mercantilism. 

With land cheap and plentiful, agriculture dominated the colonial 
economy. The various crops supplied local needs and provided also an 
exportable surplus of foodstuffs, indigo, and tobacco. Commerce 
ranked next in the colonial economy. Overseas and coastal shipping, 
fur trade, and land speculation made prominent contributions to eco- 
nomic welfare. And finally, despite the role assigned to colonies under 
mercantilist doctrine, manufacturing secured a foothold during the 1 8th 
century. Among the more important industries were fishing, lumbering, 
manufacture of naval stores, shipbuilding, and the mining and the 
limited manufacture of iron. (See Hopewell Village National Historic 
Site, pp. 66-68.) 

Economic differentiation among the Colonies, already clearly evident 
by 1700, grew much more pronounced during the 18th century. Each 
geographical grouping developed its own set of specialties. 

New England made its living from the sea, as illustrated by Salem 
Maritime National Historic Site (pp. 57-58). Fishing had been of 
major importance from the beginning, but shipping soon surpassed it. 
By the middle of the 18th century, New England vessels covered the 
globe. The "triangular trade" evolved between New England, Africa, 
and the West Indies. Rum made in New England was carried to Africa 
and exchanged for slaves, who were taken to the West Indies and traded 
for molasses, which in turn was taken home and converted into rum. 
New England ships also conducted a brisk trade in agricultural products 
with the West Indies and southern Europe, as well as a coastal commerce 
among the Colonies. England tried vainly by legislation to channel all 
colonial trade through her own ports, but throughout the 18th century 
the continental Colonies could not be restrained effectively from trading 
in any world market that would admit them. New England industry 
logically served the maritime interests, with ships, lumber products, iron, 
and rum comprising the leading items of manufacture. Preoccupied 
with commerce and industry, hampered by poor soil and climate, New 
Englanders came to rely on agriculture very little on the whole. (See 
Old Deerfield Village, pp. 177-180.) 


[ 10 

The middle Colonies were aptly styled the "food" or "bread" 
Colonies. They exported large amounts of grain and livestock and 
smaller quantities of foodstuffs, furs, and other products. Their agri- 
cultural units tended to be much larger than those in New England 
because their economy was based on surplus production. The surplus 
went to the other continental colonies, to the West Indies, and to 
southern Europe. 

Maryland, geographically associated with the plantation Colonies to 
the south, grew more and more diversified as small farmers moved into 
the "back country" west of Baltimore. By midcentury, though still 
ranking as a debtor colony, Maryland supplemented tobacco exports 
with small quantities of foodstuffs. 

Virginia depended on a single crop, tobacco, and in the 18th century 
the plight of the tobacco planter steadily worsened. The plantation, 
though it was a large agricultural unit, was still not self-sufficient. The 
planter depended upon exporting tobacco to obtain virtually all neces- 
sities of life, and the declining tobacco market threw him deeper into 
debt. But for the presence of vast tracts of western land suitable for 
large-scale speculation, many tobacco planters would have faced ruin. 
One among many existing illustrations of Virginia plantation life may be 
seen at George Washington Birthplace National Monument, pp. 72-73. 

Ladies posing in colonial costumes, in front of "Wakefield," George Wash- 
ington Birthplace National Monument, Va. 

J, I 

Colonials and Patriots: 77>e Historical Background [ 1 1 

Unlike Virginia, North Carolina relied on several crops. Naval 
stores provided the economic base but tobacco and, in the back country, 
cattle and other foodstuffs also ranked as significant. North Carolina 
remained a debtor colony throughout the colonial period, nevertheless. 

South Carolina enjoyed a thriving prosperity, in conspicuous contrast 
to the other southern Colonies. Based at first on a lucrative fur trade, 
profits were bolstered soon by the cultivation of rice and indigo. By 
midcentury, rice had become the staple and a source of wealth to a small 
group of planters. The typical rice plantation was considerably smaller 
than the Virginia tobacco plantation. Back-country South Carolinians 
found cattle raising the most profitable occupation and produced a 
surplus for export. 

The fur trade, particularly important in South Carolina, Pennsyl- 
vania, and New York, was an economic factor in almost every colony at 
one time or another. It was significant politically as well as economi- 
cally. It was the fur traders, to cite one example, who brought back the 
first information about the Ohio Valley, and the fur traders together 
with the land speculators played a large part in bringing on the French 
and Indian War. 

In all of the Colonies land speculation was a continuing phenomenon, 
and the fever reached its height in the last three decades before the 
Revolution. Attention centered on the Ohio River Valley, principally 
because of the pressure of population in Pennsylvania and the Valley 
of Virginia. After the Peace of Paris in 1 763, English capitalists became 
deeply interested in the financial possibilities. Their attempts to partici- 
pate helped to build up resentment in influential colonial circles. 

Contrasting sharply with the generally healthy condition of the con- 
tinental Colonies, the "sugar island" colonies of the British West Indies 
suffered real ills. Shackled by a one-crop economy, the island planters 
had to import even the smallest necessities. The collapse of their Ameri- 
can and European markets in the face of French competition forced 
them into fatal dependence upon the English home market. In the 
West Indies the economic trend strengthened the economic rule of the 
mother country. In the continental Colonies, on the other hand, the di- 
rection of growth weakened the economic rule of Great Britain and at the 
same time kindled colonial resentment of attempts to enforce the rule. 

While the continental Colonies diverged economically from England 
and from their sister colonies in the Caribbean, they underwent a sig- 
nificant internal economic schism. The conditions of frontier life 


created a new society, sharply differentiated from that of the seaboard. 
The frontier people, although of mixed racial origins, were drawn together 
by common economic interests. As small hunters and farmers, their 
standard of living remained chronically depressed compared to that of the 
"East." They formed a debtor class, deeply suspicious of the eastern mer- 
chants they owed and increasingly bitter over their own political impo- 
tence. As a class, these people were either indifferent or hostile to 
Europe and things European, but these feelings ran a poor second in 
intensity of their feelings against their seaboard compatriots. 

Common to all Colonies, this sectional cleavage was most pronounced 
in the Carolinas where it expressed itself in the "Regulator" movement 
of the 1760's. The dramatic climax came near the Alamance River in 
western North Carolina. In a pitched battle on May 16, 1771, the 
North Carolina Regulators were defeated and dispersed (see p. 217). 
The Regulator movement coincided with the first rumblings of the 
American Revolution, and has been misinterpreted often as a manifesta- 
tion of colonial resentment toward the mother country. In fact, it was 
caused chiefly by frontier resentment toward the ruling economic classes 
of the seaboard. 

Society and Culture 

The colonists brought with them to the New World the rigid caste atti- 
tudes of Europe, and colonial society divided itself into distinct stratifica- 
tions. The aristocrats — wealthy planters and merchants, clergymen, and 
top public officials — tended to erect social barriers that insulated them 
from the artisans, farmers, and tradesmen of the middle class, and from 
the laborers of the lower class. Still, the manifold economic opportuni- 
ties of America prevented the barriers from rising as high as in Europe. 
These obstacles were often scaled by the talented and ambitious, and be- 
came less intimidating as the intellectual climate grew less congenial to 
the alien system. 

Even for the great majority who had to be content with their assigned 
class, life was far less onerous than in the Old World. Because of 
plentiful land and scarce labor, the dissatisfied worker had only to move 
on, to find other opportunities. All that he needed was willingness to 
work. As a result, the lower classes enjoyed a personal freedom rarely 
found in Europe. 

The 18th-century colonists found progressively more time for leisure 

Colonials and Patriots: 7Y»e Historical Background 

[ 13 

pursuits, although they were usually preoccupied mainly with making 
a living — except, perhaps, some of the aristocracy. The sternness of 
religious belief that characterized the 17th century broke down to a 
significant degree following the "Great Awakening" in the 1740's. 
Colonial minds, freed of overpowering religious concern, turned increas- 
ingly to politics, art, and literature. Although cultural manifestations 
were almost exclusively European imports, the very awakening of interest 
in such matters revealed a broadening intellectual horizon. 

The spread of both local and intercolonial road networks, supplement- 
ing water transportation, promoted travel and thereby the exchange of 
ideas. Improved transportation also made possible an improved postal 
system, and in 1710 Parliament passed an act to establish a "General 
Post Office for all Her Majesty's Dominions," replacing the functions 
and broadening the scope of the individual colonial post offices of the 
17th century. This system in turn made possible the dissemination of 
printed materials. Beginning with John Campbell's Boston News 
Letter, which in 1704 launched colonial journalism, newspapers pro- 
liferated in the towns and cities of America. 

The new intellectual preoccupation produced better educational oppor- 
tunities, which reacted to deepen still more the intellectual interests. 
In many parts of New England, and to some extent in the middle 
Colonies also, an elementary education could be had at public expense. 
In the plantation colonies of the South, however, private tutors con- 
tinued to furnish almost all early schooling. The colonies' two collegiate 
institutions of 1700, Harvard and William and Mary, had by 1775 
increased to nine with the addition of Yale, Princeton, the University 
of Pennsylvania, Columbia, Brown, Rutgers, and Dartmouth. (See 
pp. 103-104, 175-176.) 

Massachusetts Hall, built in 1718-20, is the oldest surviving building of 
Harvard University, the first institution for higher learning in the Colonies. 

. •*. v^afer 

This distinguished architectural specimen, the Wren Building at Williams- 
burg, Va., was built between 1695 and 1702, after a design by Sir Christo- 
pher Wren. It was the original academic building of the College of 
William and Mary. 

The cultural growth of the 18th century played its part in binding 
together the Colonies and instilling in the colonists a sense of common 
interest and purpose that, combined with strengthening economic and 
political bonds, had propelled the American Colonies to the brink of 
nationhood by 1775. 


Almost coincidental with the opening of the 18th century, Renaissance 
architecture finally reached the American Colonies. This "severely 
formal" adaptation of the classic Roman orders and design, born in 
Italy in the 15th century, first appeared in England around 1570 and 
reached its mature phase there 50 years later. The timelag of 130 
years before it spread to the Colonies is a measure of the economic and 
social gap between the mother country and her offspring. 

Colonial Renaissance architecture, influenced directly by that of the 
late Stuart period in England, became known as Georgian after the 
advent of the Hanoverian dynasty. Its general features included a 

Colonials and Patriots: 77ie Historical Background 

[ 15 

balanced design ; the use of classic orders to embellish doorways and en- 
trance facades; predominantly brick construction, laid in Flemish bond 
(although the wood-building tradition was so strong in New England 
that many of the finer Georgian mansions there were clapboarded ) ; 
low-pitched roofs, frequently hipped; sheathed and highly finished in- 
teriors ; and such treatment of the entrance hall as to make it a room of 
major importance. After midcentury the Late Georgian style evolved, 
with such features as the projecting central pavilion, giant pilasters at 
the corners, small entrance portico, larger windowpanes, roofs pitched 
progressively lower, balustraded roof decks, and dado interior decoration 
with wallpaper above paneling. 

Although adapted from English antecedents, "Georgian architec- 
ture in America was singularly free from either the practice or the doc- 
trine of exact imitation." Professional and amateur American archi- 
tects, and the humbler carpenter-builders who augmented the work 
of the few architects, all felt free to disregard their handbooks on occa- 
sion, "in accordance with necessity, invention, or taste." 4 Many illus- 
trations and descriptions of their work are found in part II of this book. 

Only a score of professional and amateur American architects are 
known by name for their work during this period. Among the profes- 
sionals were James Porteus, of Philadelphia; John James of Boston; 
Peter Harrison, of Rhode Island; John Hawks, of North Carolina; 
Thomas McBean, of New York; William Buckland, of Virginia and 

William Buckland designed the Hammond-Harwood house at Annapolis, 
Md., shortly before his death in 1774. 




Man-land; and John Ariss, who appears to have confined himself 
entirely to Virginia. Notable in the category of architect-builders 
(where Buckland may also be placed), was James Wren, another Vir- 
ginian practitioner. In recent years the name of Joseph Horatio Ander- 
son has emerged as a designer with his own corps of craftsmen. He is 
believed to have been a Philadelphian, though his known work is located 
in Annapolis and vicinity. Among amateur architects the roster at 
Philadelphia is an imposing one : Drs. John Kearsley and William Ship- 
pen, Andrew Hamilton, Samuel Rhoads, Samuel Blodget, and Robert 
Smith. Noted amateur architects elsewhere were Richard Munday, 
of Newport, R.I.; Joseph Brown and Caleb Ormsbee, of Providence; 
Henry Caner, of New Haven, Conn. ; Gov. Francis Bernard, of Massa- 
chusetts; Richard Taliaferro, of Williamsburg, Va.; and the painters, 
John Smibert and John Trumbull. To George Washington and 
Thomas Jefferson, architecture was an avocation and a gentlemanly 
pursuit. Both Mount Vernon and Monticello evolved under the watch- 
ful eyes of their masters, following a number of remodelings and con- 
tinuing refinements. 

In Charleston, S.C., the typical 1 8th-century dwelling was Georgian, 
but with a certain southern flavor. A disastrous fire in 1740 caused 

Robert Brewton House, built about 1730 by Miles Brewton for his son. 
It is the earliest accurately dated example of the Charleston "single house." 

Colonials and Patriots: The Historical Background [17 

the assembly to specify nonflammable future construction. Charleston 
became a city of brick houses, faced with tinted stucco and covered with 
red tile roofs, unlike any other colonial metropolis. Many were 
"double houses" of typical Georgian design; others were of that pecu- 
liarly Charleston type called the "single house," standing "with its shoul- 
der to the street," only one room in width and having a long piazza on 
one side. 

Not all 18th-century American architecture was Georgian, by any 
means. The cultural lag between England and the Colonies had its 
parallel within the Colonies. A progression from the seaboard to the 
frontier, or from top to bottom of the economic scale, would bring to 
view more humble dwellings — less durable, smaller, and of more antique 
design. Of these the best known was the log cabin, apparently intro- 
duced in New Sweden in the mid- 17th century, but reaching its present 
familiar role of a frontier home a century later through its popularity 
among the Scotch-Irish frontiersmen. 

Expansion and Conflict 

The population growth and territorial expansion of the English colo- 
nies produced collisions. The French, the Spanish, and the Indians 
all contested English pretensions in the 1 8th century. 

The French proved most formidable. Numerically inferior to the 
English and scattered in tiny islands throughout the wilderness, they 
nevertheless possessed important advantages. They had an authori- 
tarian rather than a representative government. While the English 
depended mainly on poorly trained militia led by inexperienced offi- 
cers, the French fielded disciplined regulars commanded by the best 
officers of France. While the colonial legislatures haggled and denied 
money and troops, the French could manipulate efficiently their money, 
men, and supplies. And whereas the Colonies treated individually with 
the Indians, and for the most part tactlessly, the French executed a 
uniform Indian policy with some skill. 

The earliest clash of the 18th centry was Queen Anne's War, which 
broke out in 1702. In this New World counterpart of the War of the 
Spanish Succession, the French and Spanish joined in an 1 1 -year strug- 
gle with the English. On the southern borders of the English Colo- 
nies, South Carolinians in 1702 destroyed the Spanish town of St. 
Augustine and in 1704 wrecked the Spanish mission system in western 


[ 18 

Florida. Two years later they repulsed a joint French-Spanish attack 
on Charleston. On the northern borders, a series of barbarous French 
attacks on New England settlements, notably on Deerfield, Mass., in 
1704 (see p. 178), led ultimately to a series of retaliatory expeditions 
against Port Royal, which was captured in 1710. The war finally 
ended with the signing of the Treaty of Utrecht in 1 7 13. 


The older section of the Frary House, in the foreground, is the major sur- 
viving landmark of 17th-century Deerfield. 

The Treaty of Utrecht was designed to insure peace through the 
maintenance of a balance of power, but it soon became evident that 
a piece of paper could not restrain the English colonists. In 1716, 
Virginia's bold Lieutenant Governor, Alexander Spotswood, dramatized 
the possibilities of westward expansion by leading the "Knights of the 
Golden Horseshoe" across the Blue Ridge. Ten years later, New 
Yorkers ignored French claims and planted Fort Oswego on the shores 

Colonials and Patriots: The Historical Background 

[ 19 

of Lake Ontario. (See pp. 212-213.) To the south, on lands claimed 
by Spain, James Oglethorpe founded a new English colony in 1733. 
To Oglethorpe and his associates, Georgia was a humanitarian proj- 
ect designed to provide new lives for English debtors. To the English 
Government, it was a military outpost from which attacks could be 

Rusted old artillery pieces and sturdy tabby walls of the King's Magazine 
are among the striking remains of Fort Frederica, Ga. The fort was es- 
tablished in 1 736 by James Oglethorpe. 

launched against Spanish Florida. To the Carolinians, even though 
they lost valuable western lands as a result, it was a welcome buffer 
against the Indian attacks from which they periodically suffered. Al- 
most immediately, the Georgians and the Spanish Floridians began try- 
ing by force of arms to dislodge each other. Neither succeeded. In 
the last of a series of expeditions against St. Augustine, in 1739-40, 


[ 20 

Georgians came within sight of their goal but failed to reach it. Span- 
iards fared no better. After an unsuccessful attempt to take the Geor- 
gia outpost of Fort Frederica in 1742 (see pp. 54-55), they gave up the 
effort to expel the intruders. 

Relations with the French along the western and northern frontiers 
of the English Colonies, if less bloody, were equally explosive. France 
claimed everything west of the Appalachians by right of a tenuous oc- 
cupancy of the Mississippi Valley, a claim that England, because of the 
interests of her fur traders and land speculators, refused to acknowledge. 
England finally moved in 1754 to strengthen the Colonies for the ap- 
proaching conflict. Two imperial Indian agents were appointed to co- 
ordinate and improve Indian policy. (See sites associated with Sir 
William Johnson and John Stuart, pp. 128-130, 212, 213, 224.) An 
overall commander, Maj. Gen. Edward Braddock, took charge of the 
American military forces and, to counteract the advantage of the profes- 
sional French Army, British regulars began to arrive in America. 

The French and Indian War broke out early in 1754 when the French 
seized and fortified the forks of the Ohio River. ( See pp. 145-148. ) Lt. 
Col. George Washington marched west with a force of Virginia militia to 

The Forks of the Ohio, where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers meet, 
was a Gateway to the West held successively by France, Britain, and the 
United States. The sites of French Fort Duquesne and British Fort Pitt 
are preserved in Point State Park, at the apex of modern Pittsburgh's 
"Golden Triangle." Courtesy, Samuel A. Musgrave. 





r i!i 





Fort Ticonderoga, on Lake Champlain, was the key post on the traditional 
path of invasion between Canada and the Hudson Valley, both in the 
French and Indian War and in the War for Independence. Courtesy, Fort 
Ticonderoga Association. 

contest the action but was besieged in Fort Necessity, southeast of the 
forks of the Ohio, and compelled to surrender. (See pp. 65-66.) The 
following summer, General Braddock's expedition against the French 
stronghold ended even more disastrously when the French and their 
Indian allies ambushed his command and all but annihilated it. 

For 3 years the English tried in vain to drive back the French. Then 
William Pitt rose to power in England in 1757. He named young and 
vigorous men to commands in America, and the tide turned. In rapid 
succession the French strongholds fell to the English armies : Louisbourg, 
Fort Duquesne, Fort Frontenac, Fort Niagara, Fort Ticonderoga, Crown 
Point, Quebec, and finally Montreal itself. With the surrender of Mon- 
treal on September 8, 1760, the French gave up their claims to Canada 
and all its dependencies in North America. The war flared again, 
briefly, in 1761 when Spain came to the aid of France. The British, 
however, effortlessly seized Cuba and other Spanish possessions, and 
France and Spain had no choice but to sue for peace. 

The Treaty of Paris, signed in 1763, ended the French and Indian 
War ( in Europe, the Seven Years' War ) . Besides losing Canada, France 
surrendered the eastern half of the Mississippi Valley to England. For 

689-192 0-64— 4 


the return of Cuba, Spain had to relinquish Florida. To compensate her 
ally, France gave to Spain western Louisiana and the city of New 
Orleans. England thus emerged as the possessor of all North America 
east of the Mississippi River, and in the long run her mainland colonies 
profited very signally. No longer menaced by the French, they were 
free to expand westward in comparative security. They had gained 
from the war valuable military experience and a new sense of solidarity. 
Their ties with the mother country were weakened still further. 

America Crosses the Mountains 

The year 1763 found the western line of settlement stretching along the 
eastern base of the Appalachian barrier. Anglo-American frontiersmen 
had already penetrated the mountains beyond this line, exploring the in- 
terior rivers and trading for furs. This irregular penetration showed the 
way for the gathering flood of settlers who would soon pour through the 

The fur interests vigorously opposed the overrunning of western 
preserves by settlers, who would inevitably drive away the Indian market. 
Balancing this influence, the land companies pressed to open new terri- 
tories in the West. These and other interests were diligently at work 
while dogged pioneer farmers, who wanted only to find good land and 
build their homes, prepared to cross the mountains and claim the interior. 
The westward movement gathered momentum amid the clamor of land 
speculators and traders, presenting England with the bald fact that, no 
matter what the pressure groups wanted, or her own self-interest required, 
settlers were going to cross the mountains. The best that could be hoped 
for was the enactment of measures that would postpone western settle- 
ment until a policy could be formulated that would satisfy the vested 
interests and lessen the mounting threat of full-scale war with the Indians. 5 

The solution of the London policymakers was the Proclamation of 
1763, which established the Appalachian highlands as the temporary 
boundary of settlement on the western border of the Atlantic colonies. 
At the same time, the proclamation established the Province of Quebec 
northwest of the Ohio River; East and West Florida; and the vast region 
north of the Floridas, west of the Appalachians, and south of the Ohio 
River as a reservation for the Indians, with land purchases from them 
forbidden. The Proclamation of 1763 and subsequent efforts in the 
same direction were, for the most part, hardly more than gestures. 

Colonials and Patriots: 77>e Historical Background 

[ 23 

Events had passed beyond the control of the British authorities, who but 
dimly understood the forces at work in the Colonies. 

Decrees from faraway London, intended to control the westward move- 
ment, could neither deal effectively with the surge of immigrants nor 
prevent conflict with the Indians. Indian fear and resentment expressed 

The site of the "flourbag fort," Bushy Run Battlefield State Park. Cour- 
tesy, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg. 

itself almost immediately in the bloody Pontiac uprising of 1 763-64. For 
a time the frontier faced disaster, but the superior resources of the settlers 
ultimately prevailed, notably at the Battle of Bushy Run. (See pp. 140- 

The tide of pioneers flowed through the mountain passes. Trading 
posts sprang up on the Ohio below Fort Pitt, and the first settlement in 
the present State of Ohio was made at Schoenbrunn in 1772. (See 
p. 220. ) In New York the thin line of settlement that pointed west along 
the Mohawk spread north up the Hudson Valley, and south toward the 
Delaware. German and Scotch-Irish immigrants filled the fertile valleys 



of western Pennsylvania, and rude cabins dotted western Maryland and 
northwestern Virginia. Since the 1730's, indeed, settlers from Pennsyl- 
vania had streamed south and west to Springdale (see pp. 235-236) and 
other places in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. This valley, in turn, 
offered a natural highway to the Carolina Piedmont, and from the farms 

This marker stands at the traditional site of Fort Watauga, Tenn. 

and settlements of the Piedmont and Southern Highlands colonists drifted 
into eastern Tennessee, along the Watauga River (see the Bean Cabin 
and Fort Watauga sites, pp. 228, 229), and through Cumberland Gap 
into Kentucky. 

War with Indian and European rivals, treaties with these nations, 
land speculation, and the ceaseless coming and going of the hunters 

Colonials and Patriots: The Historical Background [ 25 

and fur traders — all these helped to plant the new frontier beyond 
the Appalachians. But the real strength of the westward advance 
lay in the sustained movement of thousands of settlers who left the safety 
of the Colonies on the Atlantic, or came directly from Europe, to wrest 
a new life from the wilderness across the mountains. In the 18th cen- 
tury the pattern of the frontier movement emerged. One day it would 
carry the Nation to the Pacific. 

Mounting Political Tension 

While wars with Indian and European enemies occupied the 18th- 
century English colonists, another conflict gained momentum, less spec- 
tacular but far more significant for the future. As the Colonies ap- 
proached maturity, they increasingly resented efforts by the mother 
country in the direction of strict rule. The mother country responded 
to this resentment by trying to tighten the controls further. The result 
was growing friction that brought about an open rupture in 1775. 

The friction expressed itself principally in a struggle between colonial 
Governors and colonial assemblies. Most of the Colonies had either a 
royal or a proprietary form of government. In the royal Colonies the 
Governors received their appointments from the Crown and answered 
directly to the Crown. In the proprietary Colonies they were appointed 
by and answered to the grantees or proprietors, who were usually 
favorites of the Crown. In both forms the Governors in theory ruled 
independently of the people and their elected representatives, the pro- 
vincial assemblies. But in practice, the assemblies had a powerful 
weapon with which to contest the authority of the Governors — control 
of the purse. Because of the nearly constant need of the Governors for 
defense money, the legislative bodies were able to use their control of 
internal finances to assert progressively more authority. 

By 1763 most of the colonial assemblies had, through this means, 
extended their powers to include freedom of debate, the right to judge 
the qualifications of their own members, regularly scheduled meetings, 
the right to fix their date of adjournment, and the exclusion of Crown- 
appointed officers from deliberations. Some had further gained the right 
to appoint provincial treasurers, customs and tax collectors, Indian com- 
missioners, provincial military officers, and agents to represent them in 
London, as well as the right to authorize military expeditions and the 
construction of forts. 

Reenactment of a meeting of the Virginia House of Burgesses, in their re- 
constructed hall, Capitol building, Williamsburg. At the far end of the 
room is the original Speaker's chair, used here in the 18th century. The 
Speaker occupied this chair and attempted to stop Patrick Henry during 
his famed "Caesar-Brutus" speech. Courtesy, Colonial Williamsburg. 

Despite this legislative ascendancy, however, the fundamental ques- 
tion at issue remained unanswered, the relationship of the colonial con- 
stitutions to the imperial constitution. Colonial political thought, 
strongly influenced by John Locke, had evolved two ideas foreign to the 
British political system — a growing belief in written constitutions and a 
belief in direct representation on a territorial basis. Colonial legisla- 
tors rejected the Crown's contention that the instructions issued to royal 
Governors automatically became part of the colonial constitutions. 
Denying the theory of "virtual representation" (that is, that all members 
of Parliament represented all British subjects, not merely the constituen- 
cies that elected them ) , the legislators maintained that none but them- 
selves could properly legislate the internal affairs of the Colonies. 

The home government struck back, on occasion. In 1749, for ex- 
ample, the Crown disallowed 10 laws passed by the Virginia House of 
Burgesses simply because they omitted the usual provision that the laws 
were not to take effect until approved by the Crown. Patrick Henry 
challenged the right of the Crown to disallow any Virginia law ap- 
proved by the Governor, in 1 763 in the famous "Parson's Cause," a years- 

Colonials and Patriots: The Historical Background [ 27 

long dispute over ecclesiastical salaries. He argued that such action vio- 
lated the British Constitution and the fundamental rights of British 

The accent on self-government stimulated thinking on civil liberty 
and personal freedom. The trial of John Peter Zenger in New York in 
1 735 was a notable expression of this trend. Two important precedents 
were set by the Zenger case: first, that in a jury trial for libel the jury 
rather than the judge must decide on libelous matter; second, that a true 
statement cannot be libelous. (See Federal Hall, p. 60.) 

The widening gulf between England and her American Colonies in- 
evitably influenced the complexion of political parties in the Colonies. 
There were not only well-defined "court" and "colony" parties, but also 
"gentlemen's" and "country" parties. The conservative gentlemen's 
party, zealously guarding its power, stood for such things as a stabilized 
currency and political encouragement to land speculation. The liberal 
country party, on the other hand, stood for unlimited paper money, 
free land, and adequate frontier defense. This division, which identi- 
fied conservatives with loyalists, had much to do with making the ap- 
proaching break with England not only an imperial civil war but also a 

Increasingly aware of problems with the mother country that were 
common to them all, many colonials also came to see that the whole 
range of issues could be handled best through concerted action by the 
Colonies. Among them were relations with the Indians, control of the 
fur trade, and defense against foreign foes. Seven Colonies went so far 
as to send representatives to Albany to devise a plan of union when war 
threatened in 1 754. Though rejected by the colonial assemblies, the Al- 
bany Congress was an important recognition of the need for solidarity 
and also a portent of things to come. 

England adopted a series of measures in the decade following 1763 
that dramatized the drift of colonial thinking away from the established 
concepts of imperial relationships and impelled the Colonies down the 
road to revolution. After conclusion of the Treaty of Paris, the British 
Government found itself with the dual problems of recouping its strained 
finances and governing effectively its vastly expanded North American 
empire. Since much of the cash outlay had been for colonial defense, 
imperial administrators considered it simple justice for the Colonies to 
make up a share of the deficit. But the methods adopted to collect 
the money, coming at a time when the Colonies had achieved political 


[ 28 

and economic maturity and when their major foreign foe had been 
routed, had an effect completely unanticipated by the home government. 
Parliament stirred up the Colonies between 1763 and 1765 by enact- 
ing one law after another that Americans regarded as oppressive. Led 


The home of John Dickinson, "Penman of the Revolution," was first built 
in 1740 by Dickinson's father. Destroyed by fire in 1804, the house was 
rebuilt under Dickinson's supervision. 

off by the Proclamation of 1763, which tried to halt the westward move- 
ment, the series reached its climax with the Stamp Act of 1765, which 
sought to tax every business transaction in the Colonies. Patrick Henry 
rose to castigate Parliament, and his "Virginia Resolves," characterized 
by the Governor of Massachusetts as the "alarm Bell to the disaffected," 
echoed throughout the Colonies. Nine Colonies sent representatives to 
New York in October 1765, where they placed themselves on record in 
opposition to the doctrine of "virtual representation." The Stamp Act, 
a dead letter from the start, was repealed soon. 

The furor had scarcely subsided, however, when it was revived by 
the Townshend Acts of 1767, aimed at tightening the system of collect- 
ing import duties in the Colonies. Popular opposition broke out with 
renewed vigor, manifested boldly at Boston's Old South Meeting House 
(see pp. 1 05-1 07 ) and elsewhere. British troops were sent to Boston, and 
the Massachusetts Assembly was dissolved for circulating a letter inviting 
the other Colonies to resist. Virginia again led the opposition with 

Colonials and Patriots: 77>e Historical Background [ 29 

George Mason's "Virginia Resolves of 1769." John Dickinson, of 
Pennsylvania, the most outspoken critic of the Townshend Acts, circu- 
lated the widely read "Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer," which argued 
that Parliament had no right to tax imperial commerce. Colonial 
merchants united to carry out nonimportation agreements, the most 
effective of all protest measures. 

Although the Townshend duties were repealed in 1770, the funda- 
mental issue remained. The breakdown of nonimportation that fol- 
lowed repeal brought 3 years of relative prosperity, but it marked the 
beginning of an even wider cleavage between "moderates" and "radi- 
cals." The first group was dismayed by the excesses of the other, while 
the latter was infuriated by the "desertion" of the merchants. Only 
the greatest necessity could drive them into alliance again. Parliament 
obliged by providing the necessity. 

The Outbreak of War 

The alliance of moderates and radicals formed again following passage 
of the Tea Act of 1773. This measure gave the East India Company 
a virtual monopoly of the colonial tea market. Even so, it probably 
would have aroused little antagonism had not the Company chosen as its 
agents the unpopular merchants who had earlier opposed the nonimpor- 
tation agreements. At the "Boston Tea Party" on December 16, 1773, 
angry colonists retaliated by dumping shiploads of tea into Boston 
Harbor. Parliament's answer was to pass the "Intolerable" or "Co- 
ercive" Acts in April 1774. This body of legislation provided, among 
other things, for closing the port of Boston until the British East India 
Company was reimbursed for the tea destroyed. The other Colonies 
sprang to the aid of Massachusetts — with food and supplies for Boston, 
with heated words and fiery pamphlets, and with a call for a general 
meeting of representatives from all Colonies. 

The meeting convened at Philadelphia on September 5, 1774. This 
First Continental Congress consisted of 55 delegates from 12 Colonies, 
Georgia alone being unrepresented. Before adjourning on October 26, 
the Congress adopted a Declaration of Rights and an intercolonial non- 
importation agreement called "The Association," which also provided 
for the appointment of local committees to watch for acts of disloyalty 
to the colonial cause. A moderate plan of colonial union, offered by 
Joseph Galloway, of Pennsylvania, narrowly failed of adoption. 


[ 30 

The actions of the First Continental Congress aroused much resent- 
ment in England, and the English people rallied to the support of Lord 
North's government. On March 20, 1775, Parliament passed the New 
England Restraining Act, which prohibited the New England Colonies 
from doing business outside the British Empire. The act was applied 
subsequently to all except four of the continental Colonies. By the end 
of 1774, however, the American situation seemed to be beyond restora- 
tion through either coercion or conciliation. Committees of Safety 
enforced effectively the provisions of The Association. Ten of the Col- 
onies organized extralegal provincial congresses. Local groups began 
to accumulate stores of arms and ammunition. It was such arms and 
ammunition that finally, the following spring, converted the political 
struggle into a military struggle. 

War began on April 19, 1775, when Gen. Thomas Gage's British 
regulars marched from Boston to seize American munitions reportedly 
stored at Concord. Alerted by swift-riding Paul Revere and others, the 
Massachusetts "Minutemen" turned out on Lexington Green (see pp. 
91-92, 102-103, 104-105) to contest the advance. The professionals 
easily dispersed this "rabble" and continued to Concord. But they found, 
upon their return, that they had tipped the hornet's nest. (See pp. 
55-57, 112-113.) When the weary British regulars stumbled into the 

Here, on Lexington Green on the morning of April 19, 1775, were fired the 
first shots in the struggle for American independence. The boulder at the 
right marks the approximate location of one end of the line of Minute Men 
drawn up to face the approaching British. Courtesy, Boston National 
Historic Sites Commission. 



k, era* 


[ 31 

The Bunker Hill Monument and 
surrounding 4-acre park denote 
the approximate center of the re- 
doubt defended by American 
forces in the first full-scale action 
of the Revolutionary War, after 
the opening of hostilities at Lex- 
ington and Concord. Courtesy, 
Massachusetts Department of 

defenses of Boston at last, after a nightmarish retreat along miles of stone 
walls manned by the farmer militia, they were part of an army beseiged. 

The American position was strengthened early in May, when New 
England forces under Ethan Allen seized the British posts of Fort Ticon- 
deroga and Crown Point, on Lake Champlain. (See pp. 127-128, 211- 
212.) Strategically important, the forts also supplied artillery and 
military material needed in the siege of Boston. 

As more and more colonial troops arrived in the vicinity of Boston, 
the British garrison's position became steadily more precarious. In mid- 
June 1775, however, the Americans crowded the enemy too closely by 
entrenching Breed's Hill in Charlestown, overlooking Boston from the 
north. Disdainfully, Gen. Sir William Howe's British regulars attacked 
the American position frontally on June 17. Twice the British ranks 
were shattered by close-range fire. But, as American powder ran low, 
a third British attack carried the position at bayonet point, and the 
misnamed "Battle of Bunker Hill" was over. (See p. 93. ) 

George Washington arrived 2 weeks later to take command of the 
army around Boston. For the next 8 years he was to bear the hopes of 
America on his shoulders. From this army — for the most part raw 

Independence Hall, Philadelphia. 

militia, insufficiently supplied, indifferently officered, and enlisted for 
only short periods — he was to mold a fighting force that would win 
independence for the American Colonies. 

A Mew. Government 

When the Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia on May 10, 
1775, war had begun. The delegates recognized this fact by formal 
declaration and went on to create a Continental Army, naming one of 
their own number as commander, George Washington. The Congress 
also issued a "Declaration of the Causes of Taking up Arms" on July 6, 
1775, but moved for a final attempt at reconciliation in the "Olive 
Branch Petition." This document, asking the Crown to protect Ameri- 
can rights from Parliamentary tyranny, was spurned by George III. 
As 1775 passed, American sentiment gradually drifted away from 


1*1 Sites in the National Park System 


Colonials and Patriots: 7Ac Historical Background 

[ 33 

the original desire for a guarantee of rights within the British Empire. 
The King announced plans on October 26 to hire foreign mercenaries 
to subdue the colonists. In January 1776 Thomas Paine published 
"Common Sense," which sounded the call for a complete and final break 
with England. The tide soon ran strongly for independence, which 
was adopted on July 4, 1776. 

With the Declaration of Independence, the Colonies faced the neces- 
sity of establishing a formal union to carry on the war. Although a 
committee to consider the problem was appointed in June 1776, Con- 
gress did not approve a draft of the Articles of Confederation and 
send it to the States for ratification until November 15, 1777. Most 
States acquiesced within a few months, but the required unanimous 
approval was lacking until March 1, 1781, when Maryland ratified. 

With the beginning of the movement toward independence in late 

A view of the room in Independence Hall where the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was signed. The original silver inkstand used by the signers is 
visible on the table beneath the painting of George Washington. 

689-192 0-64— 5 


1775, the Continental Congress appointed a secret committee to estab- 
lish relations with foreign governments. Arthur Lee, Massachusetts 
colonial agent in London, was assigned to the task. He soon won the 
support of Caron de Beaumarchais, popular French playwright and 
secret agent of France. 

Congress sent Silas Deane to France in 1776, and he helped obtain 
secret aid in the form of arms and supplies. During the summer of 
1776 Deane was joined by Lee and Benjamin Franklin. The trio were 
charged with securing French recognition of the United States and, 
if possible, military assistance. Partly because of the diplomatic skill 
of Deane and his colleagues, and partly because of the course of mili- 
tary events in America in 1777, the diplomats attained both objec- 
tives in treaties signed on February 6, 1778. Efforts to win overt Span- 
ish support failed, although Spain gave clandestine aid and entered 
the war against England as an ally of France in 1 779. 

Naval Operations 

In addition to money and supplies, which more than once saved the 
American cause from disaster, the most conspicuous French contribu- 
tion to American independence was at sea. Adm. Francois de Grasse, 
sealing off the mouth of Chesapeake Bay with his French Fleet in the 
fall of 1781, made possible the decisive American victory at Yorktown 
which marked the end of major operations. ( See p. 73. ) 

Although the Continental Congress established an American Navy 
and a Marine Corps in the fall of 1775, the initiative at sea remained 
in the hands of the powerful British Navy until Yorktown. Most of 
the memorable exploits of the U.S. Navy took the form of small, indi- 
vidual engagements. Strangely enough, the most significant American 
naval "victory" of the war was fought on an inland lake by a force of 
soldiers under command of a brigadier general, and resulted in the loss 
of the American fleet (Valcour Bay, pp. 135-136). 

Among the notable exploits on salt water were the spectacular raid 
on the Irish Channel coast of England by Capt. Lambert Wickes' three 
small ships in May 1777 and John Paul Jones' celebrated cruise around 
Great Britain in the late summer of 1779. The climax to Jones' 
exploit was the successful engagement of his flagship, the Bonhomme 
Richard, with the English Serapis on September 23, when he is reported 
to have said the immortal words, "I have not yet begun to fight." 



This narrow bay between Valcour Island (in the distance) and the west 
shore of Lake Champlain was the scene of an 8-hour battle between Bene- 
dict Arnold's 15 hastily built vessels and a British fleet of 29 craft. Arnold 
lost his fleet, but won precious time for the American cause in the autumn 
of 1 776. Courtesy, New York State Education Department. 

Land Operations 

The land war went well in the first year. George Washington built up 
his army in the Boston siege lines during the winter of 1775-76, and 
by spring had sealed off the British defenders so effectively that their 
position clearly became untenable. On March 17, 1776, General 
Howe's army sailed away to Nova Scotia, leaving Boston and 250 
cannon in the hands of the Revolutionary Army. 

Meanwhile, an ambitious campaign had been launched against 
Canada. Gen. Richard Montgomery was to advance up Lake Cham- 
plain toward Montreal while Gen. Benedict Arnold marched up the 
Kennebec River in Maine and down the Chaudiere to Quebec. It 
was a desperate gamble, but Canada was lightly garrisoned and the 
Americans hoped that France would come to their aid. Although 
Montgomery's army suffered from hunger, fatigue, and sickness, it 
moved swiftly and captured Montreal in mid-November 1775. Arnold 
also reached his objective. His decimated army arrived at Quebec 


after an epic march through the Maine wilderness, but was too weak to 
take the city alone. (See p. 200.) Montgomery joined Arnold, 
and the combined forces attacked Quebec on December 31, 1775. The 
assault failed after Montgomery was slain and Arnold badly wounded. 
The American Army held on until the following spring; in June 1776 
Arnold's successor, Gen. John Sullivan, fell back to Lake Champlain. 

The English had not been idle. Early in 1776 Gen. Sir Henry 
Clinton led an expedition down the Atlantic coast to cooperate with 
the strong Tory factions in the Southern States. The command got 
off to a late start and, by the time Clinton reached an appointed rendez- 
vous, Tory forces in Virginia and North Carolina had been defeated 
and dispersed. He then decided to capture Charleston, S.C., for use 
as a base of operations. A 4-week siege, beginning on June 1 , was 
beaten off by the determined resistance of Col. William Moultrie's small 
force on Sullivan's Island. 

After the evacuation of Boston, British and American eyes turned to 
New York, strategically situated between New England and the Middle 
and Southern States. Washington moved his army to the vicinity of 
New York City in April and May 1776, posting part on Long Island 
and the rest on Manhattan Island. General Howe's British Army ar- 
rived in August and disembarked on Long Island. Attacking on Au- 
gust 27, the British outflanked Washington's forward line and drove 
the defenders back to fortifications on Brooklyn Heights. There Howe 
commenced siege operations. But Washington, appreciating his danger, 
skillfully evacuated Long Island on the foggy night of August 29-30. 

Howe landed on Manhattan on September 15, forcing Washington 
to evacuate New York City. The Americans won a small but encourag- 
ing victory at Harlem Heights during the withdrawal. (See pp. 130— 
131.) Howe's command of the numerous waterways gave him an 
enormous advantage over Washington. In mid-October the British 
crossed to the mainland in Washington's left rear and forced him back 
to White Plains. After a sharp and skillfully fought action there on 
October 28, he withdrew again. 

The American situation now deteriorated rapidly. Washington had 
left part of his force to hold Forts Washington and Lee, on opposite 
sides of the Hudson at the upper end of Manhattan Island, and now 
he left part to hold the highlands of the Hudson while he led the re- 
mainder across the river into New Jersey. Moving quickly to attack 

m i 


Morris- Jumel Mansion. General Washington made his headquarters from 
mid-September to mid-October 1776 in this handsome home built by 
Roger Morris in 1765. Morris was a loyalist and had left the country at 
the outbreak of war. The house was later the property of Stephen Jumel. 
Courtesy, New York City Department of Parks. 

the forts, Howe captured Fort Washington with its entire garrison on 
November 16, and 3 days later forced Gen. Nathanael Greene to evacu- 
ate Fort Lee. His army disintegrating, Washington began a rapid re- 
treat across New Jersey. The British advance under Gen. Lord Charles 
Cornwallis followed closely. Washington's difficulties were compounded 
by the inexplicable refusal of Gen. Charles Lee, despite repeated orders, 
to join him with a major portion of the American Army. In early 
December, Washington crossed the Delaware River into Pennsylvania 
with the remnants of his army. Howe left garrisons at Princeton, Tren- 
ton, Bordentown, New Brunswick, and Perth Amboy, and withdrew the 
rest of his force to winter quarters at New York City. Another British 
detachment was sent to capture Newport, R.I., where it remained in 

While Washington had been suffering these setbacks, affairs on Lake 
Champlain had taken a turn for the better. Gen. Horatio Gates, who 
was ordered on June 17 to take command of the American forces that 
had retreated from Canada, withdrew the force from Crown Point to 
Fort Ticonderoga. Learning that Gen. Sir Guy Carleton, British com- 
mander in Canada, was assembling a fleet for a drive up Lake Cham- 
plain, Gates ordered Arnold to build an American fleet. Arnold fell 


[ 38 

to work with furious energy, and his small "navy," manned by landsmen, 
fearlessly engaged Carleton's advance at Valcour Bay on October 11, 
1776. In 2 days of fighting he lost most of the vessels, but the delay 
convinced Carleton that he could do nothing decisive before the onset of 
winter. (See pp. 135-136.) Early in November the British retired to 
the north end of Lake Champlain. 

Meanwhile, Washington planned to inflict a stunning surprise on the 
British. He understood that, if he hoped to recruit his army for an- 
other year of service, he must win a victory. On Christmas night of 
1776, he crossed the Delaware River and struck the Hessian outpost at 
Trenton, N.J. The surprised garrison quickly surrendered, and Wash- 
ington recrossed the river with prisoners and materiel. (See pp. 121- 

Although the terms of enlistment of his army expired with the old 
year, Washington persuaded most of the men to serve for 6 weeks longer. 
He again entered New Jersey on the night of December 30-31, 1776, 
with them and reinforcements of militia. A British force under Lord 
Cornwallis confronted Washington, and the American position seemed 
hopeless. But by a swift march Washington eluded Cornwallis and 

A Pennsylvania State Park preserves the site where Washington embarked 
his troops for the crossing of the Delaware on Christmas night, 1776. The 
brilliant raid on Trenton heartened the American cause at a critical period 
in the struggle for independence. 

The Gilpin House, used by Lafayette as headquarters at the time of the 
Battle of Brandywine, has been restored and preserved in Brandywine 
Battlefield State Park, overlooking Chadd's Ford, Pa. 

struck the British supply base at Princeton on January 3, 1777. (See 
pp. 119-121.) Driving the British out, he moved his army northeast to 
Morristown. The British evacuated New Jersey, and the front quieted 
down for several months. 

With the opening of active operations in the spring of 1777, the War 
for Independence reached a crisis in the North. Strong British forces 
poised at opposite ends of the Hudson River-Lake Champlain line, and 
a coordinated advance by both almost inevitably would have produced 
a British victory of major proportions. Fortunately for the Americans, 
divided British command resulted in the defeat of one of the armies while 
the other stood idly by. 

Faced with the double mission of guarding the capital at Philadelphia 
and preventing a move by Howe up the Hudson River, Washington 
spent most of the spring and summer of 1777 marching and counter- 
marching through New Jersey. In mid-August Howe decided on an 
offensive against the American Capital. He loaded his army on trans- 
ports at New York and sailed south. After a long and circuitous voyage, 
he disembarked at the head of Chesapeake Bay. Washington moved 
his army to Brandywine Creek, southwest of Philadelphia, and there 
engaged the British advance on September 1 1 . The Americans were 
outflanked and forced to withdraw (see pp. 139-140), and the British 
entered Philadelphia on September 26. 


[ 40 

Washington launched an attack on the main British outpost at Ger- 
mantown on October 4. After a promising start, the American assault 
was blunted and the attackers driven from the field. Howe was now 

A view of part of the encampment area at Valley Forge State Park, used 
by the Continental Army in the winter and spring of 1777-78. 

able to turn his attention to the American forts along the Delaware 
below Philadelphia, which were evacuated soon afterward. Washing- 
ton put his army in winter quarters at Valley Forge, 20 miles north- 
west of Philadelphia. 

Meanwhile, expecting a simultaneous advance up the Hudson by 
Howe, Gen. John Burgoyne's British Army had started south from Cana- 
da in June 1777. Another British force, under Gen. Barry St. Leger, 
was to advance eastward along the Mohawk Valley from Fort Oswego. 
St. Leger reached Fort Stanwix early in August, laid siege to the post, 
and shortly afterward ambushed a militia relief force at Oriskany. 
(See pp. 131-132.) Two weeks later, however, General Arnold arrived 

Colonials and Patriots: The Historical Background 


with another relief column and compelled St. Leger to lift the siege and 

Burgoyne reached Fort Ticonderoga on June 27 and speedily forced 
Gen. Arthur St. Clair's American garrison to evacuate. Pursuing the 
retreating Americans southward, however, the British left the easier 
water route and began a difficult march overland. Burgoyne's advance 
was opposed by a weak American force under Gen. Philip Schuyler, who 
hampered the British as best he could by felling trees and destroying 
bridges. Weak as he was, Schuyler was farsighted enough to send 
Arnold with the relief expedition that saved Fort Stanwix from St. Leger. 

The savage conduct of Burgoyne's Indian allies aroused the New York 
and New England militia, a circumstance that led to the first major defeat 
suffered by the invading force. A Hessian foraging party, numbering 
about a tenth of Burgoyne's army, was nearly wiped out by militiamen 
from Bennington, Vt., on August 16, 1777. (See pp. 124-125.) 

Maj. Gen. John Stark, 
commander of a brigade 
of New Hampshire mili- 
tia, was the victor at 
Bennington. He had 
served in the French and 
Indian Wars and at the 
Battle of Bunker Hill, 
and participated in the 
defeat of Burgoyne at 
Saratoga. U.S. Army 


By September, Burgoyne had learned that Howe was not coming to 
join him, but he decided nevertheless not to withdraw to Canada. He 
crossed the Hudson at Saratoga on September 13 and attacked the 
Americans, now under General Gates, 6 days later. Unable to break 
through, Burgoyne remained inactive for 3 weeks, having received word 
that reinforcements under Clinton were advancing north from New York 
City. Clinton successfully captured two forts below West Point, but 
failed to follow up his success. Burgoyne, his position growing daily 
more desperate, made another unsuccessful attack on October 7. Sur- 
rounded at Saratoga, he surrendered his army to Gates 10 days later. 
This victory at Saratoga, which encouraged the French alliance and 
boosted patriot hopes tremendously, is generally regarded as the turning 
point of the War for Independence. ( See pp. 62-63, 211). 

Washington's army suffered bitter hardships at Valley Forge during 
the winter of 1777-78. (See pp. 153-154.) The country was far from 
destitute, but the supply services were inefficiently managed. Short 
of food, clothing, and supplies of all kinds, officers and men lived 
the best they could in hope that spring would bring a lessening of their 
trials. Two events of 1778 augured well for the future. One was the 
French alliance. The other was a reorganization of the army command 
that brought the appointments of Nathanael Greene as quartermaster 
general, of Jeremiah Wadsworth as commissary general, and of a new 
arrival, "Baron" Frederick von Steuben, as drillmaster. During the last 
months of the winter encampment at Valley Forge, Steuben's tactical 
instruction and a vast improvement in supply transformed the Conti- 
nental Army into a formidable fighting force. 

France's entry into the war convinced the British Government that 
Philadelphia could not be held. On June 18, Clinton, who had re- 
placed Howe in the British command, began an overland retreat to New 
York. Washington immediately pursued and, on June 27, 1778, caught 
the British at Monmouth Courthouse. A smashing Continental victory 
was prevented by the misconduct of General Lee, who was subsequently 
court-martialed and suspended from command. Nevertheless, the 
Americans held their position against heavy counterattacks, and after 
dark the British retreated. (See pp. 115-117.) 

In furtherance of the alliance, a French fleet with 4,000 regular troops 
reached America on July 8. Washington planned a joint attack on 
New York City, but the French ships were unable to cross the sandbar 
blocking the entrance to New York harbor. The American commander 

Colonials and Patriots: The Historical Background 


then persuaded the French to support an attack on the British garrison 
at Newport, R.I. An American Army under John Sullivan successfully 
landed on the island, but a gale scattered the French Fleet, which then 
sailed away and left Sullivan to extricate his men as best he could. The 
American Army was saved, but the affair severely strained relations be- 
tween the allies. 

This fine old colonial mansion at Morristown, N.J., built just a few years 
earlier by Col. Jacob Ford, Jr., was Gen. George Washington's headquarters 
during the winter of 1779-80, while the Continental Army was encamped 
nearby in Jockey Hollow. Mrs. Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and other 
members of the staff resided here. 

The war in the North settled into a stalemate after the abortive attack 
on Newport. The British held New York City and Newport, while 
Washington's army held a semicircular line around those cities. In the 
late spring of 1779, however, General Clinton sallied from the New York 
defenses to seize unfinished American works at Stony Point and Ver- 
planck's Point, on opposite sides of the Hudson River below West Point. 
On the night of July 15, Gen. Anthony Wayne recaptured Stony Point 
in a daring attack at bayonet point. The Americans were unable to hold 
the position, but after its abandonment it was not reoccupied in strength 
by the British. (See pp. 133-135.) Washington's command remained 
near Morristown, N.J., in the following winter. (See pp. 58-59.) One 
further serious threat to Washington's position came in September 1780 


with Benedict Arnold's treasonable plan to surrender West Point to the 
British. The plot was discovered and Arnold was forced to flee for his life. 

Failure of the British to win a decision in the North caused them to 
turn their attention to the South, which had enjoyed 2 years of compara- 
tive calm. In the fall of 1778 the situation changed. Savannah fell to 
a British Army under Gen. Archibald Campbell in December, and the 
British quickly overran the interior of Georgia, occupying Augusta the 
following month. The invaders abandoned Augusta in February 1779, 
however, after a body of South Carolina Tories en route to reinforce 
them was crushed by American militia at Kettle Creek. 

General Benjamin Lincoln was assigned to command American forces 
in South Carolina, but despite his vigilance the British, now under Gen. 
George Prevost, temporarily besieged Charleston in May. In the 
autumn of 1779, the arrival of a French Fleet under Adm. Count 
D'Estaing gave the Americans a temporary superiority of numbers, and 
General Lincoln attempted to recapture Savannah. After a 4-week 
siege, the combined French-American army assaulted the city on Oc- 
tober 9. The attack was repulsed with heavy losses, including the bril- 
liant Polish cavalryman, Casimir Pulaski. D'Estaing sailed away to the 
West Indies, and the Americans once more were on the defensive. 

General Clinton sailed from New York early in 1780 with an expedi- 
tion to capture Charleston. The British Army, outnumbering Lincoln 
more than 2 to 1, began siege operations on March 29. The American 
commander unwisely allowed himself to be bottled up in the city and on 
May 1 2 surrendered his army. This disaster left only one other organized 
American force in South Carolina — a small band of militia under Col. 
Abraham Buford. It was surprised and wiped out by Lt. Col. Banastre 
Tarleton's British cavalry at Waxhaws on May 29. The British con- 
quest of the South was nearly complete. 

When Charleston fell, a small force of Delaware and Maryland Con- 
tinentals under Baron Johann Kalb had reached Virginia en route to 
reinforce Lincoln. Kalb advanced into North Carolina, where on July 
25 General Gates appeared to take command. Gates almost immediately 
marched for the British base at Camden, S.C. Lord Cornwallis, com- 
manding in South Carolina after Clinton's return to New York, re- 
inforced Camden and took personal charge. The two armies met a 
few miles north of the town on August 16. The American Army was 
quickly routed and driven from the State in disorder. ( See pp. 1 60-1 6 1 . ) 
The collapse of organized American resistance brought a period of bitter 




Sites in the National Park System 

Sites eligible for designation as 
registered national historic landmarks 

• • Cities and Towns 
o Places of Historic Interest 
Colonial Boundaries 


View from the eastern slope of the Kings Mountain ridge, looking north- 
eastward toward Henry's Knob, another ridge of the Kings Mountain chain. 

civil war to South Carolina, with highly effective partisan warfare waged 
by Col. Francis Marion and Gens. Thomas Sumter and Andrew Pickens. 
The defeat of Gates' army marked the nadir of American fortunes in 
the South. Within 2 months, however, the tide began to turn. In 
September Cornwallis invaded North Carolina, simultaneously sending 
Maj. Patrick Ferguson with his "American Volunteers" on a sweep 
through the back country of South Carolina. Ferguson's march aroused 
the Virginia and Carolina frontiersmen, who moved swiftly to surround 
and annihilate the Tories at Kings Mountain on October 7. (See 
pp. 71-72.) Cornwallis quickly withdrew from Charlotte, N.C., to 
Winnsboro, S.C. 

Granite obelisk erected in 1909 by the U.S. 
Government at Kings Mountain to com- 
memorate the battle. 


General Greene relieved Gates in command of the American Army in 
the South early in December 1780. He divided his army, to retain the 
initiative, advancing with one part against the British right flank at 
Camden and sending Gen. Daniel Morgan toward the British left at 
Ninety Six. Cornwallis divided his own army three ways, sending 
Tarleton after Morgan and reinforcing Camden, while with his main 

Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene was in command of American forces at the 
Battle of Guilford Courthouse. This engraving was made from a painting 
by Charles Willson Peale. 

body he marched northward to cut the American supply line. Tarleton 
pushed forward with customary dash and came upon Morgan's men at 
the Cowpens on January 17, 1781. Tarleton flung his men upon the 
American line, and Morgan, in a tactical masterpiece, wiped out the 
attackers. Tarleton escaped with a few men, but his major usefulness 
had ended. Morgan quickly rejoined Greene, and the American Army 
began retreating northward. (See pp. 70-71.) 

Cornwallis was sternly determined that Greene should not escape. 
Stripping his army of everything not essential, he marched swiftly in 
pursuit. Greene stayed just ahead of him, meanwhile actively encour- 
aging the guerrilla leaders to harass the British rear and disrupt the supply 

Colonials and Patriots: The Historical Background [ 47 

lines. The Americans barely won the race for Virginia, crossing the 
swollen Dan River a few hours ahead of their pursuers. Having failed 
to catch Greene, Cornwallis withdrew to Hillsboro and sought to rebuild 
his depleted army. Greene received reinforcements and advanced on 
the British. At Guilford Courthouse, on March 15, the armies collided. 
Although the British retained possession of the field, Cornwallis was so 
badly shattered that he moved his army to Wilmington, on the coast, 
where the British Navy could support and supply it. (See pp. 63-64.) 
With Cornwallis out of the way, Greene returned to South Carolina. 
His ensuing operations were tactically unsuccessful. The Battle of 
Hobkirk's Hill on April 25 was an American defeat; the 4-week siege 
of Ninety Six ended in an American withdrawal when Lord Rawdon 
approached with British reinforcements; and the battle of Eutaw Springs 
on September 8, the last major engagement in South Carolina, ended 
indecisively. (See pp. 226, and 227-228.) Nevertheless, Greene's ma- 
neuvers resulted in strategic victory, clearing the British from the interior 
of South Carolina by the end of 1781. He was aided immensely in his 
campaign by the activities of the guerrilla leaders. 

The War in the West 

While British armies were attacking the Colonials from the seaward side, 
the long inland frontier from Maine to Georgia was exposed to assault by 
savage tribes. Most of the Indians sided with the English and, led by 
British officers, struck time and again at the frontier settlements. Happily 
for the Americans, the settlements stood firm. Otherwise, the coastal 
armies might have faced attack from two sides at once. On the south- 
western frontier, the Indian threat was negated early. A series of joint 
campaigns by Georgia, Carolina, and Virginia militiamen in the summer 
and fall of 1776 reduced the Cherokees to virtual impotence, and a 
second drive 3 years later completed the job. In the north, the frontier 
was fairly quiet until 1778, when Tory-led Iroquois bands perpetrated 
fearful massacres in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania and the Cherry 
Valley of New York. A punitive expedition under Gen. John Sullivan 
invaded the Iroquois country in the summer of 1779 to devastate the 
Indian villages. Another force under Col. Daniel Brodhead marched 
north from Fort Pitt about the same time to destroy crops and villages 
around the west end of Lake Erie. 

In Kentucky, where settlement began simultaneously with the outbreak 

689-192 0-64— 6 


of war (see Fort Boonesborough and Fort Harrod, pp. 198-199), the 
situation was touch and go for 4 years. Boone's Wilderness Road be- 
came a tenuous supply line for the few Kentucky stations, which stood off 
numerous Indian assaults. The frontiersmen had learned well the les- 
sons of Indian war, and knew that passive defense would never halt the 
raids on the settlements. But it remained for a young Virginian, George 
Rogers Clark, to prove to the embattled American Congress that offense 
was the best defense. 

Clark's plans required more than his resources could provide, but Vir- 
ginia, with an eye to cementing her western claims, agreed to subsidize 
his operations. In the summer of 1778 Clark swooped down on the old 
French Illinois base of Kaskaskia and a short time later induced the 
inhabitants of Vincennes, on the Wabash to the east, to switch their 
allegiance. The British at Detroit struck back and reoccupied Vincennes 
without a fight. Clark responded by taking the initiative. After a re- 
markable winter march across the flooded Illinois prairie, he captured 
Vincennes (Fort Sackville, see pp. 197-198) on February 24, 1779. 
Clark's daring subdued the Northwest for a time, but he lacked the men 
and supplies to seize Detroit, center of British power in the Northwest. 
Although the British were equally unable to win final victory in the 
Northwest, they were able to strike into Pennsylvania and Kentucky 
in hit-and-run raids in the closing years of the war. In the Battle of 
Blue Licks, on Kentucky's Licking River, August 18, 1782, an American 
frontier force was ambushed and suffered a disastrous defeat (see p. 
198) that was only partially avenged by Clark's successful campaign 
into Ohio the following autumn. This punitive expedition was the last 
major action of the war in the West. 6 

Victory at Torktown 

In the autumn of 1780 the British commenced operations in Virginia. 
In October an army under Gen. Alexander Leslie landed at the mouth 
of the James River. Although called to South Carolina 2 months later, 
his force was soon replaced by a command under Benedict Arnold, 
now a general in the British Army. Washington, still in New Jersey, 
sent the Marquis de Lafayette with a small force to keep Arnold occupied. 
Although greatly outnumbered, the young Frenchman maneuvered skill- 
fully to keep Arnold under surveillance without risking his own men. 
Then, late in April 1781, Lord Cornwallis marched into Virginia. After 

Colonials and Patriots: 77ie Historical Background [ 49 

vainly pursuing Lafayette's small force for a month, he withdrew to the 
coast. Lafayette, his strength gradually increasing, followed closely. 
After a brisk encounter on July 6 at Green Spring, near Jamestown Is- 
land, Cornwallis crossed the James River and marched to Portsmouth. 
There he received orders to take up a position at Yorktown, on the 
Virginia Peninsula, which General Clinton thought would make a good 
naval station. The British reached Yorktown by water early in August, 
and Lafayette took station nearby. 

Washington had been considering an assault upon Clinton's strongly 
positioned force in New York City. But word came in August that 
Admiral de Grasse's French Fleet would put into Chesapeake Bay in 
the fall, and Washington saw an opportunity to crush Cornwallis while 
the French warships protected him from the British Navy. Gen. Jean 
B. de Rochambeau, French commander at Newport, agreed to cooperate. 
A swift march took the combined French- American Army southward. 
Virginia militia flocked to the standard. By the end of September, 
Washington had concentrated almost 16,000 men around Yorktown, 
bottling up Cornwallis. Admiral de Grasse held off the British Fleet 
while Washington conducted siege operations. The genius of Wash- 
ington's Yorktown campaign lay in his swift movement and concentra- 
tion of forces. The siege was routine and had the result that was 
inevitable under the circumstances. On October 19, 1781, Cornwallis 
surrendered his entire army of 7,500 men. (See p. 73.) 

The Peace of Paris, 1783 

Although the main British Army under Clinton remained intact in the 
North, Yorktown proved the decisive event of the War for Independence. 
The British Cabinet fell, and the new Government sued for peace. Minor 
skirmishes plagued the South for another 2 years, but the outcome of the 
struggle had already been decided. 

Negotiations between British and American peace commissioners, in- 
volving also French and Spanish diplomats, began in Paris in the spring 
of 1782. Although the United States and France had been allied in 
the war, the American negotiators saw that, in view of French and 
Spanish aspirations in North America, self-interest demanded that the 
United States conclude a separate peace with Britain. The Treaty of 
Paris, signed in September 1783, recognized American independence. 
The United States was to extend from the Atlantic to the Mississippi 

Grand French Battery, part of the first Allied siege line, Yorktown 
Battlefield, Va. 

and from Canada to the northern boundary of Florida, which England 
returned to Spain. The Mississippi was to be open to English and 
American vessels, but with Spain in control of its mouth a source of 
future trouble was left. 

The Americans had won virtually all their demands. A new nation 
had been born. 


National Survey 
of Historic Sites 
and Buildings 

English colonial and Revolutionary War sites and 
buildings are abundant along the Atlantic coast, particu- 
larly in the New England and Middle Atlantic States. 
War and economic distress have taken a great toll in the 
South, and War for Independence sites were fewer there to begin with, 
but there are still many important locations. Selection was a major 
problem in almost all phases of the Survey's work. Even a rigid appli- 
cation of the criteria of exceptional value (see p. 254) barely reduced 
the field to manageable proportions. Approximately 650 places relating 
to the period 1700-1775 were noted and evaluated from written 
sources, for instance. Field historians then made formal visits to more 
than a hundred of these. The Advisory Board on National Parks, His- 
toric Sites, Buildings, and Monuments has approved 38 sites and build- 
ings and 5 historic districts in this period as meeting the criteria and there- 
fore eligible for the Registry of National Historic Landmarks; and an 
additional 22 sites in the period of the War for Independence. 

Many important sites have been "lost" in one way or another. The 
exact locations of some, such as Fort Moore, a South Carolina trading 



post, are unknown in the light of present knowledge. Others have lost 
their integrity because of undesirable encroachments or the destruction 
of original features. Among these may be noted the Carlyle House, a 
magnificent Georgian mansion built by one of the founders of Alex- 
andria, Va., and the Lucas Plantation, where 16-year-old Eliza Lucas 
demonstrated that indigo could become a major export crop in South 
Carolina. Most of the lost sites have been obliterated by the growth of 
communities and industries since the colonial period. For example, New 
Post, Spotsylvania County, Va., headquarters of the General Post Office 
for America for 23 years, has been destroyed by a sand-and-gravel opera- 
tion ; the Albany Congress site by the streets and buildings of downtown 
Albany, N.Y.; the site of the Boston Tea Party by a commercial build- 
ing; and battle areas of Long Island, Manhattan, Trenton, German- 
town, and Savannah have been overwhelmed by urban expansion. 

Most of the important 18th-century sites and buildings that survive 
appear to be protected adequately against destruction. A number of 
them are in State or municipal ownership while others — such as Boston's 
Old South Meeting House and Virginia's Stratford Hall — are well main- 
tained by private organizations. Some notable restorations have been 
accomplished within the past generation, of which the most famous is 
Colonial Williamsburg. 

The toll among less significant sites and buildings continues, however. 
The boom period since World War II, with its accompanying accelera- 
tion of industrial, housing, and highway development, has greatly in- 
creased the threat. A particular threat, the full extent of which is not 
yet known, is the interstate highway program. The damage is being 
offset and blocked to some extent by an increasing awareness of preser- 
vation needs by historical societies and the public at large. 

Groups and individuals active in historic preservation are too numer- 
ous to mention individually. They range from the National Trust for 
Historic Preservation through such regional organizations as the Society 
for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, State groups such as 
the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, to groups 
such as the Historic Charleston Foundation, Inc., the Deerfield (Mass.) 
Heritage Foundation, and the Elfreth's Alley Association of Philadelphia. 
The work done by these groups, and many others like them, is invaluable 
in the preservation of our historic heritage. 

Six categories of historic sites are described and listed in the following 
pages: First are units of the National Park System; second, National 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 53 

Historic Sites in non-Federal ownership ; third, sites eligible for the Reg- 
istry of National Historic Landmarks; fourth, historic districts eligible 
for the Registry; fifth, sites of sufficient importance to merit attention but 
not considered nationally significant when measured by the criteria ; and 
sixth, named but not described, sites of marginal importance which were 
examined by National Park Service field historians in the course of 
their studies and travels in preparing this work. The sites are listed, 
within these categories, alphabetically by States. 


Sites in the National Park System 

The principal aim of the National Survey of Historic Sites and 
Buildings is to identify nationally important historic sites that are not 
units of the National Park System, but no survey of historic sites would 
be complete without mention of historic areas in the Park System. The 
sites described below are those areas administered by the National Park 
Service that have primary or secondary associations with 18th-century 
English colonial development and the War for Independence. Park 
Service units are not included that are of a purely memorial character, 
such as Statue of Liberty National Monument, N.Y., and Thomas Jef- 
ferson Memorial and Washington Monument in the District of Colum- 
bia. Further information about each area described below may be 
obtained by writing directly to the superintendent. 

1 . Fort Frederica National Monument, Georgia 

Location: St. Simons Island, 12 miles from Brunswick; address, 
Box 816, St. Simons Island, Ga. 31522. 

Fort Frederica was established in February 1736 by Gen. James Ogle- 
thorpe, colonizer of Georgia, to assert England's claim to the southern 
coastal area contested by France, Spain, ancl England. It consisted of 
a fortified town and a defensive bastion. Minor clashes with the 
Spaniards led Oglethorpe late in 1739 to attempt to seize the Spanish 
bastion of Castillo de San Marcos at St. Augustine, Fla. The attempt 
failed, and the Spanish retaliated by marching against Fort Frederica. 
Oglethorpe defeated them in July 1 742 at the Battle of Bloody Marsh, 


SE ^^SE 

Excavation by archeologists has revealed much about the layout of the 
fortified town of Fort Frederica, and produced many objects used by the 
earliest settlers. The foundations of the Hawkins and Davison houses 
are shown here. 

l/ 2 miles from Fort Frederica. The Spaniards withdrew and never 
again tried to occupy Georgia. Deprived of its strategic location by 
the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 and swept by fire in 1758, Fort 
Frederica was gradually abandoned. 

Fort Frederica National Monument contains the sites of the town 
and the fort. Tabby ruins of some of the buildings are still standing, 
and the sites of others have been exposed by archeological excavations. 
A visitor center interprets the history of Fort Frederica. 

2. Minute Man National Historical Park, Massachusetts 

Location: Between Lexington and Concord; address Room 1400, 
Post Office and Courthouse Building, Boston, Mass. 02109. 

At this writing, Minute Man National Historical Park has been author- 
ized by Congress and its development is in the planning stage. In broad 
terms, its purpose is to acquire, restore, maintain, and interpret for 
public benefit retrievable portions of the historic setting intimately 


associated with events in the towns of Lexington, Lincoln, and 
Concord, Mass., that marked the outbreak of the American Revolution. 
The park will be made up of two units. The first, covering up to 
600 acres of roadsides and rural landscape from circumferential high- 
way Mass. 128 in Lexington to Meriam's Corner in Concord, 
will include more than 4 miles of the historic route over which the 
British marched in the early morning of April 19, 1775, and where, in 
their retreat from Concord later in the day, they were first exposed to 
attacks of minutemen and provincial militia that initiated the Revolu- 
tion. Here, too, earlier in the morning, a British patrol captured Paul 
Revere and brought a sudden end to his famous ride. 

The second unit of the projected park will consist of up to 150 acres 
on both banks of the Concord River at the historic North Bridge in 
Concord, where a detachment from the British expeditionary force, 
sent from Boston to seize military stores assembled by the patriots, was 
assaulted by a column of minutemen and militia who fired "the shot 
heard round the world." Features of major interest at the North 
Bridge include the Concord Monument, which was dedicated on July 4, 
1837, on the site of the British position in the fight; the well-known 
Minute Man Statue by Daniel Chester French, occupying the Ameri- 
can position on the opposite side of the stream and erected on the cen- 
tennial in 1875; the "Grave of British Soldiers" killed or mortally 
wounded at the bridge, marked by a slate tablet with lines composed 
by the poet, James Russell Lowell; and a replica of "the rude bridge 
that arched the flood" — the most recent version of which was built in 
1956. These features are part of a small public area developed and 
maintained by the town of Concord. It is intended not later than 1963 
to complete negotiations with the town for a cooperative agreement to 
provide for the permanent management of the town-owned area at 
North Bridge as a part of the second unit of the park. By then, it is 
anticipated that important private holdings, including the muster field 
of the minutemen and militia on the west bank of the river, will have 
been acquired and will thus be ready for the inception of unified main- 
tenance and interpretation with the town-owned area at the bridge. 

Acquisitions of individual properties for the first unit of the park 
have already taken place and, before long, are expected to reach such 
proportions as to make feasible a program of development. A rela- 
tively unspoiled parcel of 8 acres, containing the site of the Josiah Nel- 
son House and adjacent farm buildings, together with pastures and 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 57 

stone walls used as shelter by the minutemen, was acquired in 1959. 
In the west pasture behind a stone wall on this parcel is the Minute 
Man Boulder, from the cover of which William Thorning shot and 
killed two grenadiers retreating with the British main body on the 
nearby road. 

Other historic properties acquired in the first unit of the park include 
parts of former farms, with farmhouses and other farm buildings, or 
the sites thereof, that were a part of the rural setting on April 19, 1775. 
In Lexington, possession has been taken of 17 acres of the Fiske Farm 
at Fiske Hill, including the cellar hole of the family home, which was 
looted by the fleeing enemy. The Muzzey House has been acquired 
also, the home of a father and son who were members of Captain 
Parker's company which at sunrise faced the British in the exchange 
of fire. In Lincoln, title has been obtained to the Brooks-Sturm House 
near a stream where, during the 18th century, the numerous Brooks 
family practiced their trade of tanners and curriers. 

Based on further historical, architectural, and archeological study, 
a program of development will be initiated on properties acquired and 
consolidated in both units of the park. Exterior restoration will be 
performed on all remaining historic buildings, and inside restoration also, 
on structures to be treated as historic house museums. By far the largest 
task, however, will consist of obliterating later intrusions and reviving 
manmade features of the historic landscape of 1 775. 

3. Salem Maritime National Historic Site, Massachusetts 

Location: Derby Street, Salem; address, Custom House, Derby 
Street, Salem, Mass. 01970. 

This National Historic Site preserves a group of structures sur- 
viving from the period of the town's maritime greatness. Salem and 
other New England shipping interests played a significant role in the 
colonial and early republican economy. Sailing vessels based on Salem 
plied the sealanes of the world, beginning early in the 17th century, 
building the commerce upon which Yankee prosperity came to rest. 
Salem and other New England ports engaged in the important "tri- 
angular trade" with Africa and the West Indies. During the Revolu- 
tion, Salem provided a base for privateers that ravaged British shipping, 
and for nearly three-quarters of a century afterward, through the era 
of the great clipper ships, Salem continued to function as one of New 

The Derby House, shown here, is the oldest surviving structure of the 
formerly important port of Salem. The house is a unit of Salem Maritime 
National Historic Site. 

England's most important ports. The increasingly large sailing vessels 
of the mid- 1 9th century, however, could not use the shallow, landlocked 
harbor, and the town gradually surrendered its prominence to other ports. 
Derby Wharf, extending nearly 2,000 feet into Salem Harbor, was 
built in 1762 and restored in 1938. Opposite the wharf is the Custom 
House, built in 1819, where Nathaniel Hawthorne worked on "The 
Scarlet Letter." The Derby House (1761-62), home of a prominent 
shipping family of the 18th century, is the oldest surviving house in 
Salem. Other structures help to illustrate the significance of maritime 
activities to the development of early America. 

4. Morristown National Historical Park, New Jersey 

Location: Morristown, Morris County; address, Box 759, Morris- 
town, N.J. 07960. 

New York City was the principal British stronghold in the North, 
throughout the Revolutionary War. Only 30 miles distant but separated 

National Survey of Historic Sitzs and Buildings 

[ 59 

from the British lines on Manhattan and Staten Islands by a series of 
parallel ridges, the New Jersey village of Morristown took on important 
strategic values for Washington's army and was the scene of nearly con- 
tinuous American military activity from 1776 to 1782. The American 
Army spent the winters of 1776-77 and 1779-80 encamped at Morris- 
town. The Watchung Mountains, intervening between Morristown and 
New York, enabled Washington to keep watch on the British, to protect 
his own supply and communication lines, to guard the roads connecting 
New England and Pennsylvania, and to be ready to move swiftly on any 
point threatened by the enemy. 

Morristown National Historical Park features the unspoiled natural 
setting on the edge of Morristown where the American Army passed the 
winter of 1779-80. The Ford Mansion, Washington's headquarters, 
and the Wick House, a farmhouse where Gen. Arthur St. Clair main- 
tained his headquarters, have been restored and refurnished. Recon- 
structions include fortifications called "Fort Nonsense," nine log huts 
typifying the quarters of officers, and a representative camp hospital 

This crude log structure, as reconstructed and pictured here, served the 
American patriot army as its hospital during the hard winter of 1779-80 at 
Morristown, N.J. 

building. A large historical museum houses an extensive collection of 
artifacts illustrating the role of Morristown in the War for Independence, 
a library, and a unique collection of manuscripts. 


[ 60 

5. Federal Hall National Memorial, New York 

Location: Wall and Nassau Streets, New York City; address, Execu- 
tive Director, Federal Hall Memorial Associates, Inc., New York, 

The old City Hall of New York was the scene of numerous significant 
events of the colonial and constitutional periods of American history. 
The imprisonment and trial of editor John Peter Zenger for publishing 
"seditious libels" took place here in 1734 and 1735. Zenger's acquittal 
marked a large advance toward winning freedom of speech and the press 
in America. Colonists expressed the first organized opposition to the 
Stamp Act when delegates from nine Colonies convened the Stamp Act 
Congress in City Hall in October 1765. The petition, declaration, and 
address that came from this meeting helped influence Parliament to 

A print of City Hall, New York City, produced in 1790 by A. Doolittle 
of New Haven, Conn., and apparently intended to depict George Washing- 
ton taking the oath of office as President, on the balcony. The seat of the 
Federal Government was removed to Philadelphia in 1790, however, and 
this building fell into ruin. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 


rescind the Stamp Act the next year. After the Revolution, when New 
York City served as the National Capital, the Continental Congress sat 
in City Hall. On its balcony Washington was inaugurated first Presi- 

This outstanding example of Greek Revival architecture was built in 1842 
on the site of City Hall, the first Capitol of the United States. It served 
first as the New York City Custom House, later as the United States Sub- 
Treasury, and is now Federal Hall National Memorial. 

dent of the United States, and within its walls were created the Depart- 
ments of State, War, and the Treasury, as well as the Supreme Court. 
Here, too, Congress adopted the Bill of Rights. 

After the transfer of the Federal Government to Philadelphia in 1790, 
City Hall fell into disrepair and was ultimately sold for salvage. On its 
site, however, Federal Hall was completed in 1842. An outstanding 
example of Greek Revival architecture, it served as the New York City 
customhouse until 1862, then as a U.S. Subtreasury. Designated a 
National Historic Site in 1939 and a National Memorial in 1955, it now 

689-192 0-64— 7 


[ 62 

exhibits documents and artifacts interpreting the role of City Hall in the 
colonial and early republican periods. 

6. Saratoga National Historical Park, New York 

Location: On Hudson River 28 miles north of Albany, between 
Stillwater and Schuylerville; address RFD 1, Box 113-C, Stillwater, 
N.Y. 12170. 

Advancing down the Hudson River as part of a grand design for con- 
quering the Northern States, the British Army of Gen. John Burgoyne 
clashed in September 1777 with the American Army of Gen. Horatio 
Gates. The Battle of Saratoga and the resulting surrender of Burgoyne's 
army wrecked the British campaign. Saratoga was the turning point 
of the war in the North. Vastly more important, it was the turning 
point of the Revolution. Not only did the colonists draw new hope at a 
critical moment when defeat would have been disastrous, but the victory 
also had a decisive influence on negotiations in Europe for an alliance 
with France. Without French aid, the American cause would almost 
certainly have failed. 

Saratoga National Historical Park preserves 1 ,429 acres of the rolling 
countryside along the Hudson where the two armies battled. Paved 
roads give access to the sites of significant phases of the action, to the 

A view looking northeastward over the Hudson River, from Stark's Knob 
at Schuylerville (Old Saratoga). Gen. John Stark occupied these heights 
on October 12, thus closing the final gap in the American lines and trapping 
Burgoyne's army. 

M-a* u> 


he u*-» 

■Ml I 

inr, i > • — 

, m®*mm : 


A view looking southeastward from the British River Redoubts at Saratoga. 
This shows the heart of the final British position, the Great Ravine in the 
foreground and the plains beyond. 

opposing redoubts and fortifications, and to the headquarters of Bur- 
goyne and Gates, all of which are identified and interpreted. A 25-acre 
detached section of the park at nearby Schuylerville includes the restored 
and refurnished Schuyler Mansion, summer residence of Gen. Philip 
Schuyler, who relinquished command of the American force to General 
Gates almost on the eve of the Battle of Saratoga. 

The ceremony of surrender by the British took place at the Field of 
Grounded Arms, not part of the park, as Schuylerville. ( See p. 211.) 

7. Guilford Courthouse National Military Park, North Carolina 

Location: 6 miles northwest of Greensboro on U.S. 220; address, 
Box 9145, Plaza Station, Greensboro, N.C. 27408. 

Although it was a defeat for the Americans, the Battle of Guilford Court- 
house, March 15, 1781, was a significant landmark on the road to 
victory at Yorktown. The determined assaults by Lord Cornwallis' army 
on the American lines at Guilford Courthouse finally led Gen. Nathanael 
Greene to abandon the field and concede victory to his opponent. But 


[ 64 

the assaults hurt Cornwallis so badly that he was forced to abandon the 
offensive and give up his plans for conquering the South. The British 
Army withdrew from North Carolina and ultimately established new 

Monument at Guilford Courthouse 
National Military Park commemorat- 
ing Pvt. Peter Francisco. Serving with 
William Washington's cavalry, Fran- 
cisco, a huge man with an oversize 
sword, slew 11 enemy soldiers during 
the engagement. 

positions at Yorktown, where Washington, with the aid of the French 
Fleet, compelled Cornwallis to surrender the following year. 

Guilford Courthouse National Military Park contains 148 acres, in- 
cluding the most important parts of the battlefield and the site of the 
historic courthouse. Twenty-nine monuments and markers honor the 
participants and identify points of interest. A museum interprets the 
action and its significance. 

8. Moores Creek National Military Park, North Carolina 

Location: 25 miles northwest of Wilmington, Pender County, on 
N.C. 210; address, Currie, N.C. 28435. 

The Battle of Moores Creek was the opening engagement of the Revolu- 
tion in the South, and is often called the Lexington and Concord of the 

The flooring of this bridge, reconstructed here, was removed by the Whigs 
(patriots) and the girders were greased in order to make the crossing of 
Moores Creek more difficult for the enemy loyalists. This view is eastward 
toward the patriot encampment. 

South. Here on February 27, 1776, a force of 1,500 loyalist militia 
under Donald McDonald attacked a patriot force of about 1,000 men 
under Col. James Moore, entrenched on Moores Creek. The patriots 
turned back the loyalist assault and subsequently captured or dispersed 
the entire loyalist command. The action bolstered patriot morale and 
strengthened the movement for independence. The British, moreover, 
abandoned their plans for conquering the southern Colonies and did 
not resume major operations in the South until late in the war. 

Moores Creek National Military Park contains 50 acres on which the 
engagement was fought. A self-guiding trail leads to remains of the 
patriot fortifications, cannon, field exhibits, monuments, and markers 
which unfold the story of the battle. A visitor center houses exhibits 
relating to the battle and its consequences. 

9. Fort Necessity National Battlefield, Pennsylvania 

Location: 11 miles east of Uniontown on U.S. 40; address, Star 
Route, Box 15, Farmington, Pa. 15437. 

At Fort Necessity, which consists of a rude circular palisade and cabin in 
the Great Meadows of western Pennsylvania, George Washington rose 
to prominence in the conflict that opened the French and Indian War. 
Lieutenant Colonel Washington marched westward with an army of 
Virginians in April 1754 to contest French possession of the Forks of 

A view of the Great Meadows and reconstructed Fort Necessity, from the 
southwest, the direction from which the French first approached the fort. 

the Ohio, strategic site of modern Pittsburgh, where the French had 
built Fort Duquesne. He and his small advance guard skirmished at 
Great Meadows on May 24 with a French scouting party from Fort 
Duquesne, and drove it from the field. Washington next built Fort 
Necessity as a temporary defensive work. Reinforcements swelled his 
command to 293 officers and men, but the French attacked him on July 
3 with a force more than twice this number and by nightfall had clearly 
won the battle. The Virginians surrendered and were permitted next 
day to withdraw with the honors of war. They returned to Virginia. 

Visitors now see at Fort Necessity a stockade, storehouse, and en- 
trenchments, faithfully reconstructed in 1954 on the exact site of the 
original structures. Most of Great Meadows is included in the surround- 
ing Federal area. In the vicinity are the site of the skirmish between 
Washington and the French scouting party and the grave of Gen. Ed- 
ward Braddock, killed in a famous battle with the French and Indians 
in 1755. 

10. Hopewell Village National Historic Site, Pennsylvania 

Location: Berks County, 5 miles south of Birdsboro; address, R.D. 
No. 1, Elverson, Pa. 19520. 

Hopewell Village was founded in 1770 by ironmaster Mark Bird and is 
typical of the ironmaking villages that dotted the Colonies during the 

The ironmaster's house, Hopewell Village National Historic Site, Pa. 

1 8th century. The vicinity afforded an abundance of iron ore, hardwood 
for charcoal, and labor. The undertaking prospered, and Hopewell 
became the thriving center of a larger community. The ironmakers 
supplied Washington's army with cannon and shot during the Revolu- 
tion, and Bird himself served in the field as a colonel of militia. The 
village and its industry continued to expand after the war and, passing 
through a succession of owners, turned out iron products until new indus- 
trial techniques after the Civil War made it obsolete. 

Although the buildings deteriorated thereafter, they remained basically 
sound. In 1935 the Federal Government acquired the site, now 848 
acres, and since 1950 has been carrying out a program of restoring the his- 
toric structures to their 19th-century appearance. Today the restored 

Abandoned employees' houses, Hopewell Village National Historic Site, Pa. 







•f : : ^jt '■ 



' ?"f^ 




■ . & 


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ilii jM 




ironmaster's house, charcoal house, furnace, blacksmith shop, office-store, 
and barn of Hopewell Village provide an outstanding illustration of an 
early American industrial community. 

11. Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania 

Location: Philadelphia, between Second and Sixth, Chestnut and 
Walnut Streets, plus detached areas; address, 420 Chestnut Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 19106. 

Independence Hall is the heart of Independence National Historical 
Park. It was originally the statehouse for the Colony of Pennsylvania, 
built beginning in 1732. The Liberty Bell, displayed here, was ordered 
from England in 1751, and its famous "Proclaim Liberty" inscription 
was intended as a 50th anniversary memorial to William Penn's Charter 
of Privileges of 1701. The Second Continental Congress met in Inde- 
pendence Hall in May 1775 and took the crucial steps which converted 
a protest movement into a resistance and independence movement. 
Fighting had already broken out in Massachusetts when this Congress 
met, and they chose George Washington to be General and Commander 
in Chief of the Continental Army, in June 1775. He delivered his ac- 
ceptance in Independence Hall. Next year, on July 4, 1776, the Dec- 

Archeological excavations in Independence Square. The foundation walls 
shown here belonged to buildings designed by Robert Mills, early 1800's. 



*m^- 4S 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 69 

laration of Independence was adopted by Congress meeting here. It 
was written largely by Thomas Jefferson and stands as perhaps the finest 
statement of democratic rights and principles ever written, and the basis 
of the free government of the United States throughout its history. 

During the War for Independence and the ensuing period under the 
Articles of Confederation, Congress met in various towns and cities, but 
Philadelphia remained the chief city of the United States. Thus, be- 
ginning on May 25, 1787, the Federal Constitutional Convention met 
here under Washington, as President of the Convention. Benjamin 
Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and other eminent 
leaders made up the Convention, which labored for 4 months and pro- 
duced the Constitution which, with amendments, continues today as the 
supreme law of the land. The meetings were held in strictest secrecy 
and the results submitted to every State for ratification. Americans will 
never fail to honor the wisdom and courage exhibited by the writers of 
the Constitution. The City of Philadelphia purchased Independence 
Hall from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1 8 1 8 — a financial and 
spiritual investment unequaled in the history of American cities — and 
thus took the first step to preserve it and surrounding structures for pos- 
terity. Great progress has been made recently by the Commonwealth 
in converting the three blocks directly north of Independence Hall into 
a mall, to enhance the setting of the park. 

Independence National Historical Park includes a number of other 
historic structures in addition to Independence Hall. Those in the In- 
dependence Hall group are owned by the City of Philadelphia and ad- 
ministered by the National Park Service; some others are owned and 
occupied by certain associations. Carpenters' Hall is among the most 
important of the latter. It was built in 1770 as a guildhall for the Car- 
penters' Company of Philadelphia, and was the scene of action for the 
First Continental Congress in 1774. This building is open to the public 
under a cooperative agreement between the Carpenters' Company and 
the U.S. Department of the Interior, and is located on Chestnut Street 
between Fourth and Orianna Streets. 

The structures most closely associated with Independence Hall are 
on Independence Square. The former County Court Building is on 
the west, the Old City Hall on the east, with the American Philosophical 
Society Building (Philosophical Hall) next to it. All but Old City Hall 
were completed before 1790, when Philadelphia became the Federal 
Capital. During this period the Court House became known as Congress 



Hall because Congress sat there and, similarly, City Hall in 1791 became 
the Supreme Court Building. Philosophical Hall is not open to the 
public. It is still the headquarters of the American Philosophical Society, 
founded in 1 743 by Benjamin Franklin, the oldest society of its kind in 
the United States. Its library is in Library Hall, on Fifth Street, a recon- 
struction of the original home of the Library Company of Philadelphia, 
which was built in 1 789-90. 

Other features of, or associated with, Independence National Historical 
Park include: The First Bank of the United States, erected in 1795-97; 
The Second Bank of the United States, 1819-24; New Hall, 1791; 
Philadelphia Exchange, 1832-34; Bishop White House, 1786-87; Dil- 
worth-Todd-Moylan House, 1775; Franklin Court, site of Benjamin 
Franklin's home from 1763 to 1790; Christ Church, 1727-54; St. 
Joseph's Church, 1838, but in earlier structures from 1733; St. Mary's 
Church, established in 1763; Deshler-Morris House, 5442 Germantown 
Avenue, erected 1772-73; St. George's Church, 1769; and Mikveh 
Israel Cemetery, 1738. 

12. Cowpens National Battlefield Site, South Carolina 

Location: 11 miles northwest of Gaffney and 2 miles southeast 
of Chesnee at intersection of S.C. 11 and 110; address, Box 31 , Kings 
Mountain, N.C. 28086. 

The American victory at Kings Mountain in October 1780 (see below) 
was the first setback to Lord Cornwallis' strategy for conquering the 
South. Falling back to Winnsboro, he learned that part of Gen. Na- 

The United States monument, at the right, honors the patriot soldiers who 
fell at the Battle of Cowpens. 




National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [71 

thanael Greene's army had been sent to the northwestern part of the 
State under Gen. Daniel Morgan. Cornwallis dispatched his cavalry 
leader, Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton, with more than 1,000 men, to dis- 
pose of Morgan's 970. At Cowpens on January 17, 1781, the two 
forces joined battle, and in little more than an hour the British were 
driven from the field. Barely a fifth of Tarleton's command escaped, 
while Morgan lost only 12 killed and 60 wounded. Along with the re- 
sults of Kings Mountain and Guilford Courthouse, Cowpens renewed 
American hope and ultimately led Cornwallis to abandon his attempted 
conquest of the Carolinas. 

A commemorative monument stands in the angle of the highway inter- 
section near the rear of the American lines. The fighting took place for 
a distance of about 600 yards southeast along present S.C. 11. The 
National Park Service administers 1 }4 acres on which the monument 
stands, but no attendant is on duty, the superintendent of Kings Moun- 
tain National Military Park exercising general supervision. 

13. Kings Mountain National Military Park, South Carolina 

Location: 4 miles south of U.S. 216, on S.C. 216, between Charlotte, 
N.C., and Spartanburg, S.C; address Box 31, Kings Mountain, 
N.C. 28086. 

Lord Cornwallis' triumphant northward thrust through Georgia and the 
Carolinas in 1778-80 left the scattered settlers of the Appalachian foot- 
hills comparatively undisturbed. Preoccupied with pushing the frontier 
across the mountains and defending themselves against Indians, they took 
little interest in the war to the east. Cornwallis, however, detached Maj. 
Patrick Ferguson to operate in the Carolina Piedmont. Aroused by 
this threat, frontiersmen from both sides of the mountains rallied to meet 
the invader. On October 7, 1780, a force of about 900, under Cols. 
Isaac Shelby, John Sevier, Joseph McDowell, and William Campbell, 
surrounded Ferguson's 1,100 posted on Kings Mountain. In a 1-hour 
battle the frontier marksmen stormed up the slope and overwhelmed 
the British. Ferguson was slain and his entire command killed, 
wounded, or captured, with a loss to the Americans of 28 killed and 
62 wounded. Kings Mountain compelled Cornwallis to withdraw from 
North Carolina and go on the defensive. Subsequent reverses caused 
him to abandon the southern campaign altogether. 

Aerial view of George Washington Birthplace National Monument, from 
northeast. Popes Creek in foreground. U.S. Department of Defense photo. 

The Kings Mountain ridge on which the battle occurred rises from 
the center of the 4,012-acre Kings Mountain National Military Park. 
A self-guiding trail leads from the visitor center and museum to the scenes 
of action on the mountain, marked by four large commemorative 

14. George Washington Birthplace National Monument, Virginia 

Location: Potomac River 38 miles east of Fredericksburg; address, 
Washington's Birthplace, Va. 22575. 

George Washington was born at his father's tidewater plantation on 
February 22, 1732 (February 11 by the old-style calendar). Here he 
spent the first 3 years of his life before moving to the plantation farther 
up the Potomac that became Mount Vernon. The earlier plantation 
passed to his half brother, Augustine Washington, Jr., and the home 
burned to the ground during the Revolutionary War. 

Part of the birthplace site became a Federal area in 1882, and the 
Wakefield National Memorial Association later helped to acquire addi- 
tional land. This organization also conducted extensive research to 
determine the original appearance of the plantation, but failed. A 
memorial mansion was therefore built. Patterned on tradition and 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 73 

surviving structures of the period, it is intended to represent the typical 
18th-century Virginia plantation house such as Washington was prob- 
ably born in. A mile northwest of the memorial mansion is the family 
burial ground containing the graves of many of Washington's forebears. 

1 5. Yorktown Battlefield, Colonial National Historical Park, 

Location: 13 miles east of Williamsburg on U.S. 17; address, P.O. 
Box 210, Yorktown, Va. 23490. 

In the spring of 1781 Lord Cornwallis transferred the scene of his oper- 
ations from the Carolinas to Virginia, and in July, receiving orders to 
move his army to New York, he established a base at Yorktown prepara- 
tory to embarkation. The Americans and their French allies moved 
swiftly to trap Cornwallis in Yorktown. The French Fleet under Ad- 
miral de Grasse blockaded Chesapeake Bay and cut off the British from 
all aid by sea. Washington and Rochambeau dropped down from the 
North and laid siege to Yorktown. With superiority of numbers — 
15,700 to 7,500 — Washington quickly rendered the British position un- 
tenable. On October 17, after 2 weeks of siege operations, Cornwallis 
asked for terms. On the 19th the British Army marched out of its forti- 
fications and surrendered. Although a treaty of peace was not signed 
until 2 years later, Yorktown was the decisive military event of the Revo- 
lution and virtually ended the fighting. 

Yorktown Battlefield lies in and around the colonial town of Yorktown. 
The park contains the restored fortifications and gun emplacements of the 
opposing armies. A self-guiding tour road with interpretive markers 
and field exhibits leads to the principal historic features. One mile from 
Yorktown is the restored Moore House, where the articles of capitulation 
for Cornwallis' army were drafted. Several historic buildings within 
the town itself have also been restored. A visitor center provides informa- 
tion and orientation service and houses museum exhibits relating to the 
events that ended the Revolution. Yorktown Battlefield is linked with 
Jamestown Island, scene of the first permanent English colony in 
America, by the Colonial Parkway, and all three units are administered 
as Colonial National Historical Park. Together with nearby Williams- 
burg, the park offers a unique panorama of America's colonial and 
Revolutionary history. 


National Historic Sites in Non-Federal 

Scattered throughout the United States are a number of National 
Historic Sites in non-Federal ownership. These are not units of the 
National Park System but, as authorized by the Historic Sites Act of 
1935, are administered under the provisions of cooperative agreements 
to which the Secretary of the Interior is a party. In order to retain the 
designation of National Historic Site, the other parties to the agreement 
must maintain the property in a manner consistent with good preservation 
practices, and for this purpose they may receive technical assistance from 
the National Park Service. The Federal Government also normally 
provides a bronze plaque for mounting at the site. All sites so designated 
have been approved by the Advisory Board as meeting the criteria of 
exceptional historical value. 

1 . Dorchester Heights National Historic Site, Massachusetts 

Location: Thomas Park, South Boston. 

The seizure and fortification of Dorchester Heights in March 1776 
was the first real stroke of military success enjoyed by the Continental 
Army in the War for Independence. Not only were the British forced to 
evacuate Boston by Gen. George Washington's unexpected move, but 
this success served also to inspire hope and confidence in the leadership 
and capabilities of the Continental Army. 

This masterful operation was launched from Dorchester and Roxbury, 


National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 75 

and was very carefully planned, utilizing about 2,400 troops and militia 
with a continual procession of carts and wagons, screened partially by 
bales of hay, carrying long bundles of birch saplings (intended for 
facines for building up breastworks on exposed ledges and on frozen 
ground ) and other materials. The labor began on the night of March 4, 
under a bright moon. It proceeded so rapidly that by daylight the forts 
on the two highest hilltops of what is properly Dorchester Heights were 
well enough advanced to offer some defense against assault. When 
Gen. William Howe looked on the redoubts from his bedchamber that 
morning, he is said to have remarked, "The rebels have done more in 
one night than my whole army would have done in a month." 

Colonel Henry Knox had brought overland from Fort Ticonderoga 
70 artillery pieces which, promptly placed on Dorchester Heights, ren- 
dered the city untenable by the British and threatened also the vessels 
in the harbor. Howe determined to attack immediately, and the 
Americans waited resolutely "in a position twice as strong as Bunker 
Hill, with a force more than twice as large, and under the immediate eye 
of the General-in-Chief." They were snug in their works, with rows 
of stone- and sand-filled barrels ready to roll down upon any attacking 
force. The intended attack never came. The British artillerists found 
that they could not elevate their guns sufficiently to reach the American 
parapets, and a boisterous storm prevented the movement of troops 
needed for a planned night attack. Washington worked all the while 
to perfect the fortifications, and soon made them, as far as Howe's army 
was concerned, impregnable. The British evacuated on March 17 — an 
army of 11,000 men, with 1,100 loyalist refugees, in their transports. 

Every side of the heights is now built up, but the white marble monu- 
ment at the summit looks sufficiently high even today to reveal a position 
that was naturally strategic and, with fortifications, very formidable. 
The monument is 115 feet high, consisting of a tower and steeple rem- 
iniscent of a New England meeting house of 200 years ago. It was 
dedicated on March 1 7, 1902, the 1 26th anniversary of the British evacu- 
ation of Boston. 

Under the terms of a cooperative agreement signed by the Secretary 
of the Interior and the Mayor of Boston on March 17, 1951, Dorchester 
Heights was designated a National Historic Site. The monument and 
Thomas Park, named for Gen. John Thomas who commanded the troops 
on Dorchester Heights, are under the jurisdiction of the Department 
of Parks, City of Boston. 


2. St. Paul's Church National Historic Site, New York 

Location: South Columbus Avenue (old Boston Post Road) be- 
tween South Third and Fulton Avenues, Eastchester, Mount 

St. Paul's Church was founded in 1665, not long after the founding 
of the village in 1642 by freedom-loving refugees from Puritan Massa- 
chusetts under Anne Hutchinson. Her consistent stand during her life, 
and her death in 1643 at the hands of Indians, created something of a 
reaction in the Colonies in favor of religious freedom and tolerance. 
Later the "Great Election of 1733" here led to the famous trial of John 
Peter Zenger, his vindication, and a reaction in favor of freedom of the 
press. Connected in these and other ways with the history of civil liber- 
ties in the United States, the present effort toward the protection and 
preservation of St. Paul's Church is being spearheaded by the Society of 
the National Shrine of the Bill of Rights. The objectives of the society are 
to assist in the upkeep of the church, to restore the village green in front 
to its colonial appearance, to help maintain the planned Zenger Memorial 
Museum Building, and to carry on educational activities. 

The present structure of stone and brick was started in the 1760's and 
evidently not completed until after the War for Independence. It is of 
simple Georgian colonial style and replaced an earlier wooden structure, 
said to have been destroyed for firewood when the newer church was 
used as a hospital and barracks by Hessian trcops. In its tower hangs 
Freedom Bell, 1,800-pound twin of the more famous Liberty Bell at 
Independence Hall, Philadelphia. Freedom Bell was cast in 1752 by 
the same foundry that manufactured the Liberty Bell, and it was pre- 
served during the Revolutionary War by being buried secretly, along 
with other precious objects belonging to the church. The entire area 
along the Boston Post Road was ravaged severely by armed men of both 
sides during the war. About a hundred Hessians were buried in a mass 
grave, now marked, in the cemetery. Other identifiable graves in the 
cemetery date from as early as about 1700. 

St. Paul's Church was restored faithfully to its 1 787 appearance in 1942 
as the result of work of a committee of eminent citizens headed by Mrs. 
Sara Delano Roosevelt. It was designated a National Historic Site in 
1943. It has been faced by serious problems of maintenance because of 
the industrial nature of its modern environment and its lack of religious 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 

[ 77 

function since the former congregation has joined the recent trend in the 
evacuation of cities to the suburbs. 

3. Gloria Dei Church National Historic Site, Pennsylvania 

Location: Delaware Avenue near Christian Street, South Phila- 

Gloria Dei, or "Old Swedes','' Church is the oldest church building in 
Philadelphia, having held services first in the year 1700. The structure 
is of red brick in Flemish bond, with glazed headers. Its Swedish 
origins are revealed in the steep gable roof, square belfry, and small 
spire. There were Swedish settlers on the ground long before William 
Penn came to establish the city of Philadelphia, and Gloria Dei Church 
is perhaps the best evidence of the fact. 

Gloria Dei, or "Old Swedes'," Church, in Philadelphia, stands today as a 
reminder that the first European inhabitants of this region were Swedes. 

689-192 0-64- 


The first Swedish settlers came to the banks of the Delaware River in 
the 1630's, and one of the villages that developed was called Wicaco, a 
place now known as South Philadelphia. A mission of the state church 
of Sweden was begun about 1646 which developed into Gloria Dei 
Church, using first a small square log blockhouse originally provided 
for defense against Indians. The present structure was dedicated in 
1700 and was the greatest public building in Philadelphia. The 
bricks were manufactured close at hand and the interior furnished 
in part with articles brought from Sweden, including a cherubim or 
decorative carving brought from Sweden in 1643, still to be seen hanging 
below the organ loft, and a baptismal font from Gothenburg dating to 
the same year. The church treasures include silver altar appointments, 
among them the Vanderspiegel tankard of 1773, executed by the 
Philadelphia silversmith, Young; a Breeches Bible presented to the 
church by William Penn, published in London in 1599; and a cherished 
reproduction of the Gustav Vasa Bible of 1541. These and other relics 
and documents add up to a museum-archival collection of considerable 

Betsy Ross was among the notable persons connected with Gloria Dei 
Church — she married her second husband here in 1777. Resting in 
the churchyard are the last remains of Gustavus Hesselius, first American 
portrait painter; Alexander Wilson, father of American ornithology; 
Capt. John Douglas, General Washington's aide-de-camp; and Mar- 
garet Boone, sister of Daniel. Gloria Dei separated from the mother 
church of Sweden in 1789, and was admitted in 1845 into the Conven- 
tion of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the Diocese of Pennsylvania. 

The church is the center of an active parish, filling the current religious 
needs of hundreds of communicants of the area and carrying on an ex- 
tensive social service program on the waterfront, as well as giving inspira- 
tion to history-minded visitors. Well preserved and useful, it has been 
likened to a jewel in its drab environs. It was declared a National 
Historic Site in 1942. 

4. Touro Synagogue National Historic Site, Rhode Island 

Location: 85 Touro Street, Newport. 

Touro Synagogue symbolizes the spirit of religious freedom that arose 
during the colonial period and found its way into the principles upon 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 


which the political system of the new Nation was founded. The Code 
of Laws for Rhode Island in 1647 proclaimed religious freedom, and a 
Jewish sect that had been persecuted in Europe sought haven in this 
new colony founded by Roger Williams, himself a victim of religious 
persecution in Massachusetts. For nearly a century the Newport Jews 

Strikingly different from other colonial houses of worship in its appearance, 
Touro Synagogue, in Newport, R.I., represents an element of the colonial 
population whose important contributions are sometimes overlooked. 

prospered and made important contributions to Newport life before 
they were able to build a synagogue. In 1759, however, ground was 
broken, and the edifice that was dedicated 4 years later was a distin- 
guished addition to Newport architecture as well as the highest achieve- 
ment of Architect Peter Harrison. The Revolution sapped the vitality 
of Newport, and its Jewish community revived only partially after the 
war. By the end of the 18th century the doors of the synagogue had 
closed, but the building was preserved and maintained by descendants 
of the Reverend Isaac Touro, spiritual leader of the Newport Jews when 
it was opened, until services resumed in 1883. It still serves the purpose 
for which it was built. 


An expert modification of Georgian architecture to accommodate 
the Sephardic Jewish ritual, Touro Synagogue exhibits a plain brick 
exterior and an ornate interior. Inside, 12 Ionic columns support a 
gallery, above which rise 12 Corinthian columns supporting a domed 
ceiling. Five massive brass candelabra hang from the ceiling. The 
Holy Ark at the east end contains sacred, hand-lettered Scrolls of the 
Law mounted on wooden rollers. In the center of the room is the 
Bimah, an elevated platform where the cantor intones the liturgy and 
reads the Torah. The profusion of holy objects gives to the synagogue 
a profoundly religious atmosphere. 

Designated a National Historic Site in 1946, Touro Synagogue is 
administered under the terms of a cooperative agreement between the 
Secretary of the Interior, the Shearith Israel trustees of New York City, 
and the Congregation Jeshuat Israel of Newport. The Society of 
Friends of Touro Synagogue National Historic Shrine, Inc., aids in 
preservation and restoration work. 


Sites Eligible for the Registry of 
National Historic Landmarks 

This group of historic sites has been judged to meet the criteria 
of "exceptional value" (see p. 254) and therefore to possess importance 
to the Nation for commemorating and illustrating the history of 18th- 
century English colonial development in North America and the separa- 
tion of these Colonies from England. The Secretary of the Interior has 
declared them eligible for inclusion on the Registry of National Historic 
Landmarks. Some are already designated Registered National Historic 
Landmarks; the others may receive the designation upon application of 
the owners. The whole list is subject to reappraisal each 5 years for 
possible additions and deletions. 

1 . Webb House, Connecticut 

Location. 211 Main Street, Wethersfield. 

Ownership and Administration. The Connecticut Society of the 
Colonial Dames of America (Headquarters of the Society). 

Significance. In the spring of 1781, when the weight of active cam- 
paigning had shifted to Virginia and the Carolinas, Washington's army 
lay inactive in and around West Point. It was obvious that a com- 
bined offensive must be undertaken by the allies if the American cause 
were not to languish. War weariness had settled on the land, and much 
of the Continental Army was scattered along the frontier and in the 
South. The Webb House, in Wethersfield, Conn., was destined to be 
the scene of a conference that started the Americans and their French 
allies on the road to victory. 




Washington learned in the middle of May that Count de Rochambeau, 
the French commander in America, desired a meeting to discuss the plan 
of campaign. Washington immediately accepted this opportunity to 

At the Webb House in Wethersfield, Conn., in May 1781, Generals Wash- 
ington and Rochambeau planned American-French operations against the 
British in the closing campaigns of the War for Independence. 

break the stalemate. The old Connecticut town of Wethersfield, lying 
about halfway between Washington's Hudson River headquarters at 
New Windsor and Rochambeau's headquarters at Newport, was selected 
as the place of meeting. On May 19 Washington arrived at Wethers- 
field and, in his own words, "lodged * * * at the house of Joseph 
Webb, Esq." On May 21 Washington rode to Hartford to meet 
Rochambeau, and the party returned to Wethersfield. The next day 
the French general confirmed that a French Fleet was en route to the 
West Indies and would be off the American coast by midsummer. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 83 

Here at last lay an opportunity for concerted action. Rochambeau, 
however, gave Admiral de Grasse, the French naval commander, the 
option of joining the allied forces against the British in New York or 
in Virginia. 

As a result of the conference Rochambeau brought his forces, number- 
ing nearly 5,000 men, to join Washington in New York. Part of the 
original plan of attack by the allies was aimed at the British forts on 
Manhattan Island, but after thorough reconnaissance of the British forti- 
fied lines the effort was wisely abandoned, and Washington turned his 
attention to the developing situation in the south. On August 14 
Rochambeau heard from Admiral De Grasse that the fleet, with a strong 
land force aboard, would sail from the West Indies for Chesapeake Bay, 
where it would be available only until October. Washington acted 
quickly to take advantage of this substantial reinforcement. He notified 
De Grasse that the Franco-American Army would march south to co- 
operate with the fleet in cornering Cornwallis in Virginia. If the trap 
failed, an attack on Charleston could be undertaken. This decision bore 
fruit in the entrapment and surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. 

Although it is too much to say that the conference in the Webb House 
laid the specific plans for the victorious Yorktown campaign, it never- 
theless marked the implementation of the Franco-American alliance in 
terms of actual field operations. The American and French Armies were 
united in time for them to move south and operate in conjunction with 
the French Fleet from the West Indies. 

Present Appearance. The Webb House was built in 1752 by Joseph 
Webb, who occupied it for 9 years before his death. With its well-pro- 
portioned exterior design and steep gambrel roof, the two-story house has 
considerable architectural interest. The south parlor, traditionally identi- 
fied as the conference room, has been repaneled, and the house is ex- 
cellently furnished, mostly by gifts from members of the Society of 
Colonial Dames. Several items of furniture, silver, and china belonged 
to the Webb family. The setting, suggestive of the 18th century, is 
enhanced by the broad, tree-lined street that passes in front, and by a 
number of old homes adjacent to it. 

2. John Dickinson House, Delaware 

Location. 5 miles southeast of Dover, .3 mile east of U.S. 113 on 
Kitts Hummock Road, Kent County. 


Ownership and Administration. State of Delaware, administered 
by Delaware State Museum, Dover. 

Significance. John Dickinson is known as the "Penman of the Revo- 
lution." A writer has said, "In the literature of that struggle, his position 
is as preeminent as Washington in war, Franklin in diplomacy, and 
Morris in finance." 8 Thomas Jefferson commented that "his name will 
be consecrated in history as one of the great worthies of the Revo- 
lution." 9 The restored John Dickinson House near Dover is the 
surviving structure most intimately associated with him. 

It was built in 1740 by his father, and young Dickinson lived there 
until he was 18 in 1750, when he left for Philadelphia to study law. 
Dickinson lived in the house at various times after 1750, although his 
role in public life kept him most of the time in Philadelphia, Wilmington, 
and elsewhere. 

Dickinson's career is briefly summarized: He read law with John 
Moland in Philadelphia, studied at London's Middle Temple, and in 
1757 began the practice of law in Philadelphia. He was a prolific writer 
of political pamphlets, then the chief medium of argument and exposition, 
and he served in the colonial assemblies in both Delaware and Pennsyl- 
vania. His convictions were generally conservative and he disliked 
violence, but as a member of the Stamp Act Congress in 1765 he helped 
draft the Declaration of Rights and the Petition to the King adopted by 
that body. 

In 1768 he published "Letters of a Farmer in Pennsylvania to the 
Inhabitants of the British Colonies," his most famous pamphlet. As 
leader of the conservative faction which opposed both British colonial 
policy and the radicals' drive for independence, and because he was 
fearful of a war in which Americans would have neither allies nor a 
central government, Dickinson refused to sign the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. Nevertheless, he headed the committee which made the first 
draft of the Articles of Confederation, in July 1776, and he was one of 
the few Members of Congress who entered upon active duty with the 
Army during the war. 

After the conflict ended Dickinson continued to be active in the public 
affairs of both Delaware and Pennsylvania until his death in 1808. He 
headed the Delaware delegation to the Annapolis Convention in 1786 
and was elected chairman of the convention. In this capacity he pre- 
sented the report recommending the Constitutional Convention to be 
held in Philadelphia in 1787, where he was a leader in fighting for the 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 85 

rights of small States and in urging prompt ratification of the Constitution. 
Delaware was the first State to ratify. 

Present Appearance. The Dickinson mansion near Dover, its 
Flemish-bond front facing south, is one of the most interesting architec- 
tural examples of the plantation house of the region. Cultivated fields, 
all around it, produce a scene similar to that of the plantation period. 

The original dwelling was a two-story brick structure, with hip roof. 
A fire gutted it in 1804, leaving little but the four walls, after which it 
was restored under Dickinson's close supervision. A gable roof was 
added and a small brick kitchen wing built at the west end. The interior 
of the rebuilt house was substantial but plain in keeping with its intended 
use from this time as a tenant house. 

The National Society of Colonial Dames of America presented $25,000 
to the State of Delaware in 1952 to preserve the Dickinson House, when 
it was threatened with destruction. The State matched this donation 
with a similar amount, the house and surrounding tract were acquired, 
the necessary research accomplished, and it was restored to its appear- 
ance as Dickinson last knew it, by means of State funds and private gifts. 
The reconstruction was based on Dickinson's correspondence and written 
instructions during the period 1804-6. Materials of the original struc- 
ture were reused when found in good condition. A furnishing committee 
provided the interior with items typical of the region, some of which once 
belonged to the Dickinson family. A garden adjacent to the house has 
been developed with the aid of garden clubs and by private donations. 
The house was formally opened to the public on May 2, 1956. 10 

3. The Gundelo Philadelphia, Washington, D.C 

Location. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 

Ownership and Administration. Smithsonian Institution, U.S. Gov- 

Significance. The U.S. Gundelo Philadelphia is the only surviving 
gunboat built and manned by American forces during the Revolutionary 
War. Moreover, the vessel is one of the 15 small craft with which 
Benedict Arnold fought 29 British vessels in the battle off Valcour Island, 
Lake Champlain, on October 11, 1776. The year of grace won by the 
building of Arnold's "fleet" and the battle off Valcour Island paved the 
way for the decisive American victory at Saratoga in the autumn of the 
following year. 


Little more than a rowboat compared with modern vessels, the Phila- 
delphia was one of the hastily built fleet constructed in the early summer 
of 1776 at present Whitehall, N.Y. In late September 1776, the fleet 
took station in a small bay west of Valcour Island, about 7 miles south 
of what is now Plattsburgh, N.Y. The sound between the island and 
the mainland was about three-quarters of a mile wide, divided by a high 
bluff projecting from the west side of the island. Arnold's fleet formed 
a line south of the bluff and in this position on October 1 1 fought the 
heavier British Fleet to a standstill. The American force was badly 
damaged in the action, and only with considerable luck did Arnold elude 
the enemy and escape southward during the night. The Royal Savage, 
the former American flagship, was lost, and the Philadelphia was sunk 
on October 1 1, and only four of Arnold's vessels managed to escape the 
British pursuit during the next 2 days. 

Arnold's action on Lake Champlain wrecked the plans of Gen. Sir 
Guy Carleton, British commander in Canada, to push down the Hudson 
and unite with Sir William Howe, a move that would have split the 
northern Colonies. Carleton moved on to Crown Point after the battle 
off Valcour Island, but the time lost in building his fleet to oppose Arnold, 
together with the hard fight with the Americans, led him to reconsider 
his plans. Deciding that it was now too late in the season to prosecute 
the invasion to a successful conclusion, Carleton withdrew to Canada. 

In 1934 the wreck of the Royal Savage was recovered and the pieces 
saved. In the following year the Philadelphia, remarkably well pre- 
served by the cold water, was identified and salvaged from the sandy 
lake bottom near the midchannel of Valcour Bay. After her guns were 
lifted, a 12-pounder and two 9-pounders, the hull was raised 57 feet 
to the surface and towed to the beach. In addition to her guns, hun- 
dreds of other relics were found on the vessel — shot, cooking utensils, 
tools, buttons, buckles, and human bones. The vessel was exhibited at 
various places on Lake Champlain and the Hudson River and finally, 
in 1960, was placed at the Smithsonian Institution. 

Present Appearance. The Philadelphia's hull is 54 feet in length, 15 
feet in beam, and approximately 5 feet deep. Construction was almost 
entirely of oak. The mast, nearly 36 feet high, was found intact except 
for the top section, and the oaken hull timbers were still in place. Three 
shotholes were visible in the hull, and in one of them a cannonball re- 
mained lodged. Considering the punishment it took in battle and its 
long years under water, the Philadelphia is exceptionally well-preserved. 11 

The Lady Pepperrell House, Kittery Point, Maine, was built in 1760 by the 
widow of Sir William Pepperrell, successful merchant and commander of 
the victorious expedition against Louisburg. 

4. Lady Pepperrell House, Maine 

Location. Maine 103, Kittery Point, York County; near Portsmouth, 

Ownership and Administration. Society for the Preservation of New 
England Antiquities, 141 Cambridge Street, Boston 14, Mass. 

Significance. The home built at Kittery Point by the widow of Sir 
William Pepperrell is a notable example of northern colonial architec- 
ture in the closing years of British rule. Its owner, Mary Pepperrell, was 
the daughter of Grove Hirst, wealthy Boston merchant, and a grand- 
daughter of Judge Samuel Sewall, of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 
Her husband commanded American land forces at the siege and cap- 
ture of Louisburg, off Nova Scotia, in 1745. For his services in this 
major victory over the forces of New France, Pepperrell was commis- 
sioned a colonel with authority to raise and command a regiment of 
regulars in the British line, and was given the title of baronet — the first 
native-born American to receive this honor. By successful business 
ventures, he amassed a fortune estimated at a quarter of a million pounds 
and was known as one of the wealthiest men in the Colonies. Sir Wil- 
liam died in 1759, and about 1760 his widow built the great Georgian 


house in which she lived for 30 years and which today bears her name. 

Present Appearance. The house is a two-story frame structure with 
hip roof and two pairs of end chimneys, its whole appearance being one 
of simplicity. Walls are clapboard, and the plain facade is distinguished 
only by the projecting pavilion of smooth white boards that give a 
masonry effect. Ionic pilasters, two stories high, frame the door. The 
window trips, caps, and sills project well forward of the wall line, to 
provide space for inside shutters. The piazzas at either end are later 

The spacious center hall provides access to handsomely furnished rooms 
featuring great fireplaces and fine woodwork. On the first floor are 
the living room to the left of the hall, and the drawing room to the right. 
Behind the living room is the dining room, from which a kitchen ell 
extends. A large chamber is situated in the rear of the drawing room. 
On the second floor are five chambers, the smallest of which is located 
over the kitchen. 

The furnishings point up the dignity of the interior design and con- 
struction. Chippendale, Hepplewhite, Sheraton, and Duncan Phyfe 
furniture, with fine glass, china, mirrors, and paintings, do much to 
preserve the stately atmosphere that surrounded Lady Mary Pepperrell, 
who weathered the storms of revolution and, to the day of her death, 
demanded the deference due her title. 12 

5. Hammond-Harwood House, Maryland 

Location. Maryland Avenue at King George Street, Annapolis. 

Ownership and Administration. Hammond-Harwood House Asso- 
ciation, Inc., Annapolis. 

Significance. Annapolis is a city containing many distinguished 18th- 
century houses, of which three, the Brice, the Chase-Lloyd, and the 
Hammond-Harwood, are the most notable. Although all three are 
of first rank architecturally, the last appears to be the most significant 
in terms of English colonial associations. Not only is it a superior 
example of the Georgian dwelling but, of the three, each attributed to 
William Buckland, the Hammond-Harwood House appears also to have 
the soundest claim to this distinction. One authority has said of Buck- 
land's design, "Here at last, it seems, he merits the appellation of 'archi- 
tect' rather than 'decorator'." 13 The writer notes further that the house 
marks the period of Buckland's architectural maturity, achieved in the 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 89 

years just preceding his untimely death at the age of 40. As an 
example of period architecture and a reflection of the genius of William 
Buckland, the Hammond-Harwood House is an outstanding survivor 
of the flowering of American architecture at the end of the colonial 

Present Appearance. Probably completed in 1774, the year of Buck- 
land's death, the Hammond-Harwood House is a symmetrical building 
typical of Georgian houses in the area. Its five-bay center section, 
constructed of salmon-colored brick laid up in Flemish bond, Is flanked 
by two-story wings with polygonal bays. One wing served the house's 
builder, Matthias Hammond, as a law office, and the other housed 
kitchen and service rooms. Hammond is worthy of notice in his own 
right, for he was one of Maryland's distinguished leaders on the eve of 
the Revolution. 

The low-pitched hip roof and center pavilion are typical of the late 
Georgian period. The arched fanlight doorway features tall Ionic 
columns and rich moldings. A wealth of carved woodwork gives orna- 
mentation to the first-floor dining room and the second-floor ballroom. 
Decorations and furnishings, including many pieces that were in the 
house originally, adhere faithfully to the period. A number of portraits 
by Charles Willson Peale adorn the interior. 14 

6. Whitehall, Maryland 

Location. Outskirts of Annapolis, off St. Margaret's Road, Anne 
Arundel County. 

Ownership and Administration. Private. 

Significance. Superlatives become Whitehall, not alone for its dis- 
tinction of being the first colonial dwelling with temple-type portico, 
and as an exemplar of 18th-century "country life" in America, but also 
as the embodiment of a great many composite factors that contribute 
luster to a building and a site. Built by Maryland's bachelor Governor, 
Horatio Sharpe, at the close of the French and Indian War as a retreat 
and entertainment pavilion, it was shortly afterward enlarged. It served 
as his residence from the time of his enforced retirement in 1769 until 
his return to England in 1773. Whitehall was designed and built un- 
der Sharpe's direct supervision, along with the surrounding landscape 
development of gardens, parks, and entrance court in the shape of a 
semioctagon. The latter feature, capable of being fortified, undoubtedly 

Whitehall, on the outskirts of Annapolis, was started by Maryland's Gover- 
nor Horatio Sharpe at the close of the French and Indian War. Enlarged 
a short time later, it was Sharpe's residence from 1769 until 1773 when he 
returned to England. 

reflected his military interests and concern for defense. As commander 
of colonial forces for the protection of Virginia and adjoining Colonies 
until superseded by Maj. Gen. Edward Braddock, Sharpe had firsthand 
experience with Indian warfare and depredations on the frontier. He 
was a capable civil and military administrator, and his Whitehall planta- 
tion recalls other roles as well: those of gentleman-farmer, fancier of 
fine horses, hospitable host, and friend of George Mason and George 

Whitehall was an outstanding achievement in colonial design and 
elaboration of detail. All the more remarkable is the available docu- 
mentation concerning the architect and a few of the craftsmen associated 
with its construction. This mansion is a key to the career of Joseph 
Horatio Anderson. Anderson's plans, now in the possession of the 
owner, were characterized by Fiske Kimball as the "most professional" 
to come from the hands of an 18th-century American designer — Jeffer- 
son's early drawings for Monticello excepted. A notable sketch in the 
same group, dealing with design and placement of carved ornaments 
in the great hall, is attributed to William Buckland. Buckland is 
credited with supplying the delicate Corinthian caps, the rich entabla- 
ture, and the refined woodwork of the interior. John Rawlins, newly 
settled in Annapolis from London, executed the elaborate plaster cor- 
nices, enriched with color and gilt. 

Present Appearance. Whitehall is a five-part brick house of Palla- 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 91 

dian character and unusual length, about 200 feet. The central block 
is one room deep, placed above a basement that is exposed on the north 
facade only. The great portico to the south opens into a salon, or great 
hall, that extends through two floors. Arcaded hyphens connect with 
end wings covered by pyramidal roofs, projecting northward to give the 
effect of two-story units. Extant plans and specifications reveal that 
the building was designed as a seven-part composition with a half- 
underground kitchen extension containing a well, and at the other end 
a unique water-closet development just off the bedroom wing. Arche- 
ological studies indicate that the kitchen addition was built as planned, 
although the other development was apparently never carried out. An 
unusual cistern, however, fed by rainwater from the roofs, was incor- 
porated into the foundation of the original unit and extended under the 
portico and across the entire central block, apparently in anticipation 
of some such development. Archeological research has established an- 
other remarkable detail in the carved, sanded, and painted presentment 
of the great seal of Maryland placed in the pediment on the riverfront. 
Archeological activity likewise has uncovered the ruins of the Whitehall 
brick kiln at the river landing. 

The exterior appearance of the mansion was restored in 1957, based 
upon painstaking studies. The original acreage is nearly intact. 15 

7. Buckman Tavern, Massachusetts 

Location. Hancock Street, opposite east side of Lexington Green, 

Ownership and Administration. Town of Lexington, administered 
by Lexington Historical Society. 

Significance. Buckman Tavern is an integral and important part of 
the historical setting of the first conflict of the War for American In- 
dependence, and it appears in the background of nearly every illustra- 
tion depicting the brief fight between the British light infantry and the 
minutemen. One of Lexington's better hostelries, it was built about 
1690 by Benjamin Muzzey, who in 1693 received a license to maintain 
a public house. In 1775 it was owned and operated by John Buckman, 
a member of the Lexington Minuteman Company, and was a favorite 
gathering place for the citizen-soldiers on days when they trained on the 
Lexington Green. Captain Parker's minutemen assembled at the tavern 
during the night and early morning as Major Pitcairn's British regulars 















Buckman Tavern, facing Lexington Green, looks here almost exactly as it 
did on the morning of April 19, 1775, when it was the mustering place for 
Lexington's company of minutemen. 

approached from Boston, and the building still exhibits scars left by 
British musket balls fired at Parker's men drawn up on the Green. Buck- 
man Tavern housed the first village store in Lexington, and later, in 
1812, the first town post office. 

Present Appearance. Some structural changes were made in Buck- 
man Tavern between 1690 and 1775, but it appears today virtually the 
same as at the time of the battle on Lexington Green. A two-story 
white clapboard building, the tavern retains its 18th-century taproom 
with large fireplace and central chimney. Acquired by the town of 
Lexington in 1913, it constituted a significant extension of the triangle 
formed by the Battle Green. The Lexington Historical Society, already 
the owner of the Hancock-Clarke House and the Munroe Tavern, made 
a generous contribution toward the purchase and, under a 99-year lease, 
assumed the task of furnishing the building and showing it to the public. 
Buckman Tavern is now maintained by the Lexington Historical Society 
as a historic house museum. It also serves as headquarters for the Lex- 
ington Minute Men, Inc., an organization that perpetuates the traditions 
of Captain Parker's company. 16 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 93 

8. Bunker Hill Monument, Massachusetts 

Location. Breed's Hill, Charlestown. 

Ownership and Administration. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
Metropolitan District Commission, 20 Somerset Street, Boston. 

Significance. The Battle of Bunker Hill was actually fought on nearby 
Breed's Hill, June 17, 1775. It was the first full-scale action between 
American militia and British regulars following the running fight at 
Lexington and Concord, 2 months earlier. The raw American Army 
was driven from its position after repulsing two assaults, although the 
costly British victory did not alter the situation for the besieged redcoats. 
The battle convinced the British command that defeating the rebellious 
colonists would not be an easy task, however, and in later years the 
American defeat was translated into virtual victory by the folklore that 
sprang from the fight. Actually, the struggle for Breed's Hill had a 
harmful effect in creating the myth that raw militia, suffused with 
patriotism, could always take the measure of professional troops. In- 
decisive as it was, the battle has remained in the American tradition as 
one of the key episodes of the Revolution. 

Present Appearance. The present monument marks the approximate 
center of the American redoubt on Breed's Hill and is surrounded by a 
4-acre park in a residential section of Charlestown. The monument 
itself possesses considerable interest as an example of early historical mon- 
umentation. The Bunker Hill Monument Association was organized in 
1823, a year after 3 acres of the battlefield had been purchased to keep 
it open. In 1825 an additional 15 acres was purchased. When the 
association ran short of funds, however, most of this land was sold in 
1834 and the proceeds applied to completing the 220-foot obelisk. The 
cornerstone of the monument was laid in 1825, the 50th anniversary of 
the battle, although construction was not completed until 1 842 . A statute 
of Col. William Prescott, commander of the American troops on Breed's 
Hill, stands at the base of the monument. A small museum is open to 
visitors. The monument is much in need of rehabilitation and develop- 
ment, particularly in regard to its interpretation of the battle story. 17 

9. Christ Church (in Cambridge), Massachusetts 

Location. Garden Street, opposite George Washington Memorial 
Gateway, Cambridge. 

689-192 0-64— 9 


[ 94 

Ownership and Administration. Christ Church, Cambridge. 

Significance. This warm and dignified Episcopal church is a memor- 
able evocation of 18th-century America in the last years of British rule 
and the period of the War for Independence. Christ Church was built 
between 1759 and 1761 on a design by the great Peter Harrison, then 
approaching the peak of his genius. It was the religious center for 
Cambridge aristocrats until the outbreak of the Revolution. Cambridge 
Common, in front of the church, served as a mustering ground for 
American troops. Most of the loyalist Anglican congregation had 
departed before the British evacuated Boston in March 1776, and the 
church was used as a barracks by the Americans. In December 1775 
Martha Washington, who had come to join her husband, requested 
that the church be readied for religious services. On New Year's Eve, 
and infrequently afterward, services were held during Washington's 
stay in Cambridge. After Burgoyne's surrender at Saratoga in October 
1777, his captive army was held for a time in Cambridge. A funeral 

Christ Church faces the Common in Cambridge, Mass., and is the only struc- 
ture in the immediate area which survives from colonial times. It was 
designed and built by Peter Harrison in 1759-61. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 95 

was held in Christ Church for a young British officer who was killed in 
this period. After the service a mob attacked and heavily damaged 
the church. Not until 1790 were services resumed in the building. 

Present Appearance. Christ Church today is the only surviving land- 
mark of colonial Cambridge Common. The exterior of the church is 
dominated by a simple, squat, wooden tower, topped by a commonplace 
cruciform belfry with some lunette windows on the front and sides. 
The church has no interior galleries and the sidewalls of rusticated 
planking are low. A row of seven arched windows of plain glass, topped 
by a Roman Doric cornice, relieves the plainness of each side. The 
simple exterior is in sharp contrast to the interior. Six Ionic columns 
along each side support the ceiling over the aisles. The recessed ceiling 
over the nave curves up to a flat panel, from which are suspended fine 
crystal chandeliers given in memory of Jessie B. Sayre, a daughter of 
Woodrow Wilson. The windows have heavy two-piece slatted shutters 
on the inside. When folded back, they partly cover the pilasters between 
the windows. The interior originally was 45 by 60 feet, but in 1857 the 
nave was lengthened by the addition of two bays. 

The finest original surviving feature is the organ loft, although tradi- 
tion has it that the original lead organ pipes were melted into bullets 
during the Revolution. The pew of George and Martha Washington is 
marked by a bronze plaque. Several bullet holes, one of which is 
marked by a plaque, are said to date from the period of the American 
military encampment. Modern restoration has been very conscientious, 
and later interior features are in keeping with the period of the church's 
original construction. 18 

10. Faneuil Hall, Massachusetts 

Location. Dock Square, Boston. 

Ownership and Administration. City of Boston, Real Property 
Department, City Hall Annex, Boston. 

Significance. Often called "the Cradle of Liberty," Faneuil Hall was 
a focal point in the organization of colonial resentment and protest 
against acts of the British Parliament in the years immediately prior to 
the Revolution. Here James Otis, Samuel Adams, and other leaders 
of opposition to the Crown built colonial dissent into powerful sentiment 
for American self-government. Faneuil Hall heard the voices of the 
most notable leaders in the fight for the abolition of slavery in the 19th 


century, and it remains today a significant symbol of the struggle for 
American freedom. 

In 1740 a market house was offered to Boston by Peter Faneuil, 
"the topmost merchant in all the town." The question of fixed market- 
places had long been debated, the countrymen favoring competition- 
free, door-to-door peddling, and the city dwellers favoring a convenient 
central market. Faneuil's offer was accepted by a narrow margin, and 
on September 10, 1742, the building was completed. Perhaps to allay 
opposition to the market, Faneuil arranged for a long room above the 
marketplace to serve for town meetings and municipal purposes. The 
building was designed by John Smibert, a noted painter turned amateur 
architect for the project. Originally two stories high, 40 by 100 feet, 
the structure was Georgian in style, with open arcades to the public 
market on the ground floor. The large center cupola on the roof was 
topped by a famous weather vane, a huge grasshopper with green glass 
eyes and long antennae, turned out by Deacon Shem Drowne in May 
1742. The hall was destroyed by fire on January 13, 1761, and only 
its brick walls were left standing. It was rebuilt and opened again in 
1763, becoming for several years thereafter the scene of many of the 
public meetings that foreshadowed the Revolution. By 1768 the size 
of the protesting crowds often made adjournments to the Old South 
Meeting House necessary. 

Faneuil Hall's great role in the Revolutionary movement had not 
ended, however, for in a town meeting there on November 2, 1772, 
Samuel Adams succeeded in creating the extralegal Committee of 
Correspondence, the first of the bodies that produced the union of 
the American Colonies. During the siege of Boston, the hall was used 
as a playhouse for amateur theatricals offered by British officers and 
Tory ladies in the town. 

Present Appearance. As Boston grew in the years following the 
Revolution, an enlargement of the hall and market became necessary. 
This was accomplished during 1805-6 in accordance with plans drawn 
by Boston's Charles Bulfinch. The building was tripled in size by 
increasing its original three bays to seven and adding a third story. 
The second-floor hall was thus expanded in area and in height, per- 
mitting the construction of galleries resting on Doric columns. Bulfinch 
moved the large cupola with the grasshopper weather vane to the east 
end, creating a more imposing effect. The attic of the enlarged building 
became the armory of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 97 

The exterior of the original building had an applied order of brick 
pilasters in the Doric style, capped by a heavy entablature of stone 
at the eaves. Bulfinch retained the entablature and from it ran an 
order of Ionic brick pilasters up the new and higher third story. A 
series of barrel-shaped dormers was placed on the new roof, lighting 
the attic. The arched open arcades that had provided access to the 
market area on the first floor were filled in with windows corresponding 
to the arched windows of the second floor. Faneuil Hall ceased to be 
the scene of town meetings after Boston obtained a city charter in 
1822, but remained a popular meeting place and forum during the 
19th century. From 1827 until 1858 there was no market activity 
in the hall, the space being given over to eight stores occupied by 
vendors of drygoods and hardware. After 1858, when the market was 
restored, the space was appropriated by butchers, as it is today. 

The great hall on the second floor displays a collection of paintings, 
many of the portraits being copies of originals that once hung there but 
that are now protected in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. The attic 
is still the armory of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company and 
contains a collection of military and other objects dating from the 
colonial period and afterward. 

In 1898-99 the city of Boston reconstructed the hall, substituting 
iron, steel, and stone for wood, as far as practicable. In general, the 
Bulfinch plans were followed. Despite these efforts, the building is 
now considered substandard from the standpoint of safety. 19 

11. Isaac Royall House, Massachusetts 

Location. 15 George Street, Medford. 

Ownership and Administration. Royall House Association, 15 
George Street, Medford. 

Significance. "Few houses in Colonial history possess the interest of 
this one and the Royall House stands unique and distinctive among the 
many colonial houses of the period." 20 This evaluation of nearly half 
a century ago is clear evidence of the high place long accorded to this 
outstanding house of the 18th century. Actually, the building had its 
origins in the middle of the 17th century. About 1637 Gov. John 
Winthrop had built a house on the site, which gave way about 1692 to 
a more imposing brick house 2/ 2 stories high and one room in depth. 
This was purchased in 1732 by Isaac Royall, a wealthy merchant of 


! §mr 

E llll ==1 
E HII == 

e mnr 

= mi 

The Isaac Royall House, Medford, Mass., is named for the wealthy mer- 
chant of Antigua who acquired the property in 1732. The house was 
extensively remodeled by Royall and later greatly enlarged by his son. 

Antigua, and extensively remodeled in the period 1733-37. Royall's 
son came into its possession in 1739, and greatly enlarged it between 
1747 and 1750. The younger Royall, a loyalist, fled the country at 
the outbreak of the Revolution and his estate was confiscated. The 
house served thereafter at various times as headquarters for American 
officers, among them Gen. John Stark. Generals Washington, Lee, 
and Sullivan were frequent visitors. The house was later returned to 
the Royall heirs, and they in turn sold it to a syndicate. 

Present Appearance. The Royall House reflects the wealth and posi- 
tion of its owners; it also exhibits the alterations and additions made by 
each. Isaac Royall added a full third story to the original house and 
encased the east facade in clapboard, ornamenting the exterior with pro- 
fuse architectural details in wood. He was also responsible for the out- 
standing feature of the exterior — continuous strips of spandrel panels 
uniting all the tall windows on the three stories of the east facade and 
emphasizing the vertical lines of the structure. Outbuildings were erected 
at the same time, including brick slave quarters — the only such known 
to survive in Massachusetts today. Between 1747 and 1750 Royall's 
son made other changes. He more than doubled the depth, extended 
the end walls correspondingly, and constructed great twin chimneys 
at each end of the house, connected by parapets. Other features added 

National Survzy of Historic Sites and Buildings 

[ 99 

by the younger Royall were the rusticated wood siding on the new west 
facade and great Doric pilasters inserted at the corners. The interior 
was redone in Georgian detail possibly unsurpassed by any surviving 
house of the period. 

Rented by the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1896, and 
acquired by the present owners 12 years later, the Royall House has 
received expert treatment in recent years in the restoration of interior 
colors, furnishings, and wallpapers. Among the historic objects dis- 
played is one of the teaboxes dumped into Boston Harbor on the night 
of December 16, 1773. The frontage provided by a small city park 
between the eastern edge of the lot and Main Street enhances the setting, 
which is otherwise isolated by the residential growth of Greater Boston. 21 

12. Jeremiah Lee Mansion, Massachusetts 

Location. Washington Street opposite Mason Street, Marblehead. 

Ownership and Administration. Marblehead Historical Society, 

Significance. This mansion, one of the best surviving examples of 
colonial architecture, demonstrates the wealth and position of the New 
England merchant princes whose ships plied the oceans in the 1 8th cen- 
tury. Col. Jeremiah Lee came to America in the early part of the 
18th century. By 1760 he had become one of Marblehead's most prom- 
inent citizens and his home, built in 1768, was the center of the town's 

The Jeremiah Lee Mansion, Marblehead, Mass., was the home of an 18th- 
century "merchant prince." 


social life. Originally a loyalist, Lee took up the colonial cause early 
and, although he died shortly after the outbreak of the Revolution, he 
played a leading part in preparing Massachusetts for the war. After 
Lee's death his widow continued to live in the mansion, which remained a 
center of Marblehead social life. Among its distinguished visitors were 
the Marquis de Lafayette, George Washington, James Monroe, and 
Andrew Jackson. The house later passed into other hands and, for a 
century after 1804, was used as a bank. The Marblehead Historical 
Society acquired the property in 1909. 

Present Appearance. Lee's three-story house was built of pine timbers 
and brick, over which were placed rusticated clapboards which, with 
the sand mixed into the final coat of limestone-gray paint, gave an ap- 
pearance of masonry to the exterior. The line of the facade is somewhat 
plain, broken only by a simple portico of two fluted Ionic columns. 
Surmounting the hip roof are two massive chimneys and a cupola from 
which Lee could watch for incoming ships flying his private flag. The 
16 rooms contain a wealth of intricate wood carving. Much of the 
original wallpaper remains, and careful restoration has preserved to a 
remarkable extent the features of construction and decoration that 
characterized the house when it was home to a wealthy merchant and 
civic leader of 18th-century New England. The mansion's historical 
collection includes original letters, diaries, account books, and genealogi- 
cal records of old Marblehead. 22 

1 3. King's Chapel, Massachusetts 

Location. School and Tremont Streets, Boston. 

Ownership and Administration. King's Chapel Society, Boston. 

Significance. King's Chapel is an outstanding specimen of the work of 
Peter Harrison of Newport. It was the first important building in British 
America to be built of cut stone, providing the first recorded use of Quincy 
granite in its construction, 1 749-54. Harrison took his design details for 
the most part from the Book of Architecture by James Gibbs, English 
master of the mid-Georgian style. The interior has been called by one 
authority "without question the finest of Georgian church architecture 
in the Colonies." 23 The architect intended that a tower with a lofty 
spire should surpass those on London churches of the period, but it was 
never built. 

The massive stone walls of King's Chapel form a rectangle about 65 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 

[ 101 

by 100 feet. The chapel was built around an earlier wooden structure 
that was the first Anglican church permanently established in New 
England. When the stone church was completed in 1754, the earlier 

King's Chapel in Boston, built in 1749-54, is a superb example of the work 
of Peter Harrison. 

wooden building was taken apart and its pieces removed through the 
arched windows of the new church. 

Harrison's plan for King's Chapel included a front porch with stone 
Ionic columns, 25 feet high, to be crowned by an elaborate balustrade. 
These details were not added until 1785-87 and were done in wood 
rather than stone. The most striking feature of the interior is the series 
of Corinthian columns projecting in pairs to divide the elaborately 
paneled gallery fronts. 

After the evacuation of Boston by the British in 1776, King's Chapel 
was finally separated from the Church of England and for a time was 
called simply the "Stone Chapel." The society that owns it now is an 
independent one, but it is regarded as the first church in the United 
States avowedly of the Unitarian fellowship. 

Present Appearance. King's Chapel has undergone little modification 


or alteration. The stone floor was laid over the original wooden one in 
the present century, and a sprinkler system has been installed in the attic 
and basement. An iron catwalk provides access to the copper roof at the 
eaves to facilitate removal of ice, which was formerly a serious winter 
hazard on the School Street side of the building. The ice problem has 
now been overcome by the use of steam conductors at the edge of the 
roof. The interior contains a number of relics dating from the chapel's 
affiliation with the Anglican Church. These include the communion 
table and the chancel tablets given to the original church in 1696 by 
King William and Queen Mary. The raised pulpit also came from the 
earlier building, where it had been placed in 1718. The interior paint- 
ing reflects a period later than that of its original construction. The 
building is well preserved and in good condition. 24 

14. Lexington Green, Massachusetts 

Location. Massachusetts Avenue and Hancock Street, Lexington. 

Ownership and Administration. Town of Lexington. 

Significance. On Lexington Green on the morning of April 19, 1775, 
occurred the short but momentous skirmish between the minutemen 
and the British expeditionary force from Boston that initiated the 
struggle for American independence. Maj. John Pitcairn, command- 
ing the British, saw the minutemen confronting his column at Lexington 
Green and formed his troops in line of battle. Realizing the hopeless- 
ness of the situation, Capt. John Parker, commanding the Americans, 
ordered his men to file away, but before they could do so a British volley 
and a charge with the bayonet killed 8 of the Americans and wounded 
10 more. These were the first American fatalities in a war that would 
drag on for 8 years. 

Present appearance. Lexington Green and nearby Buckman Tavern 
have been preserved as historic sites since the Revolution, and by State 
legislation enacted in 1956 they now comprise one of three protected his- 
toric districts in Lexington. On the east side of the common, facing 
the road by which the British approached, Henry H. Kitson's famous 
statue of a minuteman stands on a pile of rocks over a stone fountain. 
The historic Revolutionary Monument, erected in 1799 to commemo- 
rate the eight minutemen killed here, occupies the southwest corner of 
the green, and behind it is a tomb to which the remains of the dead 
were moved from the old burying ground in 1835. Two inscribed 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [103 

boulders have also been placed on the green. One identifies the site 
of the old belfry, which was separate from the meetinghouse. The 
other, near the northwest corner, marks one flank of Captain Parker's 
line. It bears, in addition to designs of musket and powder horn, 
Parker's immortal words : "Stand your ground. Don't fire unless fired 
upon. But if they mean to have a war, let it begin here." Lexington 
Green and its monumentation recall vividly the opening military event 
of the American Revolution. 25 

15. Massachusetts Hall, Massachusetts 

Location. Harvard University Campus, Cambridge. 

Ownership and Administration. Harvard University. 

Significance. Erected between 1718 and 1720, Massachusetts Hall 
is the oldest surviving building of the first colonial institution for higher 
learning. As such, it possesses great significance not only in the history 
of American education but also in the story of the developing English 
Colonies of the 1 8th century. 

Harvard College was founded in 1636, although it did not receive 
its name and begin its active existence until 2 years later. Even though 
the founding and early years of the college belong to the 17 th century, 
Masachusetts Hall, built in the early years of the 18th century, illustrates 
notably the striving for intellectual development and the first groping 
toward education liberalism in the century that saw the Colonies be- 
come the United States of America. Although a leading function of 
Harvard was to supply clergymen for the Colonies, its graduates in fact 
entered all walks of colonial life. The liberal arts course was patterned 
on that of Oxford and Cambridge, both of which recognized degrees 
from Harvard. The college was the site of the first laboratory for 
experimental physics prior to the Revolution, and it developed a strong 
curriculum in mathematics and physical sciences. Most of the students 
in the 1 8th century came from New England, but the college rolls reveal 
also a scattering of young men from more southerly mainland Colonies, 
Bermuda, and the West Indies. 

Massachusetts Hall was designed by Harvard Presidents John Leverett 
and his successor Benjamin Wadsworth. It was originally a dormitory 
containing 32 chambers and 64 small private studies for the 64 students 
it was designed to house. During the siege of Boston, 640 American 
soldiers took quarters in the hall. Much of the interior woodwork and 


hardware, including brass doorknobs, disappeared at this time. 

Present Appearance. The building has three full stories with a 
fourth under the broad gambrel roof. "The walls are plainly treated," 
Hugh Morrison has commented, "marked only by brick belt courses 
between stories; the brick masonry is laid in English bond below the 
water table and in Flemish bond above, except at the ends where there 
is a mixture of English and common bonds. The simple mass and 
heavy woodwork of the windows give a very satisfactory effect of solidity, 
and it is this effect — an early Georgian simplicity and weight — which 
has been sought in the recent buildings of Harvard." 26 

16. Old North Church (Christ Church in Boston), Massachusetts 

Location. 193 Salem Street, Boston. 

Ownership and Administration. Corporation of Christ Church in the 
City of Boston. 

Significance. Old North Church was built in 1723 by William Price, 
a book and print seller of Boston, from designs based on Christopher 
Wren's great London churches. Historically and architecturally, it 
is one of the Nation's most cherished landmarks. The signal lanterns 
hung in the church belfry— "One, if by land, and two, if by sea," as 
Longfellow put it — were not intended for Paul Revere, who had 
arranged for the signal. Nevertheless, despite the almost legendary 
quality of the story today, the lanterns did hang in the belfry on the 
night of April 18 to alert patriots on the opposite side of the Charles 
River that British troops were moving out of Boston by water. In 
addition to its role as a signal station on the eve of the Revolution, 
Old North possesses further distinction as Boston's oldest surviving 
church. With the adjacent equestrian statue of Paul Revere, it is 
a memorable evocation of the night when the call to arms went out 
and the War for Independence began. 

Present Appearance. Old North Church was built of brick walls 
laid in English bond 51 feet wide and 70 feet long, with two tiers of 
arched windows. A projecting square brick tower nearly 100 feet high 
was added to the original structure in 1724-37 and topped by a wooden 
steeple 191 feet high in 1740. This first steeple was blown down in 
1 804 and replaced several years later by a similar one possibly designed 
by Charles Bulfinch. The second tower was toppled by a hurricane on 
August 31, 1954, and has since been replaced. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [105 

The interior is particularly valuable as an early example of the then- 
new "church" plan of a two-storied structure, with longitudinal aisles 
separating the groups of box pews, in contrast to the 17th-century 
"meetinghouse" plan that had a raised pulpit on one long side of the 
building with galleries at the other three sides. The origin of the new 
plan in Wren designs is shown also by the use to support the galleries 
of superimposed pillars, the lower square and the upper fluted. 

The interior was restored carefully and thoroughly in 1912-14, when 
a number of 19th-century alterations were eliminated. A stone tablet 
placed on the tower in 1878 identifies it as the place where the signal 
lanterns burned on the night of April 18, 1775. The church is well 
maintained, although its crowded surroundings detract from the setting 
and constitute a fire hazard to the building. More than 200,000 people 
visit the landmark annually. 27 

1 7. Old South Meeting House, Massachusetts 

Location. Milk and Washington Streets, Boston. 

Ownership and Administration. Old South Association, Boston. 

Significance. Old South Meeting House — the "Sanctuary of Free- 
dom" — belongs to two distinct triumvirates of historic buildings in Bos- 
ton. The first group is made up of outstanding religious edifices from 
the colonial period, and includes Christ Church and King's Chapel. 
The second group is made up of structures that gained a lasting 
place in the American heritage as scenes of public assembly and de- 
liberation in the stirring period of the Revolutionary movement. In 
the latter group Old South, because of its large seating capacity, 
shared distinction with the Second Boston Town House and Faneuil 
Hall. In many instances the last two could not accommodate certain 
mass gatherings that were the prelude to the final break with England. 
The mass protest meetings that gave Old South lasting fame took place 
during the tumultuous interval between the passage of the Townshend 
Acts in 1767 and the outbreak of war in 1775. 

The first in the series of significant assemblies in Old South was held 
on June 14 and 15, 1768, when public feeling ran high immediately 
after the liberty riots and the ill-advised attempt by a captain of the 
British Navy to impress Yankee sailors in Boston Harbor. In this in- 
stance, the Colonials were somewhat mollified by the intercession of the 
Governor and the assurance that the Navy would be more cautious in 


seeking men for service. Not quite 2 years later the Boston Massacre 
(March 5, 1770) brought an inflamed throng of citizens to the Old 
South Meeting House. A committee headed by Samuel Adams, fresh 
from a conference with British officials concerning the removal of the 
redcoats from Boston, reported to the people on the afternoon after the 
"massacre" in King Street. Master James Lovell of Boston Latin School 
delivered the first anniversary oration commemorating the Boston Mas- 
sacre in Old South. 

The most significant of the gatherings were the antitea meetings which 
led to the Boston Tea Party on the night of December 16, 1773. The 
1775 anniversary observance of the Boston Massacre was the last and 
most eventful such assemblage in Old South. Dr. Joseph Warren is 
supposed to have entered through the window behind the pulpit to 
avoid the British officers who had crowded the aisles and seated them- 
selves on the pulpit steps, presumably hoping to break up the meeting. 

During the siege of Boston, the Old South congregation dispersed, 
many of the members seeking refuge outside town. The church par- 
sonage nearby was torn down by British troops and its material used 
as firewood. Old South's brick construction probably saved it from a 
similar fate, although most of its interior furnishings were used for fuel 
and the building turned into a riding school for British cavalry. This 
unhappy period ended with the evacuation of the British Army in March 
1776. The congregation slowly reassembled and, in 1783, restored the 
interior much as it had been half a century earlier. 

Old South, a large structure for its day, was built in 1729-30 
for Third Church, the third body of Congregationalists to be orga- 
nized in Boston. This group had gathered in 1669 to protest the nar- 
rower views of the congregation of North Church. In 1717 a new body 
of Congregationalists had taken the name "New South Church." To 
keep its identity clear, Third Church was called "Old South," the 
name it bears today. The new meetinghouse of brick, replacing an 
earlier wooden church, was designed by Robert Twelves and laid up 
in Flemish bond by Joshua Blanchard, a master mason who was later 
to win even higher recognition as the builder of the Thomas Hancock 
House on Beacon Hill and the original Faneuil Hall. The exterior of 
the new meetinghouse showed a marked reflection of the new Georgian 
style. It had two tiers of arched windows and a projecting tower in 
front, with a spire rising from an octagonal base. The interior plan is 
typical of a 17th-century New England meetinghouse, consisting of a 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [107 

side entrance with a central aisle leading across the auditorium to a 
high pulpit at the middle of the opposite long side. Galleries extended 
around the other three sides, with a second gallery added over the first 
at the east end. 

When the interior of the meetinghouse was restored after the Revo- 
lution, the original design was generally followed, although subsequent 
repairs and improvements reflected the styles and taste of the early 
Republic. A number of changes occurred during the 19th century 
until, in the great fire of 1872, a considerable area around the meeting- 
house was burned, with some damage to the building itself. Because 
of the removal of many of its members to the developing Back Bay 
area, the congregation decided in 1874 to move to a new building at 
the corner of Boyleston and Dartmouth Streets. Having no further 
use for the old house, the congregation decided to tear down the building 
and sell the valuable land on which it stood. When demolition started, 
however, public sentiment was aroused to save the structure. The 
outcome was the purchase of the meetinghouse for $400,000 by a com- 
mittee of citizens. In the next few years the growth of the Old South 
preservation fund assured the success of this early undertaking in the 
cause of historical preservation. 

After necessary repairs had been made, Old South became a historical 
museum. Of particular note was its role as headquarters for the Old 
South work in history and the program of publication of the extensive 
series of Old South leaflets covering a broad range of American history. 

Present Appearance. Old South Meeting House has been maintained 
in a satisfactory state of repair and some efforts at restoration have been 
undertaken with the limited financial resources of the Old South Asso- 
ciation. Box pews, for instance, have been installed again on the floor 
of the auditorium. 28 

18. Paul Revere House, Massachusetts 

Location. 19 North Square, Boston. 

Ownership and Administration. Paul Revere Memorial Association, 
19 North Square, Boston. 

Significance. Although it has been restored extensively, the Paul 
Revere House retains its original framework and, in addition to its sig- 
nificance as the home of a leading Revolutionary patriot, is important 
as downtown Boston's only surviving 17th-century dwelling. It was 

The Paul Revere House, built soon after the Boston fire of 1676, was the 
patriot's home from before the Revolution until 1800. Restoration of the 
house reflects its 17th-century origin. Courtesy, Boston National Historic 
Sites Commission. 

occupied by Paul Revere for about 5 years before the outbreak of the 
Revolution and was his home until 1800. The original portion of the 
house was built, probably by John Jeffs, soon after the Boston fire of 
1676, on the site of the Increase Mather Parsonage. Architectural 
investigation indicates that the house was originally of the simple and 
characteristic 1 7th-century hall or one-room plan with an end chimney, 
of 23/2 stories, but when Revere moved into it almost a century later 
it had probably been enlarged to three full stories. In the 19th century, 
after Revere's death, the dwelling degenerated into a tenement and 
store and was considerably altered. In 1908 it was studied and restored 
by Architect Joseph Everett Chandler, who worked to preserve it as an 
example of a 1 7th-century urban house. This architectural significance, 
in addition to intimate association with the patriot and craftsman, 
Paul Revere, make the house a treasured landmark in downtown Boston. 
Present Appearance. The Paul Revere House consists of the main 
portion, fronting on North Square, and an early kitchen ell at the rear. 
It was through the back door in the kitchen ell that Revere probably 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 109 

passed for his famous ride on the night of April 18, 1 775. North Square 
was full of British soldiers, and the front door would not have been safe. 
The main house has a deeply recessed fireplace in the hall and a small 
porch and winding stair in front of the chimney. The ceiling of the 
large room or hall is spanned by two summer beams. The main 
house has the characteristic 17th-century overhang, and the pendants, 
windows, front door, and roof have been restored in the 17th-century 
fashion, but the second-floor chamber is plastered, paneled, and painted 
as it might have been when occupied by the Reveres. The house is 
well maintained and is open to the public. 29 

1 9. Second Boston Town House (Old State House), Massachusetts 

Location. Washington and State Streets, Boston. 

Ownership and Administration. City of Boston; custody vested in 
the Bostonian Society. 

Significance. In the troubled years prior to the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence in 1776, the Second Boston Town House was the scene of 
proceedings of greater moment than those at any other building in 
the Thirteen Colonies. In February 1761 James Otis struck sparks 
here that helped to ignite the Revolutionary movement with his impas- 
sioned argument against the legality of writs of assistance. Of this 
occasion John Adams wrote: "Then and there the child Independence 
was born." The building figured prominently in the Stamp Act riots 
and in the affray later called the Boston Massacre, March 5, 1770. 

It was erected in 1712-13 to replace an earlier structure of wood 
completed in 1658 and destroyed in the great fire of October 2-3, 1711. 
The Second Town House, like its predecessor, served a variety of pur- 
poses for the Province, for Suffolk County, and for the town of Boston. 
The second building was itself destroyed by fire on December 9, 1747, 
and was rebuilt the following year, utilizing the walls that had survived 
the fire. 

Almost from the day of its completion, the Second Town House 
was the center of political activity and controversy in the Province of 
Massachusetts Bay. Representatives of the Crown came into conflict 
here with the deputies of the people in the house of representatives, 
whose membership was popularly chosen in the town meeting. In 
the Second Town House Gov. William Shirley worked out his plan 
for the expedition to capture the French fortress of Louisburg on Cape 

689-192 0-64— 10 


Breton Island, one of the most notable military operations of the colo- 
nial period. Upon the return of the expedition in July 1745, its com- 
manders were honored by a ceremony at the Second Town House. In 
1766 the house of representatives voted to install a gallery for the accom- 
modation of visitors, a noteworthy step forward in the democratic pro- 
cedure of legislative assemblies opening their doors to the public. As 
the people of Boston grew increasingly restless, British General Gage 
was sworn into office as military governor in the council chamber of the 
town house. On June 7, 1774, Gage moved the final session of the 
general court to Salem, and the town house ceased to be the seat of 
popular representation until legislators of the new State government 
returned in November 1776. The town house then became the state 

With the completion of Charles Bulfinch's new statehouse, the mem- 
bers of the legislature on January 11, 1798, marched in a body from the 
old structure to the new. In 1803 the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts sold its interest in the building to the town of Boston, and the 
counties of Suffolk and Norfolk followed suit. For more than a quarter 
of a century the building housed private offices and served as a Masonic 
meeting hall. In 1830 Boston appropriated space in the building for 
a city hall. While rehabilitating the building for this purpose the 
architects introduced new details and made alterations. The changes 
made at this time and perpetuated in work done later, when the build- 
ing was rescued from oblivion and rededicated in 1882, largely obliter- 
ated the features that had given it identity with the period of the stormy 
movement toward revolution. 

Present Appearance. Ill-conceived attempts at restoration have 
marred seriously the interior of the Second Town House. The present 
plan of the all-important second floor has a circular foyer in the center, 
opening onto four small rooms and into corridors that lead to the rep- 
resentatives' hall at one end of the building and the council chamber at 
the other. Architects and historians have shown that in the building's 
most important period, 1766 to 1776, the representatives' chamber was 
in the center of the second floor. The restoration of the second floor 
would be very desirable, as well as that of the ground floor and base- 
ment, which contain a subway entrance and exit. The building is 
occupied by the Bostonian Society and is open to the public under the 
auspices of this group. 30 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 

[ HI 

20. Shirley-Eustis House, Massachusetts 

Location. 31-37 Shirley Street, Roxbury. 

Ownership and Administration. Shirley-Eustis House Association, 
% Director, Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, 
141 Cambridge Street, Boston. 

Significance. This house was built for William Shirley, eminent colo- 
nial figure of the generation preceding the Revolution. Shirley was the 
Royal Governor of Massachusetts Bay, 1741 to 1756, and his imposing 
home, built about 1747, became a colonial showplace. Governor Shir- 
ley personally organized the expedition that captured the French fortress 
of Louisburg in 1745. After the death of British General Braddock in 
1755, he was named commander of British forces in North America. 
In 1761 he was appointed Governor of the Bahamas. He returned 
to his country seat at Roxbury in 1 769 and died there on March 24, 1771. 

The proposed restoration of the Shirley-Eustis House, Roxbury, as pictured 
in this drawing, would give this distinguished dwelling the setting merited 
by its historic and architectural significance. Courtesy, Boston National 
Historic Sites Commission. 




f Y MASS. 




EVm t> r s. i- x i \ t- 


The house, often called Shirley Place, was confiscated during the 
Revolution and used by the patriots as a barracks and hospital during 
the siege of Boston. Thereafter the property passed through several 
hands until it was purchased in 1819 by Dr. William Eustis. He had 
been a surgeon in the Revolutionary War and was twice elected Gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts. He made a number of alterations in the 
building, adding a broad staircase in the salon. 

Present Appearance. Manifestly Georgian in design, the Shirley- 
Eustis House is a 3j/ 2 -story structure framed in solid oak, with hipped 
roof and a cupola. The facades are adorned by giant pilasters, the first 
in New England except for the Hutchinson House in Boston. A large 
salon, two stories high, divides the house and was used for State banquets 
and receptions. The high stone basement contained kitchens and offices. 
The house was sold in 1867 and moved 30 feet in order to lay out Shirley 
Street. Before rescue by the Shirley-Eustis House Association in 1911, 
it had been cut up into tenements and its original rural setting wholly 
destroyed by streets and unsightly buildings crowding upon it. In recent 
years the house has been kept in a state of temporary repair pending defi- 
nite plans for restoration. The interior is not furnished, and the entire 
building is in urgent need of repairs. Although the Shirley-Eustis House 
Association has been unable to do more than provide the most necessary 
preservation, it has made the house available for architectural investiga- 
tion. Much has been learned about the changes in the structure from the 
period of Governor Shirley to that of Governor Eustis, and most of the 
changes after 1867 have been removed. The house is protected by a resi- 
dent caretaker who occupies quarters in the basement story. 31 

21 . Wrights Tavern, Massachusetts 

Location. Center of Concord on Lexington Road. 

Ownership and Administration. Society of the First Parish, Concord. 

Significance. Wright's Tavern stood in the center of Concord. With 
the public meetinghouse on one side and the militia training ground on 
the other, it was a favorite resort of Concord's leading citizens for both 
business and pleasure, and thus played an important role in the trans- 
action of the town's civil and military business. Built in 1 747 by Ephraim 
Jones, who operated it until 1751, the tavern was managed during the 
portentous days of April 1 775 by Amos Wright, whose name it has borne 
ever since. On April 19, when the courthouse bell announced the ap- 

Wright's Tavern, built in 1747 at Concord, played a colorful role in events 
leading up to the War for Independence, and in the fighting which marked 
the war's first day. 

proach of Major Pitcairn's British troops, the Concord minutemen 
assembled at Wright's Tavern. Later, after Pitcairn's arrival in the 
public square, the British officers took refreshments in the tavern. As the 
scene of these events, the tavern has important associations with the 
opening military episode of the Revolution. 

It also has associations with the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts 
Bay which met next door, in the First Parish Church, in October 1774. 
This congress, with John Hancock as president and Benjamin Lincoln 
as secretary, consisted of 300 delegates from Massachusetts towns who 
passed measures ending taxpayments to the Crown and organizing a 
militia force to defy the King by arms if necessary. Wright's Tavern 
was used as a meeting place for committees of the Congress during the 
5 -day session, and also provided refreshments for the delegates. 

Present Appearance. With red clapboards and monitor or double- 
hipped roof, low-studded Wright's Tavern is still in good condition. 
Until recently it functioned in its original role as a public house. Since 
the Revolution, however, it has seen many uses and was finally saved from 
a doubtful future by the efforts of the Society of the First Parish and 
the generosity of two of Concord's public-spirited citizens. 3 '" 

The Macpheadris- Warner House, Portsmouth, N.H., is one of New Eng- 
land's finest urban brick dwellings of the early 18th century. 

22. Macpheadris-Warncr House, New Hampshire 

Location. Corner of Chapel and Daniels Streets, Portsmouth. 

Ownership and Administration. The Warner House Association, 

Significance. This house was built about 1716 by Archibald Mac- 
pheadris, a wealthy merchant of Portsmouth, and is typical of the superior 
early Georgian homes of New England. It is commonly known in 
Portsmouth as the Warner House, after Jonathan Warner, who married 
Captain Macpheadris' daughter. Warner, a figure of note in his own 
right, played an important role in town and provincial affairs. The 
house descended to Warner's niece, Mrs. Nathaniel Sherburne, and re- 
mained in her family until 1931, when it was purchased by the Warner 
House Association. The mansion is probably the oldest brick dwelling 
in Portsmouth and architecturally is one of New England's most signifi- 
cant urban brick dwellings surviving from the early 18th century. 

Present Appearance. The Macpheadris-Warner House has been 
spared major changes and retains a profusion of original construction 
details. It is three stories high, with brick walls 18 inches thick. The 
brickwork is exposed except on the south end wall, which is clapboarded. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [115 

The plain exterior is enhanced by a 12-panel door. Beneath the present 
roof, topped by balustrades and an octagonal cupola, have been dis- 
covered two parallel gabled roofs that originally covered the house. The 
deep cleft between these parallel roofs was later covered by a low-pitched 
roof to make the present gambrel treatment. The interior arrangement 
is on the center-hall plan. On the ground floor the kitchen and dining 
room are on one side of the hall and the parlor and a small chamber on 
the other. A small scullery extends from the rear of the kitchen. Among 
the unusual features of the interior are a unique set of frescoes on the walls 
of the staircase and a very early marbleized wood panel, which was a 
guide for the restoration of the other panels in the dining room. Among 
the furnishings is a series of five portraits of members of the Warner 
family painted by Blackburn in 1761. Many of the furnishings are on 
loan from a number of outstanding collections, including the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art in New York. The house is now well maintained 
by the association and is open to the public during the summer. 33 

23. Monmouth Battlefield, New Jersey 

Location. N.J. 522 northwest of Freehold, Monmouth County. 

Ownership and Administration. Privately owned farmland, public 
roads, and abandoned line of Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Significance. The Battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778, marked the 
debut of the American Army after the hard winter's training at Valley 
Forge. Although Washington failed in his design to thwart the British 
movement across New Jersey, this last major battle in the North demon- 
strated to both sides that the Prussian drillmaster, "Baron" Frederick 
von Steuben, had succeeded in molding an American Army that was able 
to meet the British on even terms. 

On June 18, 1778, British Gen. Sir Henry Clinton abandoned Phila- 
delphia and headed toward the Jersey coast, where he planned to em- 
bark his 10,000 men and return to New York by water. Washington, 
his army now numbering about 14,000 men, pursued. Against the ad- 
vice of most of his lieutenants, he determined to attack Clinton and 
his vulnerable wagon train. The American striking force, commanded 
by Gen. Charles Lee, was poorly managed and after a feeble blow at 
the enemy near Monmouth Courthouse fell back on the main army 
led by Washington. Enraged, Washington peremptorily relieved the 
erratic Lee and took over the conduct of the battle in the face of a strong 


[ 116 

British counterattack. The fighting raged throughout the day with 
sun and 100° temperature taking almost as heavy a toll as gunfire. 
Neither side would yield. The fighting raged back and forth in the 
fields and swamps between Old Tennent Church and the little settle- 
ment around Monmouth Courthouse. The engagement stands as the 

A survivor from pre-Revolutionary times, the Old Tennent Church is a 
reference point for tracing the actions of the Battle of Monmouth, fought 
on the slope southeast of the church on June 28, 1778. 

longest sustained action of the Revolutionary War. Clinton pulled 
away and made his escape during the night, his precious wagon train 
intact. Washington failed to prevent Clinton's escape, but he had 
demonstrated his own superb qualities of leadership and the new prowess 
of the army created in the misery of Valley Forge. 

Present Appearance. The present town of Freehold, which in 1778 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [117 

consisted of a courthouse and a few scattered dwellings, is a modern com- 
mercial city. The area northeast of Freehold, where General Lee's ini- 
tial attack was made, has been largely built up and the character of the 
wartime scene lost, although the preliminary movements of the two 
armies can still be followed on the ground. In contrast is the remark- 
ably open and unspoiled condition of the major scene of battle north- 
west of town. The battle area, about lJ/ 2 by 3 miles in extent, has 
undergone superficial change, but despite widening of fields and drain- 
ing of swamps the terrain has retained its historical character to an 
unusual degree. One of the traditions that arose from the battle of 
Monmouth is the story of Molly Pitcher, who carried water to her hus- 
band and other artillerymen during the sweltering day of battle. Two 
places on the battlefield are marked as sites of the Molly Pitcher Spring. 
Of much greater significance as a historical landmark and survivor of 
the battle is the fine Old Tennent Church, dating from 1751. The 
battlefield slopes away southeast to the town of Freehold, from the high 
ground on which the church stands. The building serves as a hand- 
somely preserved point of reference for tracing the combat action. The 
wartime road from nearby Englishtown to Monmouth Courthouse, em- 
ployed by the Americans in their approach on Monmouth, passes near 
the church. Six farms are included in the battle area, and several 
houses of the Revolutionary period still stand on the field, including 
the Craig House, now much in need of restoration. 

Although never accorded formal preservation, Monmouth Battle- 
field is one of the best preserved of the Revolutionary War battlefields. 
It has survived by accident, not design; however, at this writing the 
State of New Jersey is planning a State Park for the area. 34 

24. Nassau Hall, New Jersey 

Location. Princeton University, Princeton. 

Ownership and Administration. Princeton University. 

Significance. Nassau Hall was the first important college building in 
the Middle Atlantic Colonies and the first permanent building at Prince- 
ton University, which was founded in 1746 as the College of New 
Jersey. Although established by Presbyterian churchmen, the college 
was not intended for the education of clergymen only. The founders 
emphasized that the principle of religious freedom would be observed 
carefully. In 1752 the college was formally located at Princeton, and 



2 years later ground was broken for Nassau Hall, named to honor 
the memory of King William III of the House of Nassau. Seventy 
undergraduates moved into Nassau Hall in the autumn of 1756, and 
for almost half a century thereafter it was the only college building, con- 
taining dormitory, dining room, chapel, and classrooms. 

Nassau Hall provided sleeping and dining accommodations as well as chapel 
and classrooms for the entire student body of the College of New Jersey 
(now Princeton University), from 1756 for almost half a century. Cour- 
tesy, Princeton University. 

Nassau Hall served on occasion during the Revolution as a barracks 
and hospital for both British and American troops. It was the scene 
of the last stand of the British in the Battle of Princeton. From June 
to November 1783, the Continental Congress convened in Nassau Hall, 
receiving there the news of the signing of the treaty that ended the 
Revolution. Here also the first diplomatic representative accredited to 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [119 

the new Nation was received, the Minister of the Netherlands. The 
hall has been visited by scores of distinguished public figures in the course 
of its long history, including Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Lafayette, 
the Adamses, and virtually every other President of the United States. 

As an outstanding example of the growth of educational facilities in 
the Colonies, and as the principal edifice of an institution that has played 
a major role in the cultural growth of the Nation, Nassau Hall is a 
notable historical resource. 

Present Appearance. The building was designed by Robert Smith and 
Dr. William Shippen, of the Carpenters Company of Philadelphia. A 
central pavilion, topped by a pediment, breaks the 1 70-foot facade, and 
three doors lead to corridors separating the various classrooms and offices. 
Brownstone dug from a nearby quarry makes up the walls, which are 
unadorned except for the quoined and corniced entrances and the keyed 
flat arch lintels of the windows on the first two stories. A cupola and 
many chimneys crown the low-pitched hipped roof. The simple, solid 
lines appear to have influenced the design of later college buildings else- 
where, including Hollis Hall at Harvard (1762-63), University Hall at 
Brown (1770-71), and Dartmouth Hall at Dartmouth (1784-91). 

Nassau Hall was damaged during the Battle of Princeton and vir- 
tually destroyed by fires in 1802 and 1855. The fire of March 6, 1802, 
left only the walls standing. The architect for the reconstruction was 
Benjamin H. Latrobe. On March 10, 1855, Nassau Hall was destroyed 
again by a fire that left only the walls standing. The building was re- 
constructed and reopened on August 7, 1856, reflecting architectural 
changes more drastic than those of 1802. Architect John Notman's 
rebuilding employed a pseudo-Renaissance design of massive character. 

Memorial Hall, in the center of the building, was installed after 
World War I to honor Princetonians killed in all wars. It was altered 
after World War II. The bronze tigers flanking the main entrance of 
Nassau Hall were executed by A. Phemister Proctor and were presented 
in 1911 by the class of 1879, a member of which was Woodrow Wilson. 
Nassau Hall is now used solely for administrative offices. 35 

25. Princeton Battlefield, New Jersey 

Location. N.J. 583, south edge of Princeton, Mercer County. 
Ownership and Administration. Department of Conservation and 
Economic Development, Forests and Parks Section, State of New Jersey. 


Significance. Washington's victory at Princeton on January 3, 1777, 
like that at Trenton a week earlier, heightened the morale of the Ameri- 
can Army as well as that of the citizens, and strengthened the reputation 
and authority of Washington himself. The twin victories of Trenton 
and Princeton came at a time when the spirits of the American people 
had reached a dangerously low ebb, when another defeat might have 
been fatal to the cause of independence. The situation brightened with 
these successes at the year's end, and from every corner militiamen 
flocked to the colors. A new Continental Army emerged. 

Following his defeat of the Hessians at Trenton on December 26, 1776, 
Washington returned to the Pennsylvania side of the Delaware River. 
Safely across, he determined to hit the enemy again and returned to New 
Jersey on the night of December 30-31. Lord Charles Cornwallis, 
British commander in New Jersey, took a position confronting Washing- 
ton, who stood with his back to the Delaware. Confident that the rebels 
could not escape, Cornwallis decided to wait until morning to strike the 
Americans. In a daring maneuver, Washington slipped away in the 
night, got in the rear of the British forces, and early on January 3 struck 
two British regiments just leaving Princeton to join Cornwallis. In the 
sharp fight that followed, several American assaults were thrown back 
in confusion. For a time the Army appeared on the verge of defeat, 
but Washington rallied his forces and finally drove the enemy from the 
field. One detachment of the enemy sought refuge in Princeton's Nassau 
Hall, where it was easily captured. The 15-minute fight at Princeton 
cost the Americans 40 killed and wounded, including Gen. Hugh 
Mercer, who died of wounds shortly after the battle. 

Present Appearance. The scene of heaviest fighting in the battle is 
preserved in a 40-acre State park on the southern outskirts of Princeton. 
A handsome oak tree marks the spot that tradition identifies as the place 
where General Mercer received his death wound. The Clarke House at 
the edge of the battlefield was the scene of Mercer's death. A memorial 
arch on the west edge of the field marks the site where unknown Ameri- 
can dead were buried in unmarked graves. The battlefield tract is 
surrounded by urban housing but, because of the small-scale nature of 
the action, the 40 acres of the field now preserved is sufficient to protect 
the scene. The park is undeveloped and there is as yet no attempt to 
interpret on the field the action that occurred there. Of the sites of the 
two crucial battles of Trenton and Princeton, only Princeton remains. 
The scene of the fighting at Trenton has been obliterated by the growth 

The "Mercer Oak" marks the traditional site where Gen. Hugh Mercer 
was mortally wounded in the Battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777. Cour- 
tesy, New Jersey Department of Conservation and Economic Development. 

of the city, although an extensively restored and altered barracks building 
dating from 1759 still stands. 36 

26. Washington Crossing, New Jersey and Pennsylvania 

Location. N.J. 546 on Delaware River south of Titusville, Mercer 
County, N.J.; Pa. 32 and 532, on Delaware River at community of 
Washington Crossing, Bucks County, Pa. 

Ownership and Administration. State of New Jersey, Department of 
Conservation and Economic Development, Forests and Parks Section; 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Forests and Waters, 
Washington Crossing State Park Commission. 

Significance. Washington's crossing of the Delaware River on Christ- 
mas night 1776, for the brilliant raid on Trenton, was a crucial episode 
in the struggle for independence. Despite an almost legendary character 
in the American tradition, the crossing was in fact a realistic and care- 


fully planned stroke designed to rescue a waning cause. Washington 
carried the war to the enemy by his daring act, and gave the new Nation 
and his often-defeated army a taste of victory at the war's lowest ebb. 

The close of 1776 found the cause of independence staggering under 
a succession of defeats. The Continental Congress had made provision 
for a long-term military force in October, but at the end of the year this 
establishment was on paper, not in the field where it was desperately 
needed. In his camp on the Pennsylvania side of the Delaware, Wash- 
ington realized that he must strike a blow at the enemy before his army 
melted away, and he determined to hit the Hessian garrison at Trenton. 
The American main force was ferried across the Delaware on the night 
of December 25 by Col. John Glover's hardy Marblehead fishermen, and 
in the bleak early morning hours assembled on the New Jersey shore for 
the march on Trenton, about 10 miles downstream. The surprise was 
complete, and within an hour and a half after the action opened the 
Hessians surrendered. Their loss was about 1,000 men captured, 
wounded, and killed, at a cost to the Americans of fewer than 10 casual- 
ties. Learning that the other column of his command had failed to 
cross the Delaware to join him, Washington returned to the Pennsylvania 
side of the river. A few days later he crossed again to New Jersey and 
defeated another enemy force at the battle of Princeton. A critical 
turning point was successfully passed, and valuable time won for the 
creation of the new military establishment. The epic crossing of the 
Delaware was a key to final victory. 

Present Appearance. On the Pennsylvania side of the Delaware, a 
well-maintained State park of 478 acres preserves the site of the embarka- 
tion of Washington's main force. On the riverbank is the old Ferry Inn, 
the present structure containing an ell which was part of the original 
ferryhouse of the Revolutionary period. Emanuel Leutze's famous 
painting, "Washington Crossing the Delaware," is displayed in the audi- 
torium of the handsome park memorial building. Whatever the 
artistic merits and historical accuracy of the picture, it constitutes an 
inspiring interpretation of the event in spirit if not in factual detail. The 
Washington Crossing Monument, erected in 1916, overlooks the em- 
barkation site. The Thompson-Neely House, headquarters of American 
officers in 1776, is at Bowman's Hill, a detached section of the park 4 
miles north of the crossing site. The older section of the house was built 
in 1702, and the building is furnished and open to the public. An old 
mill nearby, still standing, ground grain for the American Army. 

The McKonkey Ferryhouse overlooks the New Jersey bank of the Delaware 
River, where Washington's troops landed on Christmas night, 1776, for the 
surprise attack on Trenton. The general warmed himself here, according 
to tradition, before moving on to rout the Hessians. 

Beneath the memorial flagstaff are the graves of unknown American 
soldiers who died during the encampment of 1 776. The Bowman's Hill 
section of the park also contains a State wildflower preserve and a me- 
morial observation tower. 

On the New Jersey side of the river is a 372-acre State park preserving 
the scene of the landing above Trenton. A short distance from the 
riverbank is the McKonkey Ferryhouse, now a museum. An interesting 
park feature is the preserved trace of the old road used by the American 
Army in its march from the riverbank. Trees planted on either side of 
the "Continental Lane" preserve this historic roadway. 

The parks on either side of the Delaware, connected by an automobile 
bridge, constitute an outstanding preservation of a key site in the winning 
of American independence. 37 

Here at Bennington Battlefield, N.Y., American militia defeated a detach- 
ment of Burgoyne's invading army on August 16, 1777. This was a major 
setback to the English general's drive down the Hudson, foreshadowing the 
decisive American victory at Saratoga a few weeks later. Courtesy, New 
York State Education Department. 

27. Bennington Battlefield, New York 

Location. N.Y. 67, near Walloomsac, Rensselaer County. 

Ownership and Administration. State of New York, administered by 
New York State Education Department, Albany. 

Significance. The American militia's victory at the Battle of Ben- 
nington, August 16, 1777, was a significant contribution to the defeat 
of Burgoyne's British Army at Saratoga, 2 months later. The Battle of 
Bennington cost Burgoyne about 10 percent of his entire strength and 
denied the army supplies sorely needed for the planned offensive down 
the Hudson River. The British defeat greatly discouraged their uneasy 
Indian allies and encouraged militia enlistment in the American Army. 

General John Burgoyne, camped near Fort Edw r ard, N.Y., desperately 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 125 

needed supplies and horses for his descent upon Albany. Consequently, a 
force of some 800 men, mostly German mercenaries, was ordered to seize 
supplies stored at Bennington, Vt. Apprised of the enemy raid, Gen. 
John Stark aroused the countryside and on August 16 the farmers 
swarmed out to deal the Germans a crushing blow before they could 
cross the New York line into Vermont. Enemy reinforcements threat- 
ened to undo Stark's work, but timely help from Seth Warner and his 
Green Mountain Rangers threw back the relief column. The day's 
end found the foraging expedition virtually annihilated and Burgoyne's 
army in a more dangerous position than before. The shortage of sup- 
plies and loss of troops was to have a telling effect in the campaign 
around Saratoga, now about to open. 

Present Appearance. The 208-acre Bennington Battlefield State Park 
includes the scene of heaviest fighting on the high ground overlooking 
the little village of Walloomsac and affords a wide view of the battle 
terrain. A bronze relief map indicates the various units and their battle 
positions, while other monuments commemorate the service of the 
Vermont and Massachusetts volunteers and their leader, General Stark. 3S 

28. Fort Stanwix, New York 

Location. Downtown Rome; site bounded approximately by Domi- 
nick, Spring, Liberty, and North James Streets. 

Ownership and Administration. Owners of commercial and public 
buildings, and private dwellings. 

Significance. The stand by an American garrison at Fort Stanwix 
during August 1777 was chiefly responsible for the repulse of the western 
wing of the British invasion of the northern Colonies from Canada, and 
checked the possibility of a loyalist uprising in the Mohawk Valley. 
The retreat to Canada of the western column after its failure to take 
Fort Stanwix was a blow to the British strategy of concentration at 
Albany, contributing thereby to the defeat of Burgoyne at Saratoga a 
few months later. In addition to its role in the War for Independence, 
Fort Stanwix was the scene of the treaty of that name, signed on Novem- 
ber 5, 1768. By the Treaty of Fort Stanwix the Iroquois ceded a vast 
territory south and east of the Ohio River, as far west as the mouth of 
the Tennessee. The treaty thus cleared the way for a new and significant 
surge of westward settlement. 

689-192 0-64 — 11 


Fort Stanwix was situated at the Oneida Carrying Place, a key spot 
on the route between the Great Lakes and the Mohawk River, and was 
built originally during the French and Indian War but played no sig- 
nificant part in this conflict. It was reestablished in June 1776 (some- 
times called Fort Schuyler by the patriots) and garrisoned with perhaps 
as many as 800 men in time to block British invasion objectives in the 
Mohawk Valley in the summer of 1777. Gen. John Burgoyne advanced 
south from Canada along the Champlain route at this time, expecting 
to meet the main British Army under General Howe which he believed 
would move up to the Hudson. Col. Barry St. Leger with more than 
1,000 regulars, Tories, and Indians was to move down the Mohawk 
Valley to Albany and join the larger British forces there after rallying 
Tories and Indians on his route. 

St. Leger invested Fort Stanwix on August 3 but was rebuffed when 
he demanded its surrender. The action was limited to sniping until 
August 6 when the bloody battle was fought at Oriskany, some 6 miles 
to the east (see pp. 131-132), between St. Leger and an American 
militia force under Gen. Nicholas Herkimer. The patriots were badly 
mauled and did not succeed in raising the siege of Stanwix, but during 
the action a detachment from the fort raided the British position, de- 
stroying provisions and camp equipment. This encouraged the besieged, 
who held firm while St. Leger began formal siege operations. He had 
advanced his works to within 150 yards of the fort when word came of 
the approach of an American relief force under Gen. Benedict Arnold. 
Having lost the confidence and support of his Indian "allies," St. Leger 
was obliged to abandon the siege near the end of August, retiring in 
considerable disorder to Canada. Fort Stanwix still stood and the 
American Army on the Hudson could give its full attention to Burgoyne, 
who surrendered at Saratoga on October 17, 1777. 

Present Appearance. The site of Fort Stanwix occupies approx- 
imately a city block in the heart of Rome, and no physical evidence of 
the post is visible. The site is built over with roads, houses, and com- 
mercial developments. The remains of the fort were cleared away prior 
to the middle of the 19th century. Near the end of that century, after 
some controversy about the location, an effort was made to mark the 
outline at several points. Barring archeological investigation, it is diffi- 
cult to say how successfully this was done. Authenticating the precise 
location of the fort through archeology appears somewhat impractical in 
view of the extensive development on the site. 39 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 127 

29. Fort Ticonderoga, New York 

Location. N.Y. 8 and 9N, Ticonderoga, Essex County. 

Ownership and Administration. Fort Ticonderoga Association, Ti- 

Significance. Strategically located at the junction of Lake Champlain 
and Lake George, Fort Ticonderoga was the key to both Canada and 
the Hudson Valley in the 18th century. It saw more of the English- 
French struggle for North America than any other post, and its story is one 
of the most dramatic and colorful in American military annals. 

The first military post on the site was Fort Vaudreuil, later Fort Caril- 
lon, built by the French in 1755-57. On July 8, 1758, an army of 
15,000 British regular and colonial troops attacked the fort and was 
repulsed with heavy loss by the French under Montcalm. On July 27, 
1759, however, Gen. Jeffrey Amherst captured the fort and renamed it 
Ticonderoga. This loss by the French, coupled with British pressure 
elsewhere on the frontier between New France and the American 
Colonies, was a severe blow to French plans. The capture of Ticon- 
deroga gave the British undisputed possession of the strategically impor- 
tant Hudson River Valley. The French blew up part of the fort before 
they withdrew, and Amherst had repairs made in accordance with the 
original design. In the years between the defeat of France in North 
America and the outbreak of the Revolution, a small garrison manned 
the work. On May 10, 1775, Ethan Allen with 83 "Green Mountain 
Boys" surprised and defeated the few British defenders, and the 
post became a base for the projected advance on Canada. The follow- 
ing winter Col. Henry Knox hauled the fort's cannon overland to serve in 
the siege of Boston. Ticonderoga changed hands again when it fell to 
Burgoyne's British Army in the summer of 1777, but upon Burgoyne's 
defeat at Saratoga it again passed into American possession. Although 
reoccupied from time to time by scouting parties and raiding detach- 
ments, the post was never again garrisoned by a military force. 

In 1816 William F. Pell, a merchant of New York, leased the grounds 
and 4 years later bought them. In 1908 the late Stephen Pell began 
restoration. By the following year the west barracks had been opened 
to the public, and the work has gone forward since that time. At this 
writing only the east barracks have not been rebuilt. The task of re- 
construction was a major undertaking. Over the years the stones had 
been carted away by settlers for use as building materials. The upper 


part of the walls and most of the stone barracks disappeared, and the 
earth behind the walls washed over the remnants of the original walls. 
These remains were uncovered in the restoration that began in 1908. 
The present work was erected on the original foundations and utilized 
parts of walls that had survived. 

Present Appearance. The fort is four-sided with bastions extending 
from its four corners. Outlooks or demilunes on the north and west, and 
an outer wall on the south, cover the approaches. Facing the central 
parade ground are the reconstructed west and south barracks, the ruins 
of the still-to-be-restored east barracks, and the long rampart joining 
the northwest and northeast bastions. The west barracks houses the 
administrative office, a library, and, in the basement, the armory, featur- 
ing the most important part of the Fort Ticonderoga gun collection. In 
the south barracks are displayed many artifacts excavated in the course 
of the restoration; furnished quarters of the officer of the day; exhibits of 
furniture, household goods, and other items used by early settlers in 
the region; Indian relics; and a model of the fort as it existed in 1758. 
Below the walls are the remains of a French village that probably served 
the fort. Research on the village is underway. 40 

30. Johnson Hall, New York 

Location. Hall Street, one-quarter mile north of intersection with 
N.Y. 29, Johnstown, Fulton County. 

Ownership and Administration. Department of Education, State of 
New York, Albany. 

Significance. Johnson Hall was the home for the last 1 1 years of his 
life of Sir William Johnson, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the 
Northern Colonies and the foremost frontier leader of pre-Revolutionary 
New York. Johnson's powerful influence on the Iroquois was of decisive 
importance in defeating the French in North America and in advancing 
the English colonial frontier. He played a major role in opening the 
Mohawk Valley to white settlement and proved an able military leader 
in the closing years of the war that ended in the fall of New France. 
At the close of the conflict Johnson made a notable contribution to the 
transition from French to English rule. (See pp. 212, 213.) 

Johnson Hall was built in 1763 and became the center of British 
authority on the New York frontier. It was one of the most elaborate 
estates in the northern Colonies. Here most of the important Indian 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 


treaties of the latter colonial period were negotiated, and here Johnson 
entertained important officials from the Colonies and from abroad. In 
1774, during a conference with the Iroquois, Johnson died at his home. 

Johnson Hall was the home for the last 1 1 years of his life of Sir William 
Johnson, foremost frontier leader of pre-Revolutionary New York. The 
stone blockhouse at left, a rare example of its type, is one of two which 
originally flanked the house. 

His enlightened handling of Indian affairs, his wide range of intellectual 
interests, and his generally successful efforts in furthering peaceful white 
settlement of the region north of the Ohio River attest to Johnson's 
remarkable talents and energy. His role as an outstanding personage 
in America's colonial history is fittingly commemorated by the imposing 
dwelling where he spent the last years of his life. 

Present Appearance. Johnson Hall has undergone extensive repair 
and is in excellent condition. It is a rectangular frame building in 
Georgian style, with two stories, basement, and attic. The white rusti- 
cated siding and the ornamented cornices under eaves and over windows 
give the hou^e a dignified appearance in keeping with its owner's charac- 
ter and position. The interior, arranged with two rooms on either 
side of the wide, central hallway, upstairs and down, has been restored 


faithfully with furnishings that include a room of pieces belonging to the 
Johnson family. An inventory of the furnishings taken 3 weeks after 
Sir William's death made possible a highly authentic interior restora- 
tion. The stone blockhouse adjacent to Johnson Hall on the west is an 
original structure, one of two that guarded the home; it is the only sur- 
vivor in New York of this type of structure. Dioramas and other exhibits 
interpreting the life of the Johnsons are housed in the basement of the 
home, and a scale model of the original estate is displayed in the block- 
house. 41 

31. Morris-Jumel Mansion, New York 

Location. 1 60th Street and Edgecombe Avenue, Washington Heights, 
New York City. 

Ownership and Administration. City of New York, operated by 
Washington Headquarters Association, Daughters of the American Rev- 
olution, under direction of New York City Department of Parks. 

Significance. In addition to its distinction as the only important pre- 
Revolutionary house still standing in Manhattan, the Morris-Jumel 
Mansion is the major surviving landmark of the Battle of Harlem 
Heights. Although it was a small-scale affair, the important effects of 
the battle were immediately evident, including the restoration of the 
offensive spirit of the American Army following a succession of defeats 
and retreats. 

The Morris house served as the headquarters of Washington from 
September 14 to October 18, 1776. Following their victory of Long 
Island, the British occupied New York City easily on September 15, 
routing a portion of the American Army at Kip's Bay the same day. 
The Americans retreated to fortified lines on the heights north of present 
1 25th Street. In this vicinity the Battle of Harlem Heights was fought 
on September 1 6. Here, for the first time in the campaign, the patriots 
succeeded in forcing the British to give ground. Hoping to lure the 
enemy into ambush, Washington feinted an attack in front and sent a 
flanking party to catch the advancing enemy in a crossfire. The British 
withdrew, re-formed their battleline, resumed firing, and retreated again. 
As the fight went on, both commanders threw in more troops, and at 
about 2 o'clock in the afternoon the British withdrew again, this time to 
within a short distance of their massed reserve. Washington had no de- 
sire to bring on a general engagement and called off the advance, a 
difficult feat because of his army's reluctance to give up the unusual op- 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 131 

portunity of actually chasing the enemy. Lord Howe, surprised by the 
determined stand of the Americans, spent the next 4 weeks in fortifying 
his lines, leaving Washington to the comforts of his headquarters in the 
Morris Mansion. After Washington left the house it was occupied for 
the remainder of the war by General Clinton and other British officers. 

The Morris- Jumel Mansion was built by Lt. Col. Roger Morris in 
1765. Morris had come to America in 1746 and during the Braddock 
expedition in 1755 became a friend of Washington. A loyalist, Morris 
fled the country at the outbreak of the Revolution, and at the end of 
the war his house and land were confiscated and sold. In 1810 the 
house became the property of Stephen Jumel, and was restored in Fed- 
eral period style. After passing through a succession of owners the 
house was saved from demolition in 1903 when the City of New York 
purchased it for $235,000, and by special legislation gave its care to the 
Washington Headquarters Association of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution. This group restored the house and again in 1945 reno- 
vated and refurnished it. At the same time, the grounds were landscaped. 

Present Appearance. The white-painted house is mid-Georgian in 
design, built of brick encased in wood. The giant entrance portico has 
four columns two stories high, with a pediment at the top. The flat- 
tened top of the hip roof is surmounted by a balustrade. The spacious 
rooms are handsomely furnished in the styles of the late 18th and early 
19th centuries, in consideration of the two distinguished families that 
lived there at different periods. The earlier period is carried out on the 
lower floor, while the American Federal and French Empire of the 19th 
century is used upstairs, where furniture belonging to the Jumels is dis- 
played. The third-floor rooms, probably utilized formerly as guest cham- 
bers, house a collection of early American household utensils. The 
kitchen and servant quarters are in the basement. Of particular in- 
terest is a suite of three small rooms on the second floor, which served 
as Washington's quarters during his stay on Harlem Heights. The 
house is open to the public daily except Monday throughout the year. 42 

32. Oriskany Battlefield, New York 

Location. 5 miles east of Rome on N.Y. 69. 

Ownership and Administration. Education Department, State of 
New York. 

Significance. The battle of Oriskany on August 6, 1777, was the key 
to the success of the garrison at Fort Stanwix in holding out against the 


siege by Barry St. Leger (described on pp. 125-126), which thwarted 
the British invasion plan in the Mohawk Valley. General Burgoyne was 
thus deprived of reinforcements which might have prevented the neces- 
sity of his surrender at Saratoga later in the year. 

General Nicholas Herkimer was ambushed at Oriskany when he led 
a contingent of 800 Tryon County militiamen toward Fort Stanwix in 
an attempt to relieve the garrison. The patriot troops were green, and 
Herkimer was mortally wounded in the first fire, but they succeeded in 
holding the field. The British force was composed of both loyalists and 
Indians, and after a bloody struggle at close quarters the latter aban- 
doned the field to return to the lines around Fort Stanwix, whose garri- 
son had in the meantime come out to raid the British camps. 

Herkimer and his soldiers retreated, and he died 10 days later. The 
Battle of Oriskany and the siege of Fort Stanwix not only discouraged 
the British and their Indian "allies" but also demonstrated the courage 
and determination of the militiamen, standing in defense of their homes. 

Present Appearance. Gently rolling hills dropping away to the valley 
lands on the north preserve the scene of Herkimer's hard-fought battle, 
and a tall monument commemorates the action. Included in the site 
is the ravine between two low hills where the Indians and loyalists sprang 
their ambush. The heavy forest that covered the battlefield in 1777 
has disappeared, but the area has otherwise retained its natural features 
with a minimum of modern encroachments. Restoration of the field 
appears practicable. Oriskany State Park, containing the battlefield, is 
well maintained and offers picnic facilities. 43 

33. St. Paul's Chapel, New York 

Location. Broadway between Fulton and Vesey Streets, New York 

Ownership and Administration. Corporation of Trinity Church, 74 
Trinity Place, New York City. 

Significance. An outstanding example of Georgian architecture, St. 
Paul's Chapel stands serenely among the skyscrapers of modern New 
York, the city's sole surviving church of the colonial era. St. Paul's was 
erected in 1764-66 to serve as the chapel of First Trinity Church, which 
was destroyed in the great fire of 1776a few days after the British occupa- 
tion of the city. New York's royal Governor had a pew in St. Paul's, as 
did, during the Revolution, Lord Howe, Maj. John Andre, and other 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 1 33 

officers of the British army of occupation. After Washington's first 
inauguration, April 30, 1789, the Congress accompanied the new Presi- 
dent to St. Paul's for a special service. A painting of the arms of the 
United States now hangs above Washington's pew. 

Present Appearance. St. Paul's was designed by Thomas McBean, 
who took his inspiration from London's St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. The 
body of the church, built of native stone, is distinguished by two tiers of 
arched windows. The Ionic-columned portico and spire were added in 
1794-96, when the chancel was extended. The 220-foot spire was the 
work of Architect James C. Lawrence. The spacious interior is a center- 
barrel vault supported by slender columns, and has a gallery and gallery 
vaults on each side. The nave has been described as second only to that 
in King's Chapel, Boston, in architectural interest. In 1950, at a cost 
of $200,000, St. Paul's was restored to its colonial appearance. The 
wooden spire was reinforced with steel and the interior of the church 
was painted in white, gold, and blue. Fourteen Waterford glass chan- 
deliers hang from the vaulted ceiling. 44 

34. Stony Point Battlefield, New York 

Location. U.S. 9W and 202, north of community of Stony Point, 
Rockland County. 

Ownership and Administration. State of New York, administered by 
Palisades Interstate Park Commission, Bear Mountain. 

Significance. The small-scale battle at Stony Point, July 1 6, 1 779, was 
the last military action of importance in the northern theater of war. 
It was important as a morale builder for the patriots and as a demonstra- 
tion of the developing skill of the American Army, and it had other 
significant consequences. A recent study has noted that "the assault 
paralyzed Clinton [the British commander]. When his reinforcements 
failed to show up, he dared not, after his loss of men in Connecticut 
and at the [Stony] Point, make an offensive move." 45 By the action at 
Stony Point, Washington tightened his grip on the Hudson and especially 
on West Point, "the key to the Continent." 

The Battle of Stony Point came after the long period of stalemate in 
the North that followed the Battle of Monmouth in June 1778. At the 
beginning of June 1779, the British took without opposition the unfinished 
American fort at Stony Point, a few miles below West Point. Verplanck's 
Point, on the east side of the river opposite Stony Point, was captured at 



the same time. Stony Point is a steep promontory jutting half a mile into 
the Hudson River and rising 150 feet above the water, which all but 
surrounds it. A marsh, under water at high tide, protected the inland 
side of the post. Having secured this strong position, Clinton pushed the 
fortifications to completion and manned them with a garrison of about 
600 men. Washington was greatly concerned over the loss of the two 
strongpoints on either side of the river and after a thorough reconnais- 
sance ordered Gen. "Mad Anthony" Wayne to regain Stony Point. He 
moved in after dark on July 15, and at about midnight his elite corps 

"Mad" Anthony Wayne's Continentals stormed and captured this Hudson 
River promontory, Stony Point, on July 16, 1779. Washington's grip on the 
Hudson at West Point was thus assured. 

launched its assault with muskets unloaded and with orders to use the 
bayonet. Within 20 minutes the fort had been secured and its surprised 
garrison made prisoners. The American loss was 15 killed and 80 
wounded. Washington concluded that the post could not be held by his 
troops and ordered the fortifications dismantled and abandoned. The 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 135 

British reoccupied Stony Point but Clinton, alarmed by his losses, had 
lost heart for further offensive action. Washington had retained his grip 
on the Hudson River line and won time in which to fortify West Point 
more strongly than ever. 

Present Appearance. Stony Point Battlefield is preserved in a 45- 
acre State reservation. There are extensive earthwork remains, and 
historical markers trace the course of the American assault up the steep 
slopes into the fort. A small museum administered by the American 
Scenic and Historic Preservation Society contains relics of the battle and 
tells the story of the action. The point is heavily wooded, but foot 
trails give access to the important points of interest. A spectacular view 
of the Hudson River Valley may be had from the summit of the point.* 3 

35. Valcour Bay, New York 

Location. 7 miles south of Plattsburgh, between Valcour Island and 
west shore of Lake Champlain, Clinton County. 

Ownership and Administration. State of New York. 

Significance. Benedict Arnold's daring fleet action off Valcour Island 
on October 11, 1776, had a far-reaching effect on the outcome of the 
War of Independence. Although the American force was defeated, its 
very presence on the lake and its stubborn fight proved to be a strategic 
victory by delaying the British invasion of the northern Colonies in 
1776. By the time the lake had been cleared of American vessels the 
British commander concluded that the season was too far advanced to 
carry out his projected movement toward Albany. The invasion did not 
resume until the following year, by which time the Americans were better 
able to meet and repulse it. This they did at Saratoga, the turning point 
of the Revolution. Alfred T. Mahan, the naval historian, wrote: "That 
the Americans were strong enough to impose the capitulation of Saratoga 
was due to the invaluable year of delay secured to them in 1776 by their 
little navy on Lake Champlain, created by the indomitable energy, and 
handled with the indomitable courage of the traitor, Benedict Arnold." 47 

Not until early fall of 1776, was Gen. Sir Guy Carleton, British com- 
mander in Canada, ready to cooperate with Howe in New York by 
moving down Lake Champlain and the Hudson River on Albany. By 
early October, Carleton's fleet was built and ready for action — 29 vessels, 
mostly gunboats carrying a single gun, against the American fleet of 16 
vessels — 3 taken from the enemy and others hurriedly built on the lake. 


Between Valcour Island and the west shore of Lake Champlain is a 
sound about three-quarters of a mile wide. Midway on the island a high 
bluff juts into the sound, dividing it into a north and a south bay. On 
the day of battle, October 11, 1776, Arnold's fleet — 15 vessels were 
present — lay anchored in line across the bay south of the bluff, concealed 
from the enemy fleet approaching from the north. Carleton's vessels 
sailed down the eastern side of Valcour Island and were south of it before 
the crewmen caught sight of Arnold's fleet. Carleton had to attack 
against the wind, a decided disadvantage in the age of sail. Closing to 
short range, the opposing battlelines hammered each other from about 
1 1 a.m. until dusk. One of the two American ships lost that day was 
the Gundelo Philadelphia, which sank about an hour after the battle. 
This vessel, recovered from the lake bottom in 1935, is described on 
pp. 85-86. 

The end of the day found Arnold's surviving vessels heavily damaged 
and low on ammunition. Further fighting was out of the question. The 
British line still lay between Valcour and escape to the south, but in 
darkness and a providential fog the survivors of the fight slipped past the 
left flank of the enemy line. In the next 2 days, Carleton's pursuing 
vessels knocked out ship after ship, and Arnold burned some to keep them 
from enemy hands. Arnold and other survivors of the action eluded 
capture, but when the final score was counted it was discovered that of 
the ships engaged at Valcour only 4 had reached safety. The Ameri- 
can Fleet on Lake Champlain was destroyed, but its work had been done. 
The invasion from Canada had been halted for 1 crucial year. 

Present Appearance. Valcour Island is about 2 miles long from north 
to south and approximately 1}4 miles wide. It is rocky, high, and 
wooded, and, as seen from the west shore of Lake Champlain, it probably 
looks much as it did when it sheltered Arnold's makeshift fleet. The 
sound or bay between the island and the west shore of the lake is 
three-quarters of a mile wide. Although the shore of Lake Champlain 
has been built up to some extent, and Valcour Island is the property of 
several private owners, the island and, more importantly, the bay where 
the fighting took place have suffered little loss of integrity as landmarks 
of the War for Independence. No effort has been made to preserve or 
interpret the scene of the battle, and the only marking is a small monu- 
ment on the mainland about 5 miles south of Plattsburgh, in view of the 
island. This was erected in 1928 by the State Education Department 
and the Saranac Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution. 48 



The Hasbrouck House, Newburgh, N.Y., was Washington's headquarters 
from April 1782 to mid-August 1783, pending the conclusion of peace with 
Great Britain. 

36. Washington's Headquarters (Hasbrouck House), New York 

Location. Liberty and Washington Streets, Newburgh, Orange 

Ownership and Administration. Education Department, State of 
New York. 

Significance. None of Washington's military headquarters during the 
War for Independence is of greater historical significance than the Has- 
brouck House at Newburgh. Arriving at Newburgh on April 1, 1782, 
the Commander in Chief remained at the Hasbrouck House, save for 
occasional brief absences, until August 19, 1783. This was a longer 
period than Washington spent at any other headquarters. More im- 
portantly, Washington drafted three memorable documents at his New- 
burgh headquarters. In these he reaffirmed the fundamental principle 
of subordination of the Military Establishment to civilian control and 
helped lay the foundation for the Nation's orderly transition from war to 
peace. The first document was Washington's vehement rejection of the 
suggestion that the new Nation become a monarchy, with Washington 
at its head. The second was his address in the "Temple" at the nearby 
New Windsor army encampment (see p. 215) on March 15, 1783. 
Here he effectively quelled an incipient movement provoked by the so- 


called Newburgh Addresses, looking toward the coercion of Congress 
by the Army to secure settlement of officers' claims against the Govern- 
ment prior to demobilization. Washington's third notable act at New- 
burgh was drafting an oft-quoted circular letter to the Governors of the 
States, in which he outlined his views on the future development of the 
Nation. These views were elaborated around four cardinal points: 
"An indissoluble Union of the States under one Federal Head," "A 
sacred regard to public justice," "The adoption of a proper peace estab- 
lishment," and a "pacific and friendly disposition among the peoples of 
the United States which will induce them to forget their local prejudices 
and policies, to make mutual concessions which are requisite to the 
general prosperity, and in some instances, to sacrifice their individual 
advantages to the interest of the community." 

In addition to these statements at Newburgh, an act of some interest 
was the establishment of the military award, the "Order of the Purple 
Heart," proposed by Washington and noted in the General Orders of 
the Day, August 7, 1782. Aside from its intimate association with 
Washington, the Hasbrouck House has the distinction of being the first 
historic house preserved by a State. The State obtained the property 
in 1850, and the building was dedicated on July 4 of that year. 

Present Appearance. The widow of Joseph Hasbrouck bought the 
property overlooking the Hudson River on which the headquarters 
building now stands, in 1749, and next year her son, Jonathan, erected 
the northeast portion of the building. The southeast section was added 
sometime before 1770, and in that year an addition extending the 
length of the west wall of both earlier sections was constructed. An 
initialed date-stone confirms the date of this last addition. The walls of 
all three sections are of fieldstone. The house includes a large seven- 
doored chamber used as a dining room and living room, two bedrooms, 
parlor and kitchen on the ground floor, another bedroom on the second 
floor, and a spacious attic where can be seen the maze of hand-hewn 
timbers that support the roof. The large chamber on the first floor 
served Washington as a reception and living room. Period furnishings 
give the house great charm. The building is the original, except the 
kitchen and dining room floors. Adjacent to the headquarters building 
is a museum offering exhibits of local historical interest as well as ma- 
terial relating to General and Mrs. Washington and the role of the 
Newburgh headquarters in the Revolution. Maintenance of both the 
house and museum is excellent. 49 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 1 39 

37. Brandywine Battlefield, Pennsylvania 

Location. U.S. 1, near ChadcTs Ford, Delaware County. 

Ownership and Administration. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
administered by Brandywine Battlefield Park Commission. 

Significance. The Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777, was 
the only major clash of the two main armies during the campaign that 
ended in the British capture of Philadelphia. Although the battle was 
an American defeat, Washington extricated his force in good order and 
the Continentals demonstrated their ability to withstand the determined 
attack of British regulars. 

In the spring and early summer of 1777, Washington and Sir William 
Howe engaged in fruitless maneuvers in New Jersey. At the end of 
June, Howe moved to New York and on July 23 set sail from Sandy 
Hook with more than 15,000 men, bound for the American Capital, 
Philadelphia. The British Fleet sailed up Chesapeake Bay while Wash- 
ington moved to the south to meet Howe's advance. The American 
Army, numbering about 1 1 ,000 men, took up a defensive position east of 
Brandywine Creek, its center on high ground overlooking Chadd's Ford. 
In this position it blocked the main road to Philadelphia, 30 miles dis- 
tant. On September 1 1 the two armies renewed the contest they had 
waged from Boston to the banks of the Brandywine. 

Washington deployed his army in three wings, one under his own 
eye at Chadd's Ford, another under Gen. John Sullivan guarding the 
right flank upstream, and a small detachment covering a crossing on the 
left, 2 miles below Chadd's Ford. Instead of delivering the expected 
frontal attack, Howe made a wide flanking movement to take Sullivan 
in the rear. Washington mistakenly believed that a diversionary attack 
in his front was the main British thrust. Only at the last minute, when 
Sullivan was under heavy attack, did Washington conclude that the 
major effort was against the right wing. Gen. Nathanael Greene with 
two brigades was ordered to support the collapsing right flank. Wash- 
ington and his staff galloped toward the sound of heavy firing. Greene's 
stout action saved the Army from entrapment, but by his move to the 
right Washington's defenses at Chadd's Ford were weakened and he was 
forced to retreat. Although confused and scattered, most of the Army 
got away and returned to Chester. Helping to restore order was the 
young Marquis de Lafayette, active despite a bullet wound in his leg. 


A few days later, still between Howe and Philadelphia, Washington 
attempted to strike a blow at the British but was thwarted by bad 
weather. After further skirmishing, marked by the disastrous defeat 
of "Mad Anthony" Wayne's American rearguard at Paoli, Howe oc- 
cupied Philadelphia on September 26. Brandywine gave no new luster 
to Washington's generalship, but the Army's quick recovery was a trib- 
ute to both the quality of its ragged troops and its determined leadership. 

Present Appearance. Brandywine Battlefield Park includes approxi- 
mately 50 acres of rolling ground overlooking Chadd's Ford and the 
main battle areas to the north and west. Situated within the park are the 
restored quarters of Lafayette and the reconstructed headquarters of 
Washington. Part of Lafayette's headquarters dates from the late 1 7th 
century, and the restoration today exhibits three periods of construction : 
the original frame structure, a mid- 18th-century stone addition on the 
west, and the north wing, added in 1782. The treatment of Washing- 
ton's and Lafayette's headquarters was carried out by C. Edwin Brum- 
baugh, an authority on the early houses of southeastern Pennsylvania. 
The park contains well maintained picnic areas and excellent roads. 50 

38. Bushy Run Battlefield, Pennsylvania 

Location. North of Jeanette, near Harrison City on Pa. 993, West- 
moreland County. 

Ownership and Administration. Department of Forests and Waters, 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg. 

Significance. The Battle of Bushy Run was a major English victory in 
the most serious Indian threat against the 1 8th-century colonial frontier. 
Called Pontiac's "Conspiracy" or "Rebellion," because of the Ottawa 
chief who helped lead it, the uprising threatened for a time to throw the 
white frontier back toward the Atlantic. The Indians struck in the 
spring of 1763, and one by one the frontier forts fell. Within a few 
weeks, along a thousand-mile frontier, only Forts Niagara, Detroit, and 
Pitt held out. Marching to the relief of Fort Pitt, where Pittsburgh now 
stands, Col. Henry Bouquet led about 500 men, regulars, and American 
rangers. At Bushy Run, 25 miles east of his destination, Bouquet en- 
countered and fought a strong force of Indians. On the second day of 
fighting, August 6, he lured them into the open and in a bitter battle 
drove them from the field — demonstrating that, properly led, British 
troops could match the Indians in cunning and surprise. Four days after 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 141 

the victory at Bushy Run, Bouquet relieved Fort Pitt and made the 
Pennsylvania frontier comparatively safe for the thousands of settlers 
who streamed into the region in the next few years. Bushy Run halted 
the advance of the Indians into the middle Colonies and laid the ground- 
work for a later campaign into the Ohio country that ended the Pontiac 

Present Appearance. A 162-acre State park includes the principal 
scenes of action on the battlefield. Of particular interest is the hill on 
which the British troops planted their "flourbag fort." Here bronze 
plates reproducing Bouquet's dispatches and a map of the battlefield 
are located at the base of a huge block of granite. Trees have been 
planted to show the first positions taken by the British. On a hill to the 
west of the "flourbag fort" site are the unmarked graves of 50 British 
soldiers who fell in the action. A museum is located near the "flourbag 
fort" site, and roadways and foot trails give access to the main features 
of interest. The park also contains four picnic areas and an arboretum. 51 

39. Chew House (Cliveden), Pennsylvania 

Location. Germantown Avenue between Johnson and Cliveden 
Streets, Germantown. 

Ownership and Administration. Private. 

Significance. This fine Georgian home is the most important surviving 
landmark of the hard-fought battle of Germantown, October 4, 1777. 
In this action Washington's army narrowly missed winning a significant 
victory over a large contingent of the British Army guarding the north- 
western approaches to newly occupied Philadelphia. Although not de- 
cisive in its immediate military results, the battle of Germantown had 
vast political implications. Combined with the victory at Saratoga in the 
same month, it proved a major influence in the consummation of the 
French alliance that spelled final victory for the new American Nation. 

Following his victory over Washington's army at Brandy wine (see 
pp. 139-140) on September 11, 1777, Gen. Sir William Howe occupied 
Philadelphia on September 26. He dispersed his forces to cover the city, 
stationing some 9,000 men in Germantown on the north, 3,000 in New 
Jersey, and the remainder in Philadelphia and on the supply lines into the 
city. Washington concluded that the situation was favorable for a blow 
against the enemy at Germantown, then a small village stretching for 
2 miles along the Skippack Road, which ran from Philadelphia to 

689-192 0-64— 12 


[ 142 

Reading. The American plan of attack called for a complicated four- 
column movement, resembling the earlier pincers movement against 
Trenton but more intricate in timing and maneuver. In the early fight- 
ing on the foggy morning of October 4, the Americans drove the redcoats 
back until six British companies took refuge in the stout stone house of 
Chief Justice Benjamin Chew, on the outskirts of the village. They 

A determined stand by British troops in the Chew House wrecked Wash- 
ington's plan of attack at Germantown on October 4, 1777. The house 
had been completed in 1 763 by Benjamin Chew, later Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. Courtesy, Samuel Chew. 

harassed the American advance from this fortress. Units of Washing- 
ton's forces marched to the sound of the firing at the Chew House, throw- 
ing the carefully arranged battle plan into disorder. In the fog and 
smoke, American troops fired on one another and fled panic stricken from 
the field. The British counterattack threw them back exhausted and 
confused, and Washington withdrew about 25 miles to an earlier camp 
at Pennypacker's Mill. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 143 

The battle had been a near thing for the British. But for the fog 
and, more importantly, the confusion created in the American ranks by 
the stubborn enemy stand in the Chew House, Germantown might have 
been a decisive victory for the patriot forces. As it was, despite their 
defeat, the Americans derived a significant advantage. John Adams, 
American Commissioner to France, writing to a member of the Con- 
tinental Congress about the Battles of Saratoga and Germantown, said : 
''General Gates was the ablest negotiator you had in Europe; and next 
to him General Washington's attack on the enemy at Germantown. 
I do not know, indeed, whether this last affair had not more influence 
upon the European mind than that of Saratoga. Although the attempt 
was unsuccessful, the military gentlemen in Europe considered it as the 
most decisive proof that America would finally succeed." 52 

Affirming Adams' interpretation of the significance of Germantown, 
the British historian, Trevelyan, wrote: "Eminent generals and statesmen 
of sagacity, in every European court, were profoundly impressed. * * * 
The French Government, in making up its mind on the question whether 
the Americans would prove to be efficient allies, was influenced almost 
as much by the Batde of Germantown as by the surrender of Burgoyne." 53 

Present Appearance. The two-story Chew Mansion was built by 
Benjamin Chew in 1763 at Cliveden, his country estate. The house 
was constructed of Germantown stone quarried a short distance from 
the site. The front wall is built of regular ashlar masonry; the other 
walls are of stuccoed rubble masonry grooved to resemble ashlar. The 
belt course, window sills, and lintels are of dressed sandstone. Five huge 
urns adorn the roof. The house has an imposing entrance hall, bright- 
ened by windows of 24 lights and separated from the stair hall by a screen 
of 4 columns — an unusual feature. Small office rooms open on either 
side of the entrance hall, with the two main rooms, dining and drawing 
rooms, at the back. The kitchen and servants' rooms originally were 
in detached wings at the rear. An early barn, part of which now 
houses the office of the private owner, stands at the rear of the house. 
Benjamin Chew's commission as chief justice of Pennsylvania is dis- 
played in the office. The house is not open to the public except on 
special occasions. 54 

40. Conrad Weiser Home, Pennsylvania 

Location. Conrad Weiser Memorial Park, U.S. 422 near Womels- 
dorf, Berks County. 

it' fe. 

Conrad Weiser's skill in negotiating with the Indians played an important 
role in the defeat of the French in North America. His home near Womels- 
dorf, Pa., is preserved by the State. 

Ownership and Administration. Historical and Museum Commis- 
sion, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg. 

Significance. Conrad Weiser, peacemaker among the Indians, con- 
tributed largely to the rapid advance of the 18th-century frontier and 
thereby to the development of the English Colonies. Although some- 
what neglected by historians, his role in Indian affairs was in truth 
an important one. Emigrating from Germany in 1 710, at the age of 14, 
Weiser lived near Schoharie, New York, where he learned much about 
the Indians and their language and matured his thinking on the Indian 
problem in general. In 1729 he moved to Pennsylvania's Tulpehocken 
Valley where he prospered as a farmer. His appreciation of Indian 
affairs and knowledge of Indian langauges were probably unequaled 
in the Colonies, and provincial officers often sought his services as an 
ambassador to the Six Nations. Weiser's skill and courage were largely 
responsible for winning the support of the Iroquois for the English. 
He helped formulate an Indian policy based on recognition of the Iro- 
quois as sovereign over the other Indians of Pennsylvania, but in the 
process alienated the Delawares and Shawnees. Weiser saw the Indian 
problem as one common to all the Colonies, not to be solved by the 
separate efforts of the Provinces. He helped avert war between Virginia 
and the Iroquois in 1743, and his influence proved instrumental in 
shifting the emphasis of British Indian policy from New York to 

National Survzy of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 145 

Pennsylvania. Weiser won over the western tribes by the Treaty of 
Logstown in 1748, thereby extending Pennsylvania's Indian trade to 
the Mississippi. After the death of one of his influential Indian friends 
in 1 748, Weiser lost his commanding position as a "backwoods diplomat," 
although until his death he remained one of the best Indian interpreters. 
Weiser's later career, including a military command in the French and 
Indian War, lacked the significance of his earlier work, but the Indian 
alliances he had helped to form were an important factor in England's 
victory over France in the climactic struggle for North America. 
Weiser's death on July 13, 1 760, closed a long career of valuable service 
to the developing English Colonies. 

Present Appearance. In Conrad Weiser Memorial Park stands the 
restored two-room house built by Weiser on his Womelsdorf plantation. 
The graves are nearby of Weiser, his wife and a number of his Indian 
associates. The house serves as a museum. In addition to the main 
house, the original Weiser springhouse and other outbuildings are 
maintained. 55 

41 . Forks of the Ohio, Pennsylvania 

Location. Point State Park, Pittsburgh. 

Ownership and Administration. Department of Forests and Waters, 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg. 

Significance. The point of land where the Monongahela and Alle- 
gheny Rivers meet to form the Ohio is a site of surpassing significance 
in the story of American expansion westward from the Appalachian 
Mountains. From the mid- 18th century through the early years of the 
19th, the Forks of the Ohio was a strategic key to the Ohio Valley and 
the vast territory drained by the upper Mississippi. Control of this 
point was a major objective in the struggle for North America, and 
men of three nations fought and died struggling for the forks. The 
bustling town of Pittsburgh arose sheltered by the series of fortifi- 
cations on the point, the first permanent English settlement west of the 
Allegheny Mountains. This was a point of entry in the late 18th and 
early 19th centuries for the waves of settlement pushing into the Ohio 
and upper Mississippi Valleys, making it an early gateway to the West. 

George Washington visited the forks in November 1753, during his 
mission to Fort Le Boeuf to sound out the intentions of the French and 


warn them away from the Ohio country. Washington strongly endorsed 
the forks as the best site to command the rivers. In February 1754 
workmen of the Ohio Company under Capt. William Trent began build- 
ing the first outpost at the forks. In April a force of French and Indians 
seized the hastily built stockade. They built Fort Duquesne, named in 
honor of the Governor General of New France. The rival French and 
British claims to the Ohio country, emphasized by the determination of 
each power to control the forks, precipitated the final preindependence 
struggle, which spread abroad and became the Seven Years' War. 

Lt. Col. George Washington, commanding a small force raised to sup- 
port the new fort at the Forks of the Ohio, learned that the French had 
captured the position and pushed through the mountains to establish 
a camp at Great Meadows, 1 1 miles east of present Uniontown. He 
surprised and defeated a French scouting party on May 28 near Great 
Meadows, firing what some historians have called the first shot of the 
French and Indian War. Coulon de Jumonville, commanding the 
French scouting party, was killed in the ambush in the glen that now 
bears his name. A short time later French troops from Fort Duquesne 
laid siege to Washington's command and on July 4, 1754, forced him to 
surrender the hastily built Fort Necessity. Fort Duquesne was an objec- 
tive the following year of Gen. Edward Braddock, whose British regulars 
met shattering defeat a few miles east of the Forks of the Ohio. For 3 
years longer Fort Duquesne served as a French base for raids on the 
English frontier. 

In 1758 British and colonial troops under Gen. John Forbes made a 
remarkable march through the Pennsylvania wilderness and found 
Duquesne destroyed and abandoned by the French because of pressures 
elsewhere and the desertion of Indian allies. Col. Hugh Mercer with 200 
men was left at the point, now named Pittsburgh, to built a temporary fort 
farther up the Monongahela. Work on an ambitious permanent forti- 
fication began early in September 1 759 and was completed 2 years later. 
Pentagonal in outline, the walls of Fort Pitt (named for the then Prime 
Minister) were earthen casements and represented a notable engineering 
achievement for the time and place. Buildings constructed parallel to 
the inside faces of the walls were of frame-and-brick construction. 

Fort Pitt invited settlers, mostly Virginians, to follow Braddock's trail 
and settle at the adjacent town that now began to take shape. In 1763, 
during the Pontiac uprising. Fort Pitt was one of the few frontier out- 
posts that held out against the warriors swarming down from the North- 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 147 

west. A relief column under Col. Henry Bouquet lifted the siege 4 
days after decisively defeating the Indians in the Battle of Bushy Run, 
August 5-6, 1763. Bouquet built five redoubts as outworks to Fort Pitt, 
one of which, a small brick blockhouse, stands today. Fort Pitt deterio- 
rated as the French and Indian threat faded, although the settlement 
at the forks remained an important base for traders, backwoodsmen, and 
westward-moving settlers. As pioneers moved rapidly into the Northwest 
after the Revolution, the forks became the center of a rapidly growing 
frontier settlement. A fifth and last fort was built at the forks in the 
winter of 1791-92, when war with the Indians in the Old Northwest 
flamed anew. This post, LaFayette or Fayette, was built near the banks 
of the Allegheny, a quarter of a mile above the site of Fort Pitt, which 
had fallen into ruin. This post furnished troops in the Whisky Rebellion 
in 1794 and served as a supply and training depot in the War of 1812. 
But the military significance of the site was now secondary to its geo- 
graphical location as the gateway to the trans-Appalachian interior. 

Early in the 19th century, by flatboat and wagon, thousands of 
American and foreign immigrants passed through Pittsburgh en route 
to the old Northwest. The town became an industrial and commercial 
center where pioneers could outfit themselves for the trek west. 

Present Appearance. A few years ago the point of land at the Forks of 
the Ohio lay beneath commercial structures and railroad tracks. De- 
velopment of the 36-acre Point State Park, however, has removed the 
commercial and industrial intrusions, including 15 acres of railroad 
tracks. When completed, the park development will have opened the 
sites of Forts Duquesne and Pitt. Archeological investigation has un- 
covered much useful information about Fort Pitt, and a study commis- 
sioned by the regional planning commission in 1945 provided the ground- 
work for developing the State park, including the task of relocating 
bridges and traffic arteries. The flag bastion of Fort Pitt has been 
restored and the Monongahela bastion will be rebuilt. A museum will 
be developed within the Monongahela bastion under the administration 
of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. The Bouquet 
blockhouse will be retained on its original site. Promenades on the 
Allegheny and Monongahela riverfronts extend 50 feet beyond existing 
harbor lines, and stone bleachers seating 3,000 persons have been erected 
along the Allegheny riverfront. In summer the City of Pittsburgh 
anchors a barge here, and free concerts and other programs are pre- 
sented. Point State Park, in the shadow of the skyscrapers of modern 


Pittsburgh, when completed, will provide an eloquent interpretation of 
the origins and growth of this Gateway to the West. 56 

42. Graeme Park, Pennsylvania 

Location. Graeme Park, Keith Valley Road, Horsham. 

Ownership and Administration. Historical and Museum Commis- 
sion, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg. 

Significance. This Pennsylvania fieldstone house, located about 25 
miles north of central Philadelphia, is one of the most distinguished of 


This striking fieldstone house at Graeme Park, Horsham, Pa., is the only 
surviving building on the country estate of Sir William Keith, Royal Gover- 
nor of Pennsylvania from 1 7 1 7 to 1 726. 

many architectural examples of 18th-century houses in the region. The 
structure reflects the work of master builders and possesses exceptional 
value as a type specimen of its period and locale. In addition, the house 
has been identified traditionally as the home of Sir William Keith, Royal 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 149 

Governor of the colony from 1 7 1 7 to 1 726, although recent investigation 
suggests that it was originally constructed as a malt house, part of an 
industrial settlement planned by Keith for the production of grain. The 
present house was one of a number of buildings that made up the Graeme 
Park settlement; none of the others has survived. 

About 10 years after Sir William Keith's return to England in 1728, 
the estate came into the possession of Dr. Thomas Graeme, a prominent 
Philadelphia physician, husband of the Governor's step-daughter. 
Graeme bought the property for a country estate and experimented with 
a variety of farming techniques. Recent research indicates that the 
present house was made into a dwelling during Dr. Graeme's ownership. 
Graeme's daughter, Elizabeth, inherited the estate when her father died 
in 1772. Her husband, Henry Fergusson, was a loyalist who served with 
British forces during the Revolution. Later owners divided the estate 
into small parcels of land for sale or rent, and in 1801 Samuel Penrose 
purchased the small lot on which the present house stands. About 1810 
Penrose built a new dwelling, and from this time on the old house was 
not used as a main dwelling. Work done by owners in the 19th and 20th 
centuries has been mainly to preserve the property. 

Present Appearance. The house is plain and almost severe in exterior 
design and contains 2/2 stories, with a high gambrel roof and two tall 
chimneys rising from the center deck of the roof. The structure is approx- 
imately 60 by 25 feet in size, with walls 2 feet thick of fieldstone carefully 
laid and fitted. Windows and doors are tall and narrow, set in plain 
frames that accentuate the austerity of the exterior design. 

While the exterior is plainly colonial, the interior paneling, mantels, 
and door frames are Georgian of an advanced design. The first floor 
consists of a small entry and stairhall, a square center room, and two 
flanking rooms. The spacious paneled parlor on the east end of the first 
floor is notable for its marble-trimmed fireplace and wainscoted walls, 
which rise 14 feet from floor to ceiling. The second story also consists of 
three rooms, similar to the first-floor plan although with lower ceilings. 
The half-story third floor contains one large finished and three small 
unfinished rooms. 

The house was recently donated by its private owners to the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania. Graeme Park is in process of restoration over 
a 6-year period, involving extensive archeological and historical research 
to provide the basis for an authentic restoration to protect the outstand- 
ing features of the building. 57 





! yr. 


John Bartram built his Philadelphia home in 1731, shown here, with his own 
hands. Courtesy, Philadelphia Historical Commission. 

43. John Bartram House, Pennsylvania 

Location. 54th Street and Eastwick Avenue, Philadelphia. 

Ownership and Administration. City of Philadelphia, administered 
by Fairmount Park Commission, Philadelphia. 

Significance. The house and gardens of John Bartram stand as a 
memorial to a pioneer American botanist, and are an eloquent symbol of 
the rise of scientific inquiry in the English Colonies of the 1 8th century. 
John Bartram was America's first native botanist and has been called 
the greatest natural botanist of his time. Born in 1699 near Darby, 
Pa., he acquired a love of nature in the countryside around Philadelphia. 
His learning was self-taught, and his interests were those of a collector 
and describer of plants rather than a formal scientist. He had an exten- 
sive correspondence with leading botanists abroad and made a number 
of important journeys throughout the Colonies observing and collecting 
plants and noting everything on the colonial scene — wildlife, and the 
earth itself. A Quaker by birth and inclination, he was ejected by the 
Society of Friends probably because his broad knowledge of life and 
science made difficult his conformation to the strict orthodoxy of the 
faith. Many famous figures of the time came to his gardens. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 151 

Bartram was appointed botanist to the King in 1765, and important 
field trips were made in the service of the Crown. Like Franklin and 
Washington, who were his frequent guests, Bartram was representative 
of the best elements in the developing Colonies. He was a man of curi- 
osity and keen intellect, equally at home with the great figures of his time 
and with the slaves whom he freed but who remained with him as paid 
servants. The gardens, filled by Bartram with rare and exotic plants, 
were enlarged by his son, William, and after a period of neglect were 
saved to perpetuate the memory of a notable American of the 18th 

Present Appearance. John Bartram's house, built with his own hands 
in 1731, is one of distinctive, even unusual character, preserving the 
flavor of Bartram and his time. The 2 ^2-story colonial building is of 
local stone with tall Ionic columns probably added when the house was 
remodeled some years after its original construction. A recessed porch 
and window casings of carved stone help give the house its distinctive 
character. Interior furnishings are of the period of Bartram's significant 
work. 58 

44. Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvania 

Location. Fairmount Park, between East River Drive and Columbia 
Avenue entrance, Philadelphia. 

Ownership and Administration. City of Philadelphia, administered 
by Philadelphia Museum of Art. 

Significance. Situated on a hilltop overlooking the Schuylkill River, 
Mount Pleasant is the most important of a number of distinctive homes 
in Philadelphia's Fairmount Park. In the opinion of the architectural 
historian, Thomas T. Waterman, it is the finest colonial house north of 
the Mason-Dixon line. Its somewhat pretentious character re-creates 
vividly the atmosphere of wealth and station enjoyed by the men who 
helped to make Philadelphia the leading city of the Colonies. 

Mount Pleasant has an unhappy historical association with Benedict 
Arnold, who bought it in 1779, little more than a year before his at- 
tempted betrayal of West Point. The house was later confiscated and 
Arnold's possessions sold publicly. The mansion was leased for a short 
time to Baron von Steuben and eventually came into the possession of 
Gen. Jonathan Williams of Boston. It remained in the Williams fam- 
ily until it became the property of the City of Philadelphia in 1868. 

[ 152 

Mount Pleasant reflects the 
wealth and luxury that cen- 
tered in Philadelphia, the 
largest city of the colonies. 
It is located in Fairmount 
Park, and was built in 

Present Appearance. Mount Pleasant is an opulent representation of 
late Georgian design, constructed of rubble masonry coated with stucco 
to resemble dressed-stone masonry. The hilltop location, its 6-foot 
hewn-stone basement, its 12-foot ceilings, and high, hipped roof with 
balustraded deck, combine to impart a lofty appearance in keeping with 
the elaborate design. The north and south walls are windowless, re- 
lieved only by the brick belt course that extends around the house. 
Pavilions on the east and west sides frame arched doorways, above which 
are Palladian windows opening onto each end of the second-floor hall. 
The first floor consists of a large entrance hall that extends through the 
house, serving both east and west entrances. The stairway rises from 
a small separate hall at the southeast corner. The north room on the 
first floor is a large parlor extending across the end of the house. In the 
middle of the north wall is a chimney piece almost 8 feet wide, flanked 
by pedimented doors set, curiously, against the solid wall behind them. 
The three second-floor chambers are especially notable for their design 
and workmanship, most evident in the scrolled ornamentation and 
arched cupboard doors in the great chamber on the southwest corner. 
The house has been furnished handsomely in period style by the Phila- 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 


delphia Museum of Art, and is maintained by this institution as an out- 
standing survivor of 18th-century Philadelphia. ,y 

45. Valley Forge, Pennsylvania 

Location. Port Kennedy, off Valley Forge Interchange of Pennsyl- 
vania Turnpike, Montgomery and Chester Counties. 

Ownership and Administration. Valley Forge Park Commission, 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 

Significance. No name in American history conveys more of suffer- 
ing, sacrifice, and triumph than Valley Forge. Washington's ragged, 
hungry troops staggered into the camp on December 19, 1777, the 
wreckage of a defeated army. They endured a bitterly cold and un- 
comfortable winter, but emerged as a trained army. The military train- 
ing and discipline imposed at Valley Forge created a force that would 
meet the enemy on equal terms from then on, and at last defeat him. 

Washington's 1 1,000 troops were mostly unfit for service when he took 
them into winter quarters at Valley Forge. They had experienced a 
series of fruitless marches and costly skirmishes, capped by defeat at 
Brandywine and failure at Germantown. From this camp, named for 

General Washington used this house as his headquarters while the army 
was encamped at Valley Forge. 




n_ i >, 


k m 

t r|>|'|M'ir 

i I 





Uiiiiiii I I 1 1 I | | | > llllt ,„ M.ill 


a small iron mill on Valley Creek which the British had destroyed, the 
Army could defend itself and also observe the approaches to Philadel- 
phia. Approximately 900 log huts were raised, and fortifications were 
thrown up to protect the camp and command nearby roads and 
rivers. The soldiers were not permitted to huddle in their cabins, but 
were rigorously drilled and disciplined by "Baron" Frederick von Steu- 
ben who, even if he magnified his European rank and title, was never- 
theless a drillmaster of surpassing skill. When spring came the Army 
was ready for the field as never before, and at Monmouth on June 28, 
1778, it made its debut as a skilled force able to meet and defeat British 
regulars in open combat. 

Present Appearance. Valley Forge State Park, embracing 2,000 acres 
on both sides of the Schuylkill River, includes extensive remains of the 
major forts, lines of earthworks, the artillery park, Washington's head- 
quarters house, quarters of other top officers, and the grand parade 
ground, where Von Steuben rebuilt the Army and where news of the 
French alliance was announced on May 6, 1778. The Mount Joy ob- 
servation tower affords a comprehensive view of the campsite and the 
countryside it was designed to command. A dominant feature of the 
park is the massive National Memorial Arch bearing on one face the 
inscription: "Naked and starving as they are, we cannot enough admire 
the incomparable patience and fidelity of the soldiery — Washington at 
Valley Forge, February 16, 1778." The Washington Memorial Mu- 
seum, maintained by the Valley Forge Historical Society, contains thou- 
sands of relics, including Washington's field tent. Adjacent to the 
museum are the striking Washington Memorial Chapel and the Valley 
Forge Memorial Bell Tower. Reconstructed huts, handsome memo- 
rials, monuments, and markers tell the story of the men who wrote at 
Valley Forge an imperishable chapter in the story of America's struggle 
for independence. 60 

46. The Brick Market, Rhode Island 

Location. Thames Street and Washington Square, Newport. 

Ownership and Administration. City of Newport and Preservation 
Society of Newport County. 

Significance. The Brick Market was designed by Newport's Peter 
Harrison, merchant and shipowner often called America's first profes- 
sional architect. He designed a number of the town's distinguished 

The Brick Market, built in 1762-63 in Newport, R.I., was the last work of 
architect Peter Harrison. It is today rare as an example of this type of 
colonial building. Courtesy, John T. Hopf. 

buildings, chiefly as a labor of love. The Brick Market was constructed 
in 1762-63, although its details were not all completed until 1772. The 
ground floor, originally built with open arcades, was intended for use 
only as a market house, while the two upper floors were given over to 
drygoods stores and offices. All rentals and profits derived from the 
building went to the Newport town treasury to be used for the purchase 
of grain to supply a public granary for the town. After the Revolution 
the upper part of the building housed a printing office. In 1793 the 
upper stories were remodeled as a theater and served this purpose until 
1799. In 1842 the building was altered to serve as the townhall. The 
third floor was removed and the second made into one large room with 
galleries on three sides. From 1853 until 1900 the old market served as 
city hall for Newport. As an outstanding example of Harrison's mature 
work and as one of few remaining colonial business structures, the Brick 
Market is a notable survivor of colonial America. 

Present Appearance. The Brick Market was Harrison's last archi- 


[ 156 

tectural work, and his design for the structure is one of the country's 
earliest examples of open arcades surmounted by great pilasters. The 
model for the design was Inigo Jones' Old Somerset House in London, 
although Harrison, following the specifications given him, used brick 
rather than stone construction. Despite this and other modifications, the 
building is remarkably faithful to its prototype. The exterior of Brick 
Market was completely restored in 1928 and the interior 2 years later. 
It now houses the offices of the Preservation Society of Newport County. 61 

47. First Baptist Meeting House, Rhode Island 

Location. North Main Street . between Waterman and Thomas 
Streets, Providence. 

Ownership and Administration. Church property. 

Significance. The First Baptist Meeting House is one of New Eng- 
land's most notable public buildings, both architecturally and historically. 
Its origins date from the establishment of the first Baptist organization 
in America, in Providence in 1639. In addition to its religious role, the 
meetinghouse from its very beginning has been the scene of commence- 
ment ceremonies for Brown University. 

The First Baptist Meeting House, of Providence, R.I., built in 1774-75, 
is one of New England's most notable public buildings. 


B i 



National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 157 

Joseph Brown, well-to-do merchant, amateur architect, and member 
of a famous Providence family, is credited with the design of the church. 
He based it largely on the plans of English churches reproduced in his 
personal copy of Gibbs' Book of Architecture. The imposing spire was 
based on an unexecuted design by James Gibbs for St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, London. The church was dedicated in May 1775, a few weeks 
after the outbreak of the Revolution, but in design and feeling it belongs 
to the colonial period and illustrates outstandingly the maturity of native 
architecture on the eve of the Revolution. 

Present Appearance. The church as originally built was 80 feet 
square, with a door on each side and the main entrance under the spire 
on the west end. A gabled extension with a pedimented portico on the 
west end housed the stairs to the tower and spire, which rose 185 feet 
above the ground. An unusual feature of the body of the church is the 
set of two tiers of roundheaded windows. The low-pitched roof and the 
squareness of the structure combine to give the church an aspect of spa- 
ciousness and dignity. The interior is trimmed in wood. Galleries run 
along each side, supported by great fluted Doric columns. Over the five 
bays on each side are groined vaults that join the shallow vault over 
the nave. The interior was extended in the 19th century and the original 
pews, pulpit, and slave gallery are gone, but otherwise the meetinghouse 
has retained its character to an unusual degree. 

In 1956 committees were appointed by the church to study ways and 
means to restore the building. A gift from John D. Rockefeller, Jr., a 
Brown University alumnus, made possible a complete rehabilitation and 
restoration that, it is estimated, will add at least another hundred years 
to the life and use of the building. The high pulpit was restored along 
the lines of the original design, and the white paint was replaced by 
sage, the original interior color. The meetinghouse was rededicated in a 
series of services in April 1958. 62 

48. Old State House (Old Colony House), Rhode Island 

Location. Washington Square, Newport. 

Ownership and Administration. State of Rhode Island, adminis- 
tered by the Old State House in New Port, Rhode Island, Inc. 

Significance. The Old State House is an outstanding public building, 
of colonial America, possessing both historical and architectural distinc- 
tion. Designed by Richard Munday, the building was erected in 1739- 

689-192 0-64— 13 


[ 158 

41 to house the General Assembly of the Colony of Rhode Island, and it 
served also as a center for public meetings and religious and social func- 
tions. The death of George II, the succession of George III, and the 

The Old State House, erected in Newport in 1739-41, originally housed 
the General Assembly of Rhode Island Colony. Courtesy, John T. Hopf. 

colony's acceptance of the Declaration of Independence were among the 
momentous events proclaimed from the second-floor balcony. During 
the Revolution the State House served as a hospital for British and later 
French forces quartered in Newport. When George Washington came 
to Newport to visit the newly arrived French Army, a banquet was held 
in the great hall on the first floor. The May sessions of the Rhode Island 
Legislature were held in the Old State House from 1790 until the dedica- 
tion of the new State House in Providence in 1900. 

Present Appearance. The State House is 2/ 2 stories high, built of 
red brick resting on a granite masonry basement. The gabled roof, cut 
off to form a flat deck at its peak, is surmounted by a two-story octagonal 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 

[ 159 

cupola. The dominant feature of the main facade is the center doorway 
with balcony. The interior consists of a large room (40 by 80 feet) on 
the first floor with a row of square Doric columns running down the 
middle, and three rooms on the second floor. The State House was 
partially restored in 1917 under the direction of Norman M. Isham and 
is today a public monument. 63 

49. Redwood Library and Athenaeum, Rhode Island 

Location. 50 Bellevue Avenue, Newport. 

Ownership and Administration. Redwood Library and Athenaeum, 

Significance. Redwood Library is important both historically and ar- 
chitecturally. Historically, it is a striking representation of the intellectual 
development of the American Colonies in the 18th century. Still in use, 
it is beyond doubt one of the oldest library buildings in continuous use 
in the United States. Redwood Library was the outgrowth of a philo- 
sophical society founded in Newport in 1730, to which Abraham Red- 
wood donated 500 pounds sterling in 1747 for the purchase of books. 
In all, Redwood's donation bought more than 1,200 volumes, which 

The Redwood Library and Athenaeum, Newport, R. I., is one of the Na- 
tion's oldest library buildings in continuous use. Designed by Newport's 
Peter Harrison, it was completed around 1750 to house books purchased 
through a donation by Abraham Redwood. Courtesy, John T. Hopf. 


were purchased in London. To Redwood's gift, other Newport citizens 
added 5,000 pounds for construction of a library building on land donated 
by Henry Collins. The building was completed about 1750. The archi- 
tect was the well-known Peter Harrison, of Newport, and his design for 
the original part of the building introduced the Palladian style to America. 
Present Appearance. The original structure was based on English 
adaptations of the Roman Doric temple, with portico and wings. Un- 
fortunately, the reduced scale of the building greatly impaired the effec- 
tiveness of this design. The siding was of wood, rusticated and painted 
to resemble stone masonry, making the library a very early example of this 
treatment in Georgian architecture. The central library room housed 
the stacks of books, and small offices were housed in the wings. The 
library has been enlarged three times, most recently in 1913. The origi- 
nal part of the building was restored by Norman M. Isham in 1915 to 
Peter Harrison's design. 64 

50. Camden Battlefield, South Carolina 

Location. 5 miles north of Camden on county road just west of U.S. 
521 and 601, Kershaw County. 

Ownership and Administration. 2 acres are held by the Hobkirk 
Hill Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution ; the rest is in pri- 
vate ownership. 

Significance. Although it was the worst of a series of disasters to 
American forces in the South, the Battle of Camden, August 16, 1780, 
actually had a beneficial result in that it brought the capable Nathanael 
Greene to the American command. Second only to Washington as a 
skilled tactical commander, Greene then launched a decisive campaign 
that, even though barren of victories, cleared the southern interior of 
British troops within a year. 

The surrender of Gen. Benjamin Lincoln at Charleston on May 12, 
1780, left only one organized American force in the South, and this was 
wiped out at Waxhaws on May 29. In July, however, another American 
army, consisting of Continentals and militia, advanced into South Caro- 
lina from the North under Gen. Horatio Gates. Confident that he out- 
numbered his opponent, Lord Charles Cornwallis, Gates detached part 
of his force to aid the partisan leader, Thomas Sumter, in a raid on distant 
British supply lines. Gates and Cornwallis collided near Camden on 
the morning of August 1 6, 1 780. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 161 

The battle was of short duration. Gates formed the Continentals 
under Baron de Kalb (originally Johann or Hans Kalb, son of a peasant) 
on the right and the militia on the left. As the British advanced, the 
militia suddenly gave way and streamed from the field in wild flight. 
The British dashed through in pursuit and soon isolated and surrounded 
the Continentals. They continued to fight tenaciously until De Kalb 
was shot down, when the remnants quit the field. Gates failed to rally 
the beaten army, but managed to reassemble part of it at Hillsborough on 
August 19. Cornwallis fell back to Winnsboro after Maj. Patrick 
Ferguson's defeat at Kings Mountain, and Gates moved to Charlotte. 
There on December 2 he was relieved by Nathanael Greene. 

Present Appearance. The battlefield today is little changed from its 
original appearance. It is a flat area of open fields and pine woods, 
bordered on the east and west by small streams, with no intrusions on the 
historic scene. A stone monument erected by the Hobkirk Hill Chapter, 
Daughters of the American Revolution, marks the approximate site of 
De Kalb's fall, and a roadside narrative marker completes the interpre- 
tive development of the battlefield. 65 

51. Drayton Hall, South Carolina 

Location. 12 miles west of Charleston on S.C. 61, Charleston County. 

Ownership and Administration. Private. 

Significance. John Drayton, a member of the Royal Council, acquired 
property fronting the west bank of the Ashley River in 1738, where he 
built Drayton Hall. It has remained in the hands of Drayton's descend- 
ants to this day. Drayton Hall, the best surviving example in South 
Carolina of the colonial plantation house, symbolizes the great wealth 
and culture that marked the colony in the 18th century. It is architec- 
turally far ahead of the great Virginia houses of the same period. 

Present Appearance. A monumental brick structure of two stories 
over a high basement, Drayton Hall has a double-hipped roof of the 
type common to many Georgian houses in the South. The west 
("land") facade is marked by a two-story portico fronting a recessed 
central bay. The sheltered porch thus formed is approached by parallel 
flights of steps. No such feature distinguishes the "river" facade, which 
employs a classic pediment to emphasize the main axis. Here the ap- 
proach is by a double flight of steps meeting at the main entrance. 

The interior is distinguished by spacious rooms with magnificent 

East facade, facing the Ashley River, of Drayton Hall, called "the best 
surviving example in South Carolina of the colonial plantation house." 

paneling and richly ornamented ceilings. Especially impressive are the 
stair hall, with its double flight of stairs, and the entrance hall, with fire- 
place after a design by the great British architect, Inigo Jones. The 
other rooms are almost equally fine. 

From the scope of the plan and the advanced architectural details, 
Drayton Hall appears to be the creation of a professional architect. Yet 
nothing has been discovered thus far to give a hint of his identity. 

No productive use is being made of the 550 acres comprising the plan- 
tation. Except for a sizable lawn around the mansion, it has been 
allowed to revert to a tangled woodland. The house, although ap- 
parently structurally sound, stands in need of repair. Brickwork needs 
repointing in a number of places, steps and other exterior features show 
some deterioration, and wasp nests are numerous on the walls. The 
house is rather sparsely furnished with fine antiques, some of which were 
among the original furnishings. The house has no regular inhabitants, 
although a caretaker lives nearby. 66 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [163 

52. Miles Brewton House, South Carolina 

Location. 27 King Street, Charleston. 

Ownership and Administration. Private. 

Significance. The Miles Brewton House was designed by Architect 
Ezra Waite and built in 1765-69 for a prominent Charleston citizen 
from whom it takes its name. It is notable chiefly for its architectural 
excellence ; such historical interest as the house possesses springs directly 
from its architectural distinction. Because it was the most splendid 
townhouse in Charleston, it was occupied as a military headquarters in 
two wars — during the Revolution by Sir Henry Clinton, and in the last 
days of the Civil War by Federal officers of the army of occupation. 

Present Appearance. The Miles Brewton House is generally con- 
ceded by authorities to be the best example of the "Charleston double 
house," and one noted architect calls it the "finest town house of the 
colonial period." 67 A two-story house of almost square design, it is 
covered by a sharply ridged, hipped roof, and the main facade is domi- 
nated by a two-story portico. The house is richly ornamented, both 
inside and out, with a wealth of details. 68 

53. Mulberry Plantation, South Carolina 

Location. 30 miles north of Charleston on U.S. 52, beside Cooper 
River, Berkeley County. 

Ownership and Administration. Private. 

Significance. Besides possessing a considerable degree of architectural 
interest, Mulberry Plantation illustrates well a number of important 
facets of 18th-century American history. It was constructed in 1714 by 
Thomas Broughton, later a Royal Governor of South Carolina. Located 
on the frontier, the house was built over a cellar fort, with firing slits 
in the foundation walls. During the Yamassee War, 1715-16, Mulberry 
Plantation was a fortified stronghold to which a number of neighboring 
colonists fled for protection. During the latter days of the American 
Revolution, when British troops overran the surrounding countryside, 
the plantation served as headquarters for a cavalry unit. 

Present Appearance. With its ricefields, dikes, and canals still in a 
good state of preservation, Mulberry is one of the most impressive of the 
river rice plantations that brought great wealth to the colony in the 1 8th 


1 1 



A view across the north ricefield of Mulberry Plantation, from high ground 
near the mansion. 

century. Architecturally, the most distinctive features of the mansion are 
the four "flankers" that extend from the corners of the central section, 
with hipped roofs, bell-shaped turrets, and iron weather vanes. The 
house and grounds are in excellent condition. Major interior alterations 
were made in 1800 and some restoration in the early 20th century, but 
apparently few major structural changes have been made since the house 
was built. The two main ricefields still exist, as well as the original 
dikes and rice canals. Mulberry Plantation is not open to visitors. 69 

54. Robert Brewton House, South Carolina 

Location. 71 Church Street, Charleston. 

Ownership and Administration. Private. 

Significance. The Robert Brewton House, built about 1730 by the 
prominent Miles Brewton for his son, has survived two wars and two 
major fires to achieve a unique double distinction. Besides being one of 
the oldest surviving Charleston houses, it is the earliest accurately dated 
example of the "single house," an architectural type peculiar to that 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 165 

city. The "single house" shows traces of West Indian influence and is 
a fine example of the adaptation of structural design to climatic con- 
ditions. As the name suggests, the "single house" is of single-room thick- 
ness. It stands with its long axis perpendicular to the street, and along 
one of the long sides (generally the south or west) runs a piazza, over- 
looking a small enclosed garden. The entrance is through a gate on the 
street end of the piazza. Thick walls of brick, covered with white or 
pastel-tinted stucco, are topped by tile roofs. The piazza, which during 
the 18th century was of wood and only one story high, evolved during the 
19th century into the two-story appendage so familiar in present-day 
Charleston. This design admirably served its purpose of making the hot 
South Carolina summers bearable and, coupled with the town's sea 
breezes and the relative absence of malaria, made Charleston the summer- 
time mecca of the plantation families. 

Present Appearance. The Robert Brewton House has undergone 
little exterior change, except that the piazza has been removed (necessi- 
tating a new entrance treatment) and there is no side garden. Three 
stories high, there are angle quoins, key blocks over the windows, and 
a wrought-iron balcony on the street front. The mantelpieces and other 
interior woodwork show fine workmanship. The house is well main- 
tained and in the best of condition. It is not open to visitors. 70 

55. St. Michael's Episcopal Church, South Carolina 

Location. 80 Meeting Street, Charleston. 

Ownership and Administration. St. Michael's Church Corporation, 

Significance. Called by Hugh Morrison "one of the great Georgian 
churches of the Colonies," 71 St. Michael's provides an outstanding il- 
lustration of the advance of wealth and culture in South Carolina during 
the first half of the 18th century. The colonial assembly authorized 
construction of the edifice in 1751 but, although it was virtually com- 
pleted within 2 years, it was not dedicated until 1761. The architect is 
not known, although it may have been the noted Peter Harrison. 

Present appearance. The stucco-covered building is of brick, fur- 
nished by Zachariah Villeponteux, who was noted for the quality of his 
product. The exterior features a two-story Roman Doric portico, the 
first giant portico built on a Georgian church in the colonies, and an 
unusually solid spire. The latter rises from a square base in a series of 


[ 166 

diminishing octagons to a terminal spire, the top of which is 185 feet 
above the street. The interior is marked by a coved ceiling and low side 
galleries supported by fluted Ionic columns. Waxed and polished cedar 
woodwork adds to the beauty of the interior. 72 


St. Michael's Episcopal Church of Charleston, S.C., is noted 
for its early giant portico and unusually solid spire. 

56. Long Island of the Holston, Tennessee 

Location. South edge of Kingsport in the South Fork of the Holston 
River, Sullivan County. 

Ownership and Administration. Various private and corporate 

Significance. Long Island of the Holston was for many years a jeal- 
ously guarded possession of the Cherokee Indians. It became the scene 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 


of momentous events during the early years of exploration and settle- 
ment in the Old Southwest, the springboard for the initial settlement of 
Kentucky and Middle Tennessee. In its environs was fought the battle 
that gave those feeble settlements precious time to consolidate their posi- 

A view westward along the northern shore of the Long Island of the Holston, 
which played a prominent part in the early history of the Tennessee country. 

tions during the first 2 years of the American Revolution. Long Island 
derived strategic importance from its location just east of the junction 
of the North and South Forks of the Holston. Nearby was the crossing 
of the Great Indian Warpath, a major trail to the northeast from cen- 
tral Tennessee. Thus the island figured significantly in the colonial 
struggle with the Indians that began in the middle of the 18th century. 
Col. William Byrd, leading a colonial expedition into Cherokee coun- 
try, built Fort Robinson at the river junction in 1761 and introduced 


white occupation of the area. When Byrd's force abandoned the fort 
soon afterward, the Indians resumed possession, although more and more 
white hunters and traders began passing through en route to the hunting 
grounds of Kentucky and Tennessee. Among them was Daniel Boone. 
In March 1775, while Richard Henderson was still negotiating with the 
Cherokees for their Kentucky land, he sent Boone with 30 axmen to 
open the trail that was to gain fame as the Wilderness Road. Boone's 
trailmaking began at Long Island on March 10, and 2 weeks later his 
party reached the Kentucky River, having marked the way that was to 
lead 200,000 emigrants to Kentucky within the next 20 years. 

The Cherokees cast their lot with the British when the Revolution 
began. Stung into action by colonial settlement on the east Tennessee 
land they claimed, the Indians moved to crush the frontiersmen in July 
1776. The defenders of Eaton's Fort, on high ground near Long Is- 
land, sallied onto Long Island Flats and, after a bitter fight, drove the 
Cherokees from the field. Two months later a punitive expedition 
against the Indian towns cowed the Cherokees, bringing 2 years of rela- 
tive peace to the southwestern frontier. At the Treaty of Long Island, 
in July 1777, the Indians relinquished their claims to the land occupied 
by whites in east Tennessee. 

Besides being the starting point of Boone's Wilderness Road, Long 
Island was a jumping-off point for the settlement of central Tennessee. 
Just before Christmas of 1779, Col. John Donelson lead a flotilla of 
flatboats from there on the long and hazardous voyage down the Ten- 
nessee and up the Cumberland to establish Cumberland Colony, the 
first permanent white settlement in middle Tennessee. The importance 
of Long Island as a terminus and starting point led to the establishment 
of a boatyard directly across the river from the west end of the island. 

Present Appearance. Long Island is approximately 4 miles long and 
M^-mile wide. The eastern third of the island is now taken up with 
a housing development, known as Long Island, and a fuel-supply yard 
for the nearby acetate plant of the Tennessee Eastman Co. The central 
third, largely undeveloped except for an interplant railroad that crosses 
the island diagonally, is held by six separate owners. The western third, 
virtually undeveloped, is in a single ownership and retains much of its 
primitive appearance. 73 

57. Greenway Court, Virginia 

Location. 1 mile south of White Post, near Va. 277, Clarke County. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 169 

Ownership and Administration. Private. 

Significance. Greenway Court was for 30 years the home of Lord 
Thomas Fairfax, the only English peer residing in the Colonies, a friend 
to young George Washington, and proprietor of a 5-million-acre grant 
of Virginia lands. Inheriting the proprietary through his mother, 
daughter of Lord Thomas Culpeper, Fairfax was forced into a long de- 
fense of his lands by a formidable political attack that began in 1733 and 
continued intermittently until after his death in 1781. He took up resi- 
dence at Greenway Court in 1752, to safeguard his interests, and lived 
out his years there in comfort, although on a scale far below that en- 
joyed by the average upper class Virginian. In truth, the estate was 
never completed. The projected manor house was never built, and 
Fairfax resided in another house that was planned as a hunting lodge. 
From 1762 until his death he maintained the land office for his North- 
ern Neck Proprietary at Greenway Court. Washington visited there a 
number of times, first in 1 748 as a member of a surveying party and later 
in his capacity as a large landed proprietor himself. Lord Dunmore, 
Royal Governor of Virginia, spent some time at Greenway Court during 
the Shawnee campaign of 1774, and a number of other prominent 
Virginians were there at one time or another. Fairfax, a leading citizen 
of Virginia during the third quarter of the 18th century, had an im- 
portant influence on the careers of Washington and, indirectly, John 
Marshall, whose father also did some survey work for the proprietor. 
The land speculation that centered at Greenway Court for more than a 
decade was typical of the preoccupation with frontier lands that touched 
all Virginians in the years just before the American Revolution. 

Present Appearance. Of the buildings existing during Fairfax's life- 
time, the limestone land office, probably built in 1762, and restored in 
1930, still stands and is in fair condition. It is a thick-walled structure 
28.4 by 18.4 feet, with a heavy hewnboard door and narrow shuttered 
windows. The "hunting lodge" has been replaced by a two-story brick 
farmhouse built in 1828. The property is now occupied by tenants, but 
appears to be well maintained. 74 

58. Mount Airy, Virginia 

Location. 1 mile west of Warsaw, U.S. 360, Richmond County. 

Ownership and Administration. Private. 

Significance. Mount Airy was built by Col. John Tayloe, 1 758-62, as 

Mount Airy, Va., is still owned by descendents of the builder, Col. John 
Tayloe. It is one of the very few 18th-century stone houses in Virginia, 
and is an ideal full Palladian villa. 

designed by the noted Virginia architect, John Ariss. Its significance 
rests chiefly on architectural distinction. Mount Airy is one of the few 
stone houses built in Virginia during the 18th century, and represents the 
first instance in the Colonies of the achievement of the ideal full Palla- 
dian villa, with dependent wings connected to the main house by quad- 
rant passages. 

Present Appearance. The dark-brown sandstone walls, laid in courses 
of random heights, are trimmed with light-colored sandstone. The en- 
trance facade features a projecting pavilion of rusticated limestone with 
a crowning pediment. The south facade, facing the broad valley of 
the Rappahannock, is similar except that the three entrances are framed 
by round arches. The entire composition of the facade is copied from 
a design in James Gibbs' Book of Architecture. The interior was 
destroyed by fire in 1844, and the roof has been remodeled. Mount 
Airy is still owned by Tayloe descendants. It is not open to visitors. 75 

59. St. John's Episcopal Church, Virginia 

Location. East Broad and 24th Streets, Richmond. 
Ownership and Administration. The church and southern half of 
cemetery are owned by the congregation of St. John's Episcopal Church. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 171 

The northern half of the cemetery is owned by the City of Richmond. 

Significance. In St. John's Church on March 23, 1775, Patrick 
Henry, spellbinding orator of the Revolution, achieved immortal fame 
with his "Liberty or Death" speech, which sounded a clarion call for his 
fellow Virginians. Henry had been in the public eye for a dozen years. 
His brilliant defense of colonial self-government in the "Parson's Cause" 
of 1763 attracted widespread attention. Two years later his "Virginia 
Resolutions," inspired by the Stamp Act, stirred the Colonies and pro- 
pelled Henry to leadership of the radical party in Virginia. None who 
heard the speech was likely to forget the concluding words: "Caesar had 
his Brutus — Charles the first, his Cromwell — and George the third . . . 
may profit by their example." Henry continued to hold the forefront 
during the decade of increasing colonial agitation that ended in war. As 
a delegate to the First Continental Congress in September 1774, he 
strongly supported the radical measures, and his conduct gave evidence of 
strong nationalist leanings. 

Virginia's Royal Governor, Lord Dunmore, called a meeting of the 
general assembly for late in November 1774 but prorogued it when he 
learned of the participation of the Virginia leaders in "The Association" 
to boycott British goods. Members of the prorogued assembly arranged 
to meet in Richmond on March 20, 1775. For the meeting place, they 
chose the largest building in the community, the "New Church" or the 
"Church on Richmond Hill," as it was variously called. When the 
convention assembled, most of the leaders of Virginia politics were 
present. Among the approximately 120 members were George Wash- 
ington, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, George Wythe, Benjamin 
Harrison, Edmund Pendleton, Robert Carter Nicholas, Carter Braxton, 
George Mason, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Richard Bland, 
and Andrew Lewis. 

The tone of the convention was conciliatory at first, but Henry soon 
offered a series of resolutions to put the colony into a state of defense. 
The resolutions were defended by Lee, Washington, and Jefferson, but 
the conservative members — Pendleton, Bland, Nicholas, and Harrison — 
attacked them as rash and provocative. On March 23 Henry rose to 
defend the resolutions in a short speech, which closed with the following 
stirring words, as reported later: 

There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are 
forged. Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The 
war is inevitable — and let it come!! I repeat it, sir, let it come!!! It 
is vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry, peace, peace, 


but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that 
sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding 
arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? 
What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so 
dear or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and 
slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God — I know not what course others 
may take ; but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death. 

The speech swept the convention to Henry's viewpoint, and his resolu- 
tions passed. True to his prophecy, news of the outbreak of fighting at 
Lexington and Concord came within a short time, and the Colonies were 
at war. 

The church in which Henry made his speech was built in 1740-41, on 
land donated by Col. William Byrd, and remained the only church in 
Richmond until 1814. Originally constructed as a simple rectangular 
building, 25 feet wide and 40 long, with the long axis running east and 
west, the church was enlarged in December 1772. At this time an addi- 
tion was built on the north side and the interior rearranged so that the 
addition became the nave. At the same time, also, a belfry was con- 
structed over the west end of the original church. This was the church 
as it existed at the time of Patrick Henry's famous speech. 

Present Appearance. St. John's Church has been altered several 
times since 1772. In 1830 the nave was enlarged and the interior of 
the church rearranged. In the next few years, the original belfry was 
taken down and replaced by a tower and bell at the north end. A chan- 
cel and vestry room were added to the south end in 1880, giving it the 
cross shape it now has. A hurricane blew down the spire in 1896. The 
replacement was similar to the original spire of the time of Henry's 
speech. In 1799 the City of Richmond added two lots to the church 
property, and the church cemetery became a public burying ground. 
It was the only public cemetery in Richmond until 1826. Among the 
graves are those of George Wythe and Elizabeth Arnold Poe, mother of 
Edgar Allan Poe. 

The church is attractively maintained and is one of the most noted of 
Richmond's historic shrines. In spite of inadequate parking space, visita- 
tion averages about 50,000 people a year. The area surrounding St. 
John's Church has been designated a historic zone, and plans for its 
restoration are being carried out by the Historic Richmond Foundation. 
In the few square blocks of the zone are about 70 ante bellum homes, a 
number of which have already been restored. 76 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 173 

60. Stratford Hall, Virginia 

Location. 3 miles north of Lerty on Va. 214, Westmoreland County. 

Ownership and Administration. Robert E. Lee Memorial Founda- 
tion, Inc., Stratford Hall, Va. 

Significance. Stratford Hall, probably best known as the birthplace 
of Robert E. Lee, is of major importance both historically and architec- 
turally. The list of noted men who were born or lived there reads like a 
miniature "Who's Who" for Virginia: 4 members of the Governor's 
council, 12 burgesses, 4 members of the Virginia Convention of 1776, 2 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, several Governors of Vir- 
ginia, members of the Continental Congress, diplomats, and military 
leaders. Of those born at Stratford Hall, in addition to the great Con- 
federate general, the list includes the signers of the Declaration (Richard 
Henry and Francis Lightfoot Lee) and three other Revolutionary leaders 
(William, Arthur, and Thomas Ludwell Lee) . 

Present Appearance. Architecturally, Stratford Hall is a notable 
example of early Georgian architecture, yet with many features that 
make it unique. Its H-plan gives it a kinship with the Capitol building 
at Williamsburg and Tuckahoe in Goochland County, Va. It is a 
huge bulk with raised basement, unaccompanied by the usual pilasters 
and other academic forms. One of its chief distinguishing character- 
istics is the presence of twin sets of four-chimney stacks on the wings, 
connected by arches and enclosing balustraded roof decks. The monu- 
mental great hall is outstanding for its period. Four original service 
dependencies flank the mansion. The acreage owned by the administer- 
ing foundation is only a portion of the original 16,000-acre estate on 
which Col. Thomas Lee built the house in 1725-30. The Stratford Hall 
estate, maintained as a historic-house museum and operating 18th- 
century plantation, is in excellent condition. The formal gardens have 
been restored, as well as walks, shrubbery, and minor dependencies. 77 

61 . Westover, Virginia 

Location. On James River 7 miles west of Charles City Courthouse, 
Charles City County. 

Ownership and Administration. Private. 

Significance. The present Westover Mansion was built by William 

689-192 0-64— 14 


[ 174 

Byrd II in 1730-34 on one of the earliest Virginia plantations, first occu- 
pied in 1619. Typical of the tidewater tobacco plantations, Westover 
was a vast, 1,200-acre estate that barely provided a living for its owner. 
Typical of his class, Byrd supplemented his income as a tobacco planter 
with large-scale speculation in western lands. 

Westover was built by William Byrd II between 1730 and 1734. 

Present Appearance. One of the most famous Georgian houses in the 
United States, Westover is noted for the quality of its construction and 
for its architectural completeness. The mansion proper consists of a 
two-story central section on a high basement, and two attached wings. 
The east wing is a replacement of the original, which was destroyed dur- 
ing the Civil War. Several dependencies, including the original kitchen, 
which is reputed to antedate the present house, stand nearby. Notable 
features of the mansion include formal doorways in Portland stone on 
both main facades; a steeply pitched hip roof, rising to a sharp ridge 
instead of a deck; an offcenter main hall, utilizing one of the regularly 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 175 

spaced facade windows as a light source; and a finely detailed interior 
with full-length paneling and enriched plaster ceilings. Exterior features 
include three original gates, the distinguished central set probably made 
by Thomas Robinson, of London; an underground tunnel from the 
house to the riverbank; formal gardens, containing the grave of William 
Byrd II; the site of the first Westover Church, about 400 yards west of 
the house, where a number of prominent Virginians are buried, including 
the first Benjamin Harrison, of Berkeley, the first William Byrd and his 
wife, and Capt. William Perry, who died in 1637; and the remains of an 
old icehouse. The mansion group was restored about 1920 and came 
into possession of the present family in 1921. The garden and grounds 
are open to visitors. 78 

62. Wren Building, Virginia 

Location. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg. 

Ownership and Administration. College of William and Mary, 
State of Virginia. 

Significance. The College of William and Mary was chartered on 
February 8, 1693, and was the first successful college in Virginia and the 
second in all the English Colonies. Middle Plantation, later named Wil- 
liamsburg, was chosen as the site, and the cornerstone was laid in 1695. 
Designed by Sir Christopher Wren, the college building was completed 
in its original form in 1702, when two sides of the proposed quadrangle 
were finished. Accidentally burned in 1705, the building was subse- 
quently rebuilt and a third side of the quadrangle was completed in 1732. 
The building was damaged by fire again in 1859 and 1862, with 
consequent alterations in each reconstruction. When John D. Rocke- 
feller, Jr., undertook its restoration in 1927, only two-thirds of the 
original wall height remained. Timely discovery of "Bodleian Plate" at 
Oxford University, depicting several important buildings of 18th-century 
Williamsburg, permitted an authentic restoration of the Wren Building. 

Present Appearance. One of the largest buildings erected in the Eng- 
lish Colonies up to that time, the Wren Building, was four stories high 
(including English basement and attic) and 1 36 feet long. The mature 
Renaissance design, clearly identified with the 18th century although 
constructed partly in the 17th, incorporates a formal symmetry, with the 
central axis accented by round-arch portal, balcony, sharp-pitched gable, 
and cupola. Balancing the central axis are uniformly spaced windows 


and narrow dormers. The north wing, completed at the same time as 
the front portion, contains the "Great Hall" ; the south wing, constructed 
in 1732, is the chapel. Restoration in 1928 was authentic, with the only 
alterations being additional stairs and other minor details needed to adapt 
the building to a continuing academic use. Painstaking research was 
necessary in order to permit authentic replacement, because the interior 
woodwork had been destroyed completely by fire. 79 


Historic Districts Eligible for the Registry of 
National Historic Landmarks 

In several theme studies undertaken by the National Survey of 
Historic Sites and Buildings, instances were found where a number of 
historic buildings grouped in proximity, when viewed collectively, 
formed an outstanding illustration of a past era. Such groups have been 
designated historic districts and declared eligible for the Registry of 
National Historic Landmarks. A historic district may or may not contain 
individual structures which receive on their own merits the landmark 
designation. The following historic districts illustrate 18th-century Eng- 
lish colonial development. 

1 . Old Deerfield, Massachusetts 

Location. Deerfield, off U.S. 5 and Mass. 10, Franklin County. 

Ownership and Administration. Homes privately owned; museum 
and museum houses owned and administered by Heritage Foundation 
and Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association; buildings owned by Deer- 
field Academy. 

Significance. Deerfield was the northernmost outpost of the New Eng- 
land frontier at the end of the 17th century. Its name lives in history 
as a symbol of the hardship endured and the final triumph won by the 
settlers who challenged the French and Indians of the interior. Negotia- 
tions with the Pocumtuck Indians in 1667 opened to white settlement 
a tract of 8,000 wilderness acres in the Connecticut Valley. The Indians 
received fourpence an acre for the land, a price that the white men 
considered very liberal. The first settlers arrived in the spring of 1669, 



and by 1673 twenty families had broken ground for farms, laid out a 
village street and set aside house lots much as they exist today. In the 
latter year the colonists established an independent town whose 
name soon began to appear on official documents as Deerfield. 

The people of Deerfield lived in constant apprehension of Indian at- 
tacks. A series of Indian raids in September 1675 brought death to many 
men and forced the survivors to retreat to the south. Despite this set- 
back, Deerfield was reoccupied and built anew within a few years, 
stronger than before. As evidence of its new strength, in September 1 694 
the fortified village rallied and beat off a surprise attack by Indians under 
French leaders. 

Deerfield was still the northernmost colonial outpost on the Connecti- 
cut River at the opening of the 18th century. When Queen Anne's 
War broke out in 1702, the French made haste to ally themselves with 
the Indians for the purpose of attacking Deerfield. A force of 200 
French regulars and nearly 150 Indian warriors swept down on Deerfield 
at daybreak on February 29, 1 704, surprised the sentries and threw open 
the gate of the stockade that surrounded the village. The struggle 
raged for 5 hours. More than half the population perished or were 
seized as prisoners, and nearly half the houses were looted and burned. 
Only the timely arrival of reinforcements from settlements to the south 
saved Deerfield from total disaster. The French and Indians withdrew 
to Canada with more than a hundred prisoners — men, women, and 
children — many of whom were later released. 

Troops took station at Deerfield to prevent a recurrence of this catas- 
trophe, and slowly the settlement was reborn. Occasional minor raids 
continued to plague the town until the final major attack in 1746, but 
never again did the town suffer the horror of 1704. Deerfield was well 
on the way to prosperity as a wheat and cattle center by the middle of 
the 18th century, and its inhabitants reflected the better times in their 
comfortable homes and household treasures. This period of dawning 
refinement and taste is reflected today in many of the 18th-century 
dwellings of Old Deerfield. 

The outbreak of the Revolution brought tension again to Deerfield. 
Some inhabitants remained aggressively loyal to the King while others 
embraced the patriot cause with equal ardor. When hostilities opened 
at Lexington and Concord, Deerfield sent its young men to war and then 
served as a supply center for American troops operating in the region. 

The town won a new reputation as a center of education after the 

John Williams House: Williams was the first resident minister of Deerfield, 
who was captured by Indians and later released. The citizens of Deer- 
field voted in town meeting, in January 1 706, to build a new house for him. 
This structure serves today as a dormitory for Deerfield Academy. 

establishment of Deerfield Academy in 1797. Deerfield largely escaped 
the currents of progress and growth that rapidly transformed other com- 
munities of the young Republic. Spared in great measure from the 
impact of modern urban and industrial development, Old Deerfield is 
today a memorable evocation of America's colonial frontier. 

Present Appearance. Old Deerfield consists principally of an unusual 
collection of dwellings dating from the 18th and early 19th centuries 
together with public buildings extending for a mile along elm-shaded 
Old Deerfield Street. Among the most notable of these structures, open 
to the public, are the Frary House, part of which antedates the massacre 
of 1704; the Sheldon-Hawks House, built in 1734; the Ashley House, 
dating from the early 18th century; and the Asa Stebbins House, finished 
in the 1790's. Memorial Hall, built in 1799 for Deerfield Academy, is 
on Memorial Road just ofT Old Deerfield Street. The building now 
serves as a museum housing an outstanding collection of furniture, pew- 


[ 180 

ter, household objects, farm implements, and other items relating to early 
Deerfield and the New England colonial period. Among the museum 
exhibits is a heavy, nail-studded door identified as being from the original 
Sheldon Tavern. In the door are holes chopped by the Indians in an 
effort to break into the fortified house during the fighting of February 29, 
1704. Although all the houses are not open to the public, many have 
been carefully restored to preserve the atmosphere of a village that, while 
meeting the needs of the modern day, illustrates the charm, craftsman- 
ship, and discrimination of the period when Old Deerfield rose from the 
ruins of frontier war. 80 

2. Huguenot Street, New Paltz, New Yoik 

Location. Huguenot Street, New Paltz, Ulster County, on the Walkill 

Ownership and Administration. Jean Hasbrouck House (Memorial 
House) owned by Huguenot Patriotic, Historical and Monumental So- 
ciety, New Paltz, N.Y. Other houses privately owned. 

Significance. Five stone houses clustered along New Paltz' Huguenot 
Street constitute a remarkable picture of an early 18th-century commu- 
nity. They are: Abraham Hasbrouck House, Louis Bevier House, 

The Daniel du Bois House is one of several 18th-century dwellings that 
make Huguenot Street in New Paltz, N.Y., a vivid link with Huguenot 
settlement in colonial America. Courtesy, Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 181 

Daniel du Bois House, Hugo Freer House, and Jean Hasbrouck House 
(Memorial House). Huguenot settlement, both Walloon and French, 
was a significant facet of American development in the 17th and 18th 
centuries, and nowhere is it more graphically illustrated by historic 
buildings than at New Paltz. Although the original Huguenot settle- 
ment of New Paltz dates from the latter part of the 17th century, the five 
listed houses are of the 18th century, incorporating parts of the earlier 
wooden houses they replaced. 

Although surrounded by the Dutch and friendly with them, the 
Huguenot settlers of New Paltz resisted intermarriage with their neigh- 
bors and for many years preserved their own way of life. For all 
practical purposes, they were an independent, self-governing body that 
the Crown and, later, the State of New York, tolerated. In 1785 the 
State legislature confirmed the ancient grants and petitions and incor- 
porated the town into the State government. The original system of gov- 
ernment for New Paltz consisted of a council of 12 heads of families. 
Later descendants of the original dozen continued to govern, exercising 
judicial power, allocation of land, etc. The plain folk who settled New 
Paltz did not have the widespread influence on American social and cul- 
tural development that can be claimed for the more sophisticated 
Huguenot communities in Charleston and elsewhere, but nowhere is 
Huguenot settlement better preserved in terms of extent and integrity of 
physical remains than on Huguenot Street in New Paltz. Even without 
its Huguenot associations, the existence of five early 18th-century build- 
ings on one continuously inhabited street would justify recognition of the 
New Paltz community as an outstanding survivor of colonial America. 
When the deeper significance is added of Huguenot Street as a haven for 
European refugees, the New Paltz community may well be unique in 
terms of its period and historical significance. 

Present Appearance. The houses of Huguenot Street have a pro- 
nounced Dutch colonial aspect. The Jean Hasbrouck House, built 
about 1712 by one of the 12 original patentees of the settlement, has 
been preserved in original form to an unusual degree. Its rough stone 
walls, topped by high, steep-pitched roof, give it an appearance almost 
medieval in character. The interior follows the center-hall plan, with 
two rooms on each side. At the entrance door is an early shed stoop. 
This house is owned by the Huguenot Patriotic, Historical, and Monu- 
mental Society, and is open to the public as a historic-house museum. 
The Abraham Hasbrouck House, built about 1717, is also relatively 


unaltered. Its rough-faced stone walls, gabled roof with sloping shed 
dormers and three chimneys, strongly reflect Dutch colonial design. 

The Daniel du Bois House was built about 1775 on the site of an 
earlier stone fortress, the walls of which may have been incorporated in 
the later dwelling. The house was enlarged and its interior altered in the 
19th century. The center portion of the Bevier House, home of an 
original New Paltz patentee, dates from the end of the 17th century, 
although the house was substantially enlarged about 1735. In addition 
to the thick stone walls and steep-pitched roof, the Freer House, built 
early in the 18th century, has clapboard gable windows, solid shutters, 
and divided door with overhang hood, common in Dutch colonial 
architecture. In addition to the above houses, the Deyo House may also 
be mentioned, although portions of the walls of the present house are all 
that remain of the original structure built by Pierre Deyo, another of the 
New Paltz patentees. The house was extensively remodeled in the 1 9th 
century, and little of its original construction was spared. 81 

3. Elfreth's Alley, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Location. North of Arch Street between Front and Second Streets, 

Ownership and Administration. Privately owned houses and four 
houses owned or leased by the Elfreth's Alley Association. 

Significance. The dwellings fronting this narrow street are a unique 
representation of Philadelphia architecture. Half of those now standing 
were erected either before the middle of the 18th century or before the 
opening years of the Revolution, while the other half were constructed 
in the postcolonial and Federal years. 

The alley itself was opened between 1702 and 1704 by mutual agree- 
ment between Arthur Wells and John Gilbert, both of whom lived on 
Front Street. Wells donated 5 feet of land extending from Front to 
Second Streets on the south side of the intended alley, while Gilbert, who 
owned the land on the north, donated 10 feet. Because Arthur Wells 
died shortly after the alley was paid out, it was first known as Gilbert's 
Alley. Following his death it came to be called Preston's Alley, after 
Paul Preston, who had married Gilbert's widowed daughter-in-law. 
Not until about 1750 was it commonly called Elfreth's Alley, for Jere- 
miah Elfreth, who then lived on Second Street just north of the alley. 
His first wife was a sister of Paul Preston's wife, and his fifth wife was the 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 183 

widow of a grandson of Arthur Wells. Elfreth had acquired title, through 
these two wives, to land on both sides of the alley at its Second Street end. 

By the time the alley came to be known by Elfreth's name most of 
the present dwellings on the south side and two on the north side, at 
the west corner of Bladen's Court, had been built. Of these the two 
oldest surviving dwellings on the entire alley are Nos. 120 and 122 on 
the south side. Benjamin Franklin frequently visited the latter house, 
undoubtedly, because William Maugridge, the tenant from 1728 to 1731, 
was one of the original members of Franklin's junto. 

The house next oldest is probably No. 108, built sometime after 1725 
and before 1750 by Thomas Wells, a shipwright and the eldest son of 
Arthur Wells. Across the street on the north side, the two-story house 
at the northwest corner of Bladen's Court, No. 117, was probably built 
about 1734 by William Parker, a young blacksmith; the house next 
door, No. 119, was built between 1737 and 1747. This house was 
purchased in 1757 by Matthias Meyer, a German potter from Hilsbach. 
His daughter Hannah was married here in 1770 to the Reverend John 
Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg, the "fighting parson" of Revolutionary fame, 
whose father, Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, patriarch of the Lutheran 
Church in Pennsylvania, often called on the Meyers when he was in 
the city. 

Next in age are the two houses numbered 130 and 132 across the 
alley on the south side near Second Street. These were built for income- 
producing purposes shortly after 1741 by Adam Clampffer, a German 
shopkeeper who lived nearby on Second Street. He and his heirs 
rented both properties to a succession of tenants until after the Revolu- 
tion. By the middle of the 19th century, the narrow little house now 
No. 134 had replaced the original frame tavern and shop erected long 
before the Revolution. Sometime between 1 753 and 1 755 Richard Hall, 
a house carpenter, built the house numbered 118. Moses Mordecai, one 
of the original members of Mikveh Israel Congregation, was a tenant 
here in 1769 and possibly earlier. Jeremiah Elfreth built No. 124 and 
the original dwelling at No. 126 between 1741 and 1762, when he sold 
both properties. House No. 126 is being restored and will be used as 
a permanent museum for the Elfreth's Alley Association. 

Down toward Front Street, Nos. 110, 112, and 114 were erected 
sometime between 1757 and 1762 by Thomas Patterson, another house 
carpenter. The three-story house at No. 1 1 6 represents the postcolonial 
period. It was built in 1785-86 by the brothers Benjamin and Enoch 


Taylor, who were bricklayers and masons. Across the street, No. 137, 
near Second Street, was built in 1 789 by the cabinetmaker Josiah Elfreth, 
a grandson of Jeremiah Elfreth. The house adjoining on the east, No. 
135, is known as the Coach House from the high arched passage that 
originally led back to stables belonging to Jeremiah Elfreth's house on 
Second Street. In 1811 the premises were described as "brick stores" 
owned by a distiller, John Angue, who had purchased the frame shops 
and the Elfreth dwelling, fronting on Second Street, in 1805. Whether 
the present house is identical with the brick stores or was erected after 
1811 has not been established definitely. 

Apparently the first dwelling built on the north side of the alley, erected 
between 1713 and 1727, occupied the sites of the lots now numbered 1 29 
and 131. The present dwellings on the site, Nos. 129 and 131, pre- 
sumably were built between 1796 and 1798. At the opposite end of the 
alley on the same side, the two houses numbered 109 and 111 appear 
to have been put up by John Pechin, a carpenter, possibly about 1811. 
On the site of the present No. 109 there had been an earlier dwelling, 
probably built between 1775 and 1779, which was occupied for 6 
months in 1780 by Stephen Girard. The next two houses, Nos. 113 and 
115, were probably built between 1805 and 1809 by Ephraim Haines. 
Haines had purchased the two lots in the autumn of 1805, at which time 
they included two brick stables. That on No. 113 had been erected 
in 1763, while the one on No. 115, standing since 1748 when the 
premises included "a large smith's shop * * * with four good forges, 
good stable and garden behind the same," was then owned by the black- 
smith, William Parker, who was living in No. 117. 

Bladen's Court, separating these last two properties, was opened be- 
tween 1749 and 1753 by Abraham Carlile and Thomas Maule. The 
latter had recently purchased No. 1 1 7 from Parker but lived in Front 
Street north of the alley and next door to Carlile. Both their Front Street 
properties extended west this far. Carlile had the dubious distinction 
of being one of the two loyalist Quakers hanged in 1778. During the 
British occupation of Philadelphia in 1777, he had served the British 
as a keeper of the city gates at the north end of the town. A house car- 
penter and original member of the Carpenters' Company, he may have 
built the Spinning-Wheel House at the north end of the court, for it 
stands on what was once his property. The remaining houses in the 
center of the north side of the alley represent the Federal period of 
domestic architecture. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [185 

Until 1775, the sites of the present Nos. 125 and 127 may have been 
occupied by the "pothouse and potter's kiln," which were adjuncts of the 
property in 1741. The land was vacant, however, when Daniel Trotter 
purchased these two lots and the two to the west in 1793. He built a 
frame shop on No. 125 and in 1798 a second shop on No. 127. These 
were purchased by Barney Schumo, a turner, in 1810. Before his death 
he may have built the present No. 127, because his executors in 1819 sold 
a "messuage" and lot here. The dwelling now No. 125 — the only four- 
story house on the alley — was not erected until after 1836. 

It is obvious that these little houses were not the dwellings of merchant 
princes or members of the so-called first rank of society, but were occupied 
by artisans and tradesmen. Many of them stayed here only a year or two, 
although others lived out their lives on the alley. Only a handful were 
more than lightly touched by the decisive events of their particular 
generation; for many, so fleeting was their stay that few recorded evi- 
dences of their lives here have survived. Yet the houses themselves have 
survived, practically unchanged, while the city around them has altered 
to such an extent that only a vestige of its original character remains, and 
the alley is a present witness of the past. 

Present Appearance. To preserve the alley, the Elfreth\s Alley Associ- 
ation was established in 1934 as a nonprofit organization, its membership 
open to all. The association has acquired title to the two easternmost 
houses on Bladen's Court: Nos. 1 and 2, better known as the Spinning- 
Wheel House, and leased for $1 a year each No. 114, where Daniel 
Trotter lived for 30 years, and No. 124, occupied by the chairmakers 
Gilbert Gaw and John B. Ackley in the 1790's. The rental income de- 
rived from these four properties is used for their maintenance and for 
the upkeep of the association garden in the rear of Bladen's Court. 

Elfreth's Alley Day is held annually on the first Saturday in June. 
From noon until 5 o'clock various alley residents open their homes to the 
public, and hostesses garbed in colonial costumes serve lunch and welcome 
visitors. The income derived from this annual fete day is currently used 
for restoring No. 126, owned by the Philadelphia Society for the Preserva- 
tion of Landmarks. At this writing, the exterior of the building has 
been restored and restoration of the front room on the first floor is par- 
tially completed. When finished, the first floor of the restored building 
will be used as a permanent museum and gift shop and the second 
floor as a permanent headquarters for the association. On the third 
floor a small apartment will be occupied by a permanent caretaker, thus 


permitting the building to be open to visitors all year. 

Late in 1957 the association, believing that tradition and legend 
should be bolstered by fact, agreed to engage a researcher to investigate 
the history of the alley and its colonial residents. Title searches were 
made to establish the physical development of the alley and definitive his- 
torical and genealogical research begun to determine the background, 
relationships, and activities of the people who lived on and were associated 
with Elfreth's Alley. 82 

4. Charleston, South Carolina 

Location. Two "old and historic areas," one bounded approximately 
by Broad, East Bay, East Battery, South Battery, Logan, or Lenwood 
Streets, and the other by Cumberland, State, Chalmers, and Meeting 

Ownership and Administration. Various ownerships, mostly private. 

Significance. When the Oyster Point Peninsula became the seat of 
government for the Carolina Colony in 1 680, its strategic location at the 
junction of the Ashley and Cooper Rivers promised a bright future for the 
infant city. The promise was fully borne out in the following century, 
when Charleston became the largest and wealthiest metropolis south of 
Philadelphia. This wealth — based on rice, indigo, and furs — together 
with a cosmopolitan population made Charleston one of the most sophis- 
ticated colonial cities. 

Nowhere were wealth and culture more graphically exemplified than 
in architecture. During the 18th century, and even up until the catas- 
trophe of the 1860's, Charlestonians had the means to build on as grand 
a scale as they liked. At the same time, the peculiar climatic conditions — 
heat, humidity, and the prevailing sea breezes — encouraged an archi- 
tectural adaptation that continued to influence construction until com- 
paratively recent times. Peculiarly Charlestonian is the "single house" 
design, one room in width, with a long side piazza to catch the breeze. 

Present Appearance. Despite wars, a series of costly fires, and a major 
earthquake, much of historic Charleston has survived. Within the 2 
"old and historic areas" are about 550 buildings dating from the 18th 
and the first half of the 19th centuries. St. Michael's Episcopal Church 
and the Miles Brewton and Robert Brewton Houses are treated elsewhere 
in this volume, as well as the Col. John Stuart House, the Colonial Powder 
Magazine, the Daniel Elliott Huger House, the Exchange (Custom- 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 187 

house), the French Protestant Huguenot Church, and the Jacob Motte 
and William Rhett Houses. The following are also worthy of special 
notice : 

(1) City Hall, 80 Broad Street. Constructed in 1800-1801 as a 
branch of the Bank of the United States, with design attributed to Gabriel 

( 2 ) William Blacklock House, 1 8 Bull Street. Built about 1 800 of the 
noted "Carolina gray" brick. Privately owned. 

(3) First Baptist Church, 61 Church Street. Robert Mills designed 
this impressive Greek Revival building, which was dedicated in 1822. 

(4) Heyward House, 87 Church Street. Built about 1770, it was 
owned by Thomas Heyward, Jr., a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. Washington visited there for a time in 1791. Owned by the 
Charleston Museum. 

(5) St. Philip's Episcopal Church, 146 Church Street. Third church 
used by the congregation, it was begun in 1835 and the steeple, designed 
by E. B. White, was added in 1 848-50. 

(6) Old Marine Hospital, 20 Franklin Street. Designed by Robert 
Mills, it was constructed in 1833. Now headquarters of the Charleston 
Housing Authority. 

(7) College of Charleston, 66 George Street. The central building, 
designed by William Strickland, was built in 1828-29, with wings and 
portico by E. B. White in 1850. The library, by George W. Walker, was 
built in 1854, and the porter's lodge about 1850, by E. B. White. 

(8) Simmons-Edwards House, 14 Legare Street. Built about 1800 
by Francis Simmons, it is noted for its iron fence and gates. Privately 

(9) Nathaniel Russell House, 51 Meeting Street. Built about 1808, 
it is a notable example of Adam architecture, possibly designed by 
Russell Warren. Headquarters of the Historic Charleston Foundation. 

(10) Branford-Horry House, 59 Meeting Street. Double house built 
by William Branford about 1751, with portico added by Elias Horry in 
thel830's. Privately owned. 

(11) South Carolina Society Hall, 72 Meeting Street. Home of a 
society dating from the colonial period, the building was designed in 1800 
by Gabriel Manigault and the portico added in 1825, after a design by 
Frederick Wesner. 

(12) Court House, 77 Meeting Street. Constructed in 1752 as the 
statehouse, it was rebuilt within the original walls after a fire in 1788 and 


has been used as the seat of county government since 1790. 

(13) Fireproof Building, 100 Meeting Street. Designed by Robert 
Mills, it was constructed in 1822-27 and now houses the South Carolina 
Historical Society. 

(14) Joseph Manigault House, 350 Meeting Street. A simplified 
Adam-style mansion, it was the earliest work of Gabriel Manigault, dating 
from about 1790. Owned by the Charleston Museum. 

(15) Gen. William Washington House, 8 South Battery. Built by 
Thomas Savage about 1768, it was acquired by Washington in 1785. 
Privately owned. 

(16) William Gibbes House, 64 South Battery. A three-story clap- 
board house built before 1 789 and redecorated in the Adam style in 1 794. 
Privately owned. 83 

5. Williamsburg, Virginia 

Location. The restored area, about 130 acres in the center of Wil- 
liamsburg, is bounded roughly by Francis, Waller, Nicholson, North 
England, Lafayette, and Nassau Streets. 

Ownership and Administration. Property within the restored area, 
with a few exceptions, is owned by Colonial Williamsburg, Inc. 

Significance. Williamsburg was the colonial capital of Virginia, from 
1699 to 1 780, and was highly important as a political and cultural center. 
More than 80 surviving colonial buildings would qualify Williamsburg 
as an important historic community under any conditions, but the re- 
markable restoration project that has been carried out under the corpora- 
tion founded and financed by the late John D. Rockefeller, Jr., has made 
it unique. Since its inception in 1926 the project has involved restora- 
tion of the original structures, and reconstruction on the original sites of 
more than 400 buildings. More than 90 gardens in Williamsburg have 
been restored in keeping with 1 8th-century designs, using only plants and 
flowers known to have been grown here before 1800. Painstaking re- 
search has preceded every step of the project, and the excellent interpre- 
tive program gives Colonial Williamsburg great value as a living exhibit 
of the 18th-century way of life. Skilled craftsmen in 18th-century attire 
are constantly occupied in their respective shops, restored and equipped 
with authentic tools, producing items of silverware, ironwork, woven 
fabrics, and other articles of the kind made here in the 18th century. 

Life at Williamsburg in the 1 700's encompassed not only the common 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 

[ 189 

folk but also many of the extraordinary figures of the period. Patrick 
Henry, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, George Mason, George 
Wythe, Edmund Randolph, and other leading patriots served as bur- 

The Public Magazine, one of the remaining original structures, stands 
near the center of Williamsburg, the restored colonial capital of Virginia. 

gesses here, debated and resolved the important issues that resulted in 
many of our democratic concepts, and played important roles in the 
movement for independence. Through association with places fre- 
quented by patriot leaders, as well as by the creation of its unique at- 
mosphere, Colonial Williamsburg fulfills its purpose, that "the future may 
learn from the past." 

Within the town of Williamsburg, but outside the boundaries of the 
Rockefeller-sponsored project, is the College of William and Mary, the 
second-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, birth- 
place of the famous honor society, Phi Beta Kappa. The college con- 

689-192 0-64— 15 


tributes to the atmosphere at Williamsburg in several important ways, 
not only because of its important library and learned faculty, and the 
efforts of its departments of drama, fine arts, and history in 18th-century 
studies, but also because of the Wren Building (described separately in 
this study, pp. 175-176), Brafferton Hall (built in 1723 to house the first 
permanent Indian school in the Colonies), and the president's house, 
which was built in 1732 and has been used since then by the chief 
executives of the college. 

The historical character of the area is enriched still further by the 
fact that Williamsburg is so close to Jamestown, the first permanent 
English settlement, founded in 1607 and capital of Virginia until 1699. 
On the other side of Williamsburg and almost as close is Yorktown, 
scene of the surrender of Lord Cornwallis which assured American in- 
dependence in the Revolutionary War. (See p. 73.) These historic 
areas are connected by the Colonial Parkway, which passes through 
Williamsburg. Colonial Parkway, Yorktown Battlefield, and part of 
Jamestown Island, are administered together as Colonial National His- 
torical Park, a unit of the National Park System. 

Present Appearance. Within the boundaries of Colonial Williams- 
burg are more than 500 original (restored) and reconstructed buildings. 
The following are the most important of the original structures : 

( 1 ) Public Magazine, Market Square. Built in 1715-16 to hold the 
public arms and ammunition, its most dramatic moment came on the 
night of April 20-21, 1775, when the colonial Governor, Lord Dunmore, 
removed the powder to prevent it from falling into the hands of the 
colonial militia. Owned by the Association for the Preservation of 
Virginia Antiquities. 

(2) Ludwell-Paradise House, Duke of Gloucester Street. A large 
brick house built before 1717 by Philip Ludwell II and later occupied 
by his daughter Lucy, widow of John Paradise. 

(3) Old Court House, Duke of Gloucester Street. Built in 1770, 
it now houses an interesting archeological exhibit. 

( 4 ) Bruton Parish Church, Duke of Gloucester Street. Built in 1710- 
15, with the tower added in 1769, the church was restored in the first 
decade of the 20th century by the Reverend W. A. R. Goodwin, who 
later inspired John D. Rockefeller, Jr., to undertake the Williamsburg 
restoration. Here, as young men, came Presidents Washington, Jeffer- 
son, Monroe, and Tyler, as well as many other distinguished Virginia 
leaders and statesmen. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 

[ 191 

(5) George Wythe House, Palace Green. Built about 1750 by the 
amateur architect, Richard Taliaferro, it was left to his son-in-law, 
George Wythe, 20 years later. One of the leading Virginians of his 
generation, Wythe taught law to Jefferson, John Marshall, James Mon- 
roe, and Henry Clay. 

The most notable reconstructed buildings are : 


( 1 ) The Capitol, end of Duke of Gloucester Street. Original con- 
structed 1701-5. Reconstructed to the precise specifications of the 
original, using clay obtained from vacant lots within town for the bricks, 
handmade and kilned locally. 

Once the seat of Government of a vast and powerful colony that stretched 
to the Mississippi River, the colonial Capitol Building at Williamsburg has 
been carefully reconstructed to its appearance of the early 1700's. Here 
met not only the high court and Governor's Council, but also the House of 
Burgesses, America's first representative legislative assembly. Courtesy, 
Colonial Williamsburg. 


(2) The Governor's Palace, Palace Green. Original constructed 
1706-20. The handsome, Georgian structure is flanked by beautifully 
paneled brick offices and guardrooms. On the grounds are a smoke- 
house, laundry, wellhead, salthouse, formal gardens, and an orchard, 
including an artificial canal and a holly maze. 

(3) Raleigh Tavern, Duke of Gloucester Street. Original built be- 
fore 1742. This long, lJ/ 2 -story frame hostelry ranked next only to the 
Capitol as a scene of Revolutionary activities. 84 

Other Sites Considered 

In the process of selecting the comparatively few historic sites of 
such outstanding character as to merit recognition as Registered National 
Historic Landmarks, a great many sites were studied, evaluated, and 
found not to meet the criteria. The sites described below are deemed to 
possess noteworthy historical values but not to possess "exceptional value" 
within the meaning of the criteria, within the segment of history dis- 
cussed here. Such sites may satisfy the criteria as applied to other phases 
of history, however. 


1. Jonathan Trumbull War Office 

Location: West Town Street off Conn. 89, Lebanon, New London 

Tradition identifies Trumbull's "War Office," a simple frame building, 
as the headquarters from which Gov. Jonathan Trumbull rendered 
valuable service to the patriot cause by forwarding much-needed supplies 
to the Continental Army. The structure dates probably from about 
1732 and was originally a store — its proprietor Joseph Trumbull, father 
of Jonathan. The "War Office" formerly stood next to the Trumbull 
home, but both buildings have been moved and it now rests diagonally 
across Lebanon Commons from the home. The building was restored in 
1891 when it was acquired by the Connecticut Society of the Sons of the 
American Revolution. 

I 193 


2. Nathan Hale Birthplace 

Location: South Street, Coventry, Tolland County. 

This house was built in 1776 by the father of Nathan Hale, the "Martyr 
Spy of the American Revolution." Hale never saw the completed house 
because he was executed on September 22, 1776, more than a month 
before the family moved into the structure. The older dwelling, in which 
Hale was born on June 6, 1755, was pulled down after the building of 
the new house. According to local tradition, a part of the ell of the 
present house is a remnant of the original birthplace structure. The 
house has notable woodwork detail and has been furnished handsomely 
by the Connecticut Antiquarian and Landmark Society. 

3. Newgate Prison and Granby Copper Mines 

Location: East Granby, Hartford County. 

The mines on Copper Hill at East Granby, often called the Simsbury 
mines, were reportedly the first copper mines developed in British Amer- 
ica. The first company to work the mines was established in 1707. 
"Granby coppers" were coins in common use for many years after 1737. 
In 1773 the mine caverns were made the permanent prison for the colony, 
and Tory prisoners were confined there during the Revolution. In 1790 
Newgate became the State prison and served this purpose until 1827. 
The prison structures, dating mostly from the early 19th century, are 
largely in ruins although the copper caverns still survive. 

4. CoocfTs Bridge 

Location: Christiana Creek, 2 miles southeast of Newark and 1 mile 
east of Del. 896, New Castle County. 

About 700 American troops under Gen. William Maxwell ambushed 
a part of the British Army advancing against Philadelphia and a sharp 
little battle occurred here on September 3, 1777. The redcoats gradually 
forced the Continentals back and, when their units became disorganized, 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [195 

Maxwell's men fled to rejoin the main part of their army. This was the 
only Revolutionary War action in Delaware. Although the Americans 
lost the skirmish, the British victory had little effect on the campaign 
against Philadelphia. Cooch House stands near the bridge and was oc- 
cupied for a short time by the British general, Cornwallis. It was built 
in 1 760 and is privately owned. Maxwell's skirmish is commemorated 
by a monument at the entrance to the Cooch House grounds. 

5. New Castle 

Location: On the Delaware River 6 miles south of Wilmington, 
New Castle County. 

New Castle was founded in 1651 by Peter Stuyvesant as the seat of New 
Netherland government on the South (Delaware) River, the counterpart 
of New Amsterdam on the Hudson. It received its present name when 
seized by the British in 1664, after being called Fort Casimir and New 
Amstel by the Dutch, and Trinity by the Swedes who held it briefly. 
William Penn received the colony in 1682, and it was the place where 
he first set foot in America. It was the colonial capital and very briefly 
the State capital of Delaware. 

Several important early structures are preserved in New Castle, in- 
cluding the brick State (Court) House, the center portion of which was 
built early in the 18th century, with subsequent additions over a period 
of 200 years; the Amstel House, built before 1730, home of the first 
Governor of Delaware, Nicholas Van Dyke; Immanuel Episcopal 
Church, built between 1703 and 1710; the Governor Gunning-Bedford 
House of about 1730; and the Presbyterian Church, built in 1707. 
New Castle's historic buildings collectively represent a broad span of 
occupation and will be examined in more detail as a historic district in 
the study dealing with architecture. 


6. Fort King George and Fort Oarien 

Location: On the Altamaha River 1 mile east of Darien, Mcintosh 

Fort King George was established in 1721 as one of a chain of frontier 


forts intended to block the eastward expansion of France and Spain in 
North America. It consisted of a rude wooden stockade on a low bluff 
overlooking the Altamaha River. It was burned in 1725, rebuilt in 
1726, and abandoned in 1727. Nine years later, however, a colony of 
Scottish Highlanders built a stockade nearby, called Fort Darien, which 
was an important defensive bastion in the early years of Georgia. A 
contingent from Darien was present in 1742 at the Battle of Bloody 
Marsh, which turned back the last full-scale Spanish attempt to destroy 
the colony. 

Fort King George State Park (12 J/2 acres), administered by the 
Georgia Historical Commission, includes the sites of both forts. No 
trace of Fort Darien remains above ground, but the site of Fort King 
George is marked by the remains of a moat and an earthwork embank- 
ment, possibly altered somewhat by 19th-century lumbering operations 
on the bluff. Archeological excavations have disclosed a military ceme- 
tery with about 100 burials, and the site of an earlier Spanish occupation. 

7. Kettle Creek Battlefield 

Location: 8 miles southwest of Washington, north of Ga. 44, Wilkes 

Georgia and South Carolina militia under Elijah Clarke, John Dooly, 
and Andrew Pickens fell upon a Tory force under Col. John Boyd, 
en route to Augusta. Pickens, the senior officer, concentrated his troops 
and attacked at breakfast time on February 14, 1779. The surprised 
Tories recovered and made a momentary advance, but were then driven 
across Kettle Creek and dispersed after Boyd fell with a mortal wound. 

Augusta, just occupied by the British, was evacuated by them a few 
days after Kettle Creek, but other British forces shortly won a new victory 
that led to the reoccupation of Augusta. Kettle Creek thus had no de- 
cisive effect on the course of the war, but it boosted patriot moral and 
checked sharply the cause of loyalism in Georgia and South Carolina. 
The Daughters of the American Revolution own 1 2 acres of the battle- 
field. A memorial shaft erected by the Federal Government in 1930 is 
located on the plot, which otherwise appears much as it did at the time of 
the battle. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 197 

8. New Ebenezer 

Location: 13 miles north of Rincon, Effingham. County, on the 
Savannah River near Ga. 275. 

Two hundred Salzburg Lutherans, who came to America to escape 
religious persecution, settled in 1736 at New Ebenezer after spending 2 
years in a temporary colony 6 miles to the west. They built the first 
church in Georgia, in 1741 — replaced in 1769 by the present brick 
structure. Their gristmill and sawmill were the first in Georgia; their 
ricemill probably the first in the present United States. Silk culture 
was their most successful industry, however, and was practiced here long 
after it was abandoned elsewhere in Georgia. The town was depopu- 
lated in 1779 when British troops occupied the area, terrorizing the 
inhabitants and using the church for a hospital and stable. New Ebe- 
nezer never regained its prominence and within half a century had 
become almost a ghost town. 

The site of New Ebenezer today is largely second-growth pine and 
other small timber, with a few open patches. The only original build- 
ing still standing is Jerusalem Church (1769), recently renovated. 
Nearby is a burial ground dating from the late 18th century. Con- 
nected to the church by a breezeway is a modern Salzburger Memorial 
Parish House, built in 1957-58 to house a small museum dealing with the 
history of the Salzburgers in America. 


9. Fort Sackville (George Rogers Clark State Memorial) 

Location: U.S. 50 near Lincoln Memorial Bridge (Wabash River) , 
in Vincennes. 

The George Rogers Clark Memorial, a Doric temple surrounded by land- 
scaped grounds, stands on the site of Fort Sackville, the British post cap- 
tured by Clark in his daring raid from Kaskaskia in February 1779. 
Clark's operations against the British in the Old Northwest played an im- 
portant role in opening the territory to American occupation, and the 
seizure of Sackville was a dramatic and significant episode in the cam- 


paign. Seven large murals depict Clark's life and the events that helped 
win the Old Northwest for the United States. A bronze statue of Clark 
stands in the center of the structure. 


10. Blue Licks Battlefield 

Location: U.S. 68 at crossing of Licking River, near Blue Lick 
Springs, Nicholas County. 

A State park of 100 acres commemorates the battle of August 19, 1 782, in 
which Indians ambushed and badly defeated a pursuing force of Ken- 
tuckians. Often called the "last battle of the Revolution," it was the 
worst defeat suffered by an American force in Kentucky during the 
war. Daniel Boone was one of the Kentucky commanders; his son Israel 
was slain in the fighting. Some American dead are buried on the field, 
and a museum contains a small relief model of the field with points of 
interest identified. Most of the battlefield is included in the park area. 

1 1 . Fort Boonesborough 

Location: 9 miles north of Richmond on U.S. 227, Madison 

Daniel Boone began to construct the stockade, Fort Boonesborough, in 
April 1 775, with his 30 axmen who had just opened the Wilderness Road 
through Cumberland Gap. Boonesborough was the scene of the Transyl- 
vania Convention in May 1775, the first legislative assembly west of the 
Appalachians. The stockade was not completed until Indian hostilities 
beginning in July 1776 made it necessary. Among several attacks during 
the War for Independence, the most notable was a 2-week siege in 
September 1778. Boonesborough was the busiest town in the western 
country after settlement reopened following George Rogers Clark's bril- 
liant campaign of 1778-79. A rapid decline followed, however, and 
it soon became a ghost town. 

A Daughters of the American Revolution marker is located on the 
original site of the fort, set off by a stone wall, but no trace remains of 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 199 

the stockade itself. The Transylvanians of Henderson, Ky., have placed 
another marker nearby. The cabins of a resort development cover part 
of the site. During winter, the resort is closed and visitor access to the 
site is prevented. 

1 2. Fort Harrod 

Location: Pioneer Memorial State Park, Lexington and Warwick 
Streets, Harrodsburg, Mercer County. 

Followers of James Harrod claimed the distinction of establishing the 
first permanent settlement in Kentucky, at Harrodsburg in 1775, after 
a false start in 1774. Fort Harrod was built in 1777 and was one of three 
Kentucky stations that held out successfully against Indian attacks during 
the critical early years of the War for Independence. George Rogers 
Clark was at Fort Harrod when he planned his remarkable campaign 
of 1778-79. 

The fort disappeared quickly after its period of usefulness ended, to 
be marked only by a neglected burial ground. The citizens of Kentucky 
undertook in the 1920's to develop the area surrounding the fort site 
as Pioneer Memorial State Park, and it was dedicated as such in 1934. 
The fort has been reconstructed at the park, on a slightly reduced scale, 
consisting of blockhouses and cabins connected by a 12-foot-high log 
palisade. The original spring, still flowing, stands within the enclosure. 
The buildings are furnished with pioneer relics. 

1 3. Locust Grove 

Location: Blankenbaker Lane, Louisville. 

This house was the home of George Rogers Clark during the last 9 years 
of his life. It was built by his brother-in-law, Maj. William Croghan, 
in 1802-5. After Clark's death in 1818 he was buried on the property 
and his body remained there until 1869 when it was moved to Cave Hill 
Cemetery in Louisville. A red brick house of architectural distinction, 
especially noted for its interior paneling, Locust Grove will be treated 
at greater length in the study dealing with architecture. 



14. Arnold Trail 

Location: Between Augusta and the Canadian border; see below. 

Benedict Arnold's expedition in the autumn of 1775 failed in its objective 
of seizing Quebec, but it had an important result in forcing the division 
of Lord Howe's army to provide reinforcements for Quebec. Thus Howe 
could not subjugate the Middle States in 1776, and the British suffered a 
major setback trying to reunite Howe's army in 1777. Arnold left Fort 
Western (now Augusta) on September 24, 1775, moved up the Kennebec 
River about 70 miles, portaged to the Dead River, followed up it to Chain 
of Ponds near the present Canadian border, and arrived at Quebec early 
in November with 600 of the 1,100 men with whom he had started. 
The route can be determined along rivers with considerable accuracy. 
The sites of numerous portages and campgrounds need fuller study, 
however, which has been undertaken by the Maine Division of State 
Parks. The results may provide justification for classifying the Arnold 
Trail as eligible for the Registry of National Historic Landmarks. 

1 5. Fort George 

Location: Heights above Castine, Hancock County. 

The Fort George Memorial contains well-preserved earthworks of a fort 
constructed by the British in 1779 and reoccupied by them during the 
War of 1812. The site of Castine was an object of imperial rivalry for 
a century and a half, secured by the British under the treaty ending the 
Seven Years' War in 1763. The British built strong fortifications in 
1779 and in the same year turned back an American attack. The 
earthwork remains, covering about 3 acres, are now in a State memorial. 

16. Fort Halifax 

Location: U.S. 201 at Winslow, Kennebec County. 
Fort Halifax was established in 1754 as an outpost against Indian attack 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 201 

on a site selected by Gov. William Shirley. The blockhouse, the only 
such structure remaining in Maine from the Revolutionary period, 
stands on the north bank of the Sebasticook River and was on the route 
of Benedict Arnold's march to Quebec in the autumn of 1775. The 
site and blockhouse constitute a major feature of the Arnold Trail, which 
extends from Augusta to the Canadian border at Coburn Gore. (See 
pp. 35-36, 200. ) The blockhouse will be considered at greater length 
in the architectural study. 

1 7. Fort Western 

Location: Bowman Street near east end of Kennebec Bridge, 

Replicas of the original blockhouses and palisades of Fort Western stand 
on the site of New Plymouth Trading Post ( 1626), along with the sur- 
viving garrison house. Fort Western was established in 1754 for pro- 
tection against Indians, and consisted of a large garrison house for both 
officers and men, and two small blockhouses, all surrounded by a timber 
stockade. The chief historical significance of the post was as the starting 
point for Benedict Arnold's expedition against Quebec in 1775. (See 
above. ) 


18. Brice House 

Location: Prince George and East Streets, Annapolis. 

This outstanding Georgian house was begun in 1 766 and has been spared 
major alteration through almost 200 years. The house was constructed 
entirely of oversize brick on a fieldstone foundation, 186 feet long, and 
has been attributed by some authorities to William Buckland. The 35 
rooms have individual distinguishing characteristics and are notable in 
combination. The 90-foot chimneys rise above the steep-pitched roof 
and dominate the neighborhood. Brice House was acquired by a private 
owner in 1953 and has been restored with great fidelity and care. It 
will be considered further in the study of architecture. 


19. Carroll-Caton House 

Location: Lombard and Front Streets, Baltimore. 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton shared this home, his daughter's, in his 
later life. The Revolutionary patriot, signer of the Declaration of In- 
dependence, and longtime leader in Maryland affairs was born in An- 
napolis in 1737 and spent some years abroad studying law. He was an 
ardent supporter of the independence cause and served as Senator from 
Maryland in the First Congress under the Constitution. Active also 
in business affairs, he was considered one of the Nation's wealthiest 
men when he died in this home in 1832. The house was erected in 
1823, a red brick, 3j/o-story mansion with exceptional interior and ex- 
terior trim, on land given Mary and her husband, Richard, by Carroll. 
It is now a city recreation center. 

20. Chase-Lloyd House 

Location: 22 Maryland Avenue, Annapolis. 

This dwelling, attributed to William Buckland, was begun by Samuel 
Chase in 1769 and was completed probably about 1774, having been 
purchased in the meantime by Edward Lloyd IV. No other three-story 
house was built in Annapolis prior to the War for Independence. The 
great central hall is particularly distinguished, along with the wealth of 
ornamental plaster and woodwork in the interior. The last private 
owner of the house bequeathed it to the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in 1897 as a home for destitute elderly women, and the two upper 
floors are still used for this purpose. The first floor is open to the public. 

21 . Fort Frederick 

Location: 5 miles south of town of Clear Spring, Washington 
County, off U.S. 40. 

The Maryland Assembly provided for the construction of this fort in 
the spring of 1756 because the frontier was dangerously threatened by 
French and Indian attack following Gen. Edward Braddock's disastrous 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 203 

defeat near present Pittsburgh in 1755. Fort Frederick was a stone 
quadrangle with corner bastions strengthened by earthen embankments, 
placed on a plateau near the north bank of the Potomac River. It was 
designed for a garrison of 200 but could hold 400 if needed. 

Fort Frederick was garrisoned until 1763 and may have discouraged 
Indian attacks, but it played only a minor role in the French and Indian 
War. Prisoners were confined here during the War for Independence 
and a garrison was placed here during the Civil War. After a period in 
private ownership, the State of Maryland acquired it. The walls and 
other features were reconstructed or restored, based on archeological in- 
vestigations begun in 1934. The property is now included in Fort Fred- 
erick State Park, which includes a museum and recreational facilities. 


22. The Adams Birthplaces 

Locations: 133 and 141 Franklin Street, Quincy. 

John Adams lived in the house of his birth (133 Franklin Street) until 
he was 29 in 1 764. His son, John Quincy, was born in the second house 
in 1767, which was both home and law office to the father although his 
practice and public career began to keep him more and more in Boston. 
He acquired title to the first house in 1774, but both houses were occu- 
pied by tenants after 1783 while the family was in Europe. John 
Quincy purchased both houses from his father in 1 803 and lived in the 
second from 1805 to 1807. Both houses were deeded by the Adams 
heirs to the City of Quincy in 1940, and have been declared eligible 
for the Registry of National Historic Landmarks in the study of "Po- 
litical and Military Affairs, 1783-1830." They are of simple saltbox 
design, in good condition although both have undergone some altera- 
tion. The earliest part of the second house probably dates from about 
1663, while the John Adams birthplace is believed to have been built 
about 1681. 

23. Hancock-Clarke House 

Location: 35 Hancock Street, Lexington. 


John Hancock and Sam Adams were staying in this house with the 
Reverend Jonas Clarke on the eventful night of April 18, 1775. Hancock 
and Adams were hustled away before the exchange of shots on Lexing- 
ton Green, a quarter of a mile away, to avoid capture by the ap- 
proaching British force. The house was built by Hancock's grand- 
father, and he had spent seven of his boyhood years there. The earlier 
part of the house was constructed in 1698, the later in 1734. The 
Lexington Historical Society moved the building in 1896 to a new site 
across the road from its original location. A brick addition was made 
in the rear 6 years later to afford protection for valuable possessions of 
the society. 

24. Jason Russell House 

Location: 7 Jason Street, Arlington. 

Jason Russell, 58 years old and lame, conducted his family to safety on 
the opening day of the War for Independence, April 19, 1775, and then 
returned to defend his home. During the British withdrawal from Lex- 
ington and Concord toward Boston, a group of minutemen was sur- 
prised by a flanking party and took refuge in Russell's house. Russell 
himself was killed in the doorway by the pursuing British, and 1 1 of the 
patriots were killed also. Eight who took refuge in the cellar held out 
successfully. Bullet holes in the house are evidence of the fighting. A 
number of objects relating to the first day of the Revolution are dis- 
played. The gray clapboard house, erected about 1680, was occupied 
until 1890 by Russell descendents. After being turned around and 
moved back from the road, the house was rescued in 1923 by the Ar- 
lington Historical Society and carefully restored. 

25. Munroe Tavern 

Location: 1332 Massachusetts Avenue, Lexington. 

General Earl Percy, commander of the British relief party from Boston 
which aided the retreating British column being harrassed by minute- 
men on the Lexington-Concord Road on April 19, 1775, established a 
temporary headquarters at the Munroe Tavern. The building was also 
an aid station for British wounded, being located a mile southeast of 
Lexington Green. The older part of the tavern was built in 1695 and 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 205 

an ell, added sometime after 1770, existed at the time of the Revolution 
but was later removed. The building is owned and exhibited by the 
Lexington Historical Society. It is a clapboard structure, surrounded 
by large trees, containing objects dating from the Revolutionary period. 

26. Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House 

Location: 105 Brattle Street, Cambridge. 

This colonial mansion was built in 1759 by Col. John Vassall, Jr., and 
served as George Washington's headquarters for 9 months beginning in 
July 1775. More significantly, it was the home of Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow from 1837 until his death in 1882. The furnishings reflect 
the period of the poet's residence. The property is owned by the Long- 
fellow House Trust, which was formed in 1913 by members of the 
Dana and Longfellow families to preserve the structure as an outstand- 
ing historical monument and architectural example. It has been de- 
clared eligible for Registered National Historic Landmark status under 
the study of "Literature, Drama, and Music." 


27. General John Stark House 

Location: 1070 Canal Street, Manchester. 

From 1758 to 1765 this small frame dwelling was the home of the 
Revolutionary War officer, Gen. John Stark, who won his greatest fame 
in the Battle of Bennington, August 16, 1777. (See pp. 124-125.) The 
home is a good example of the farmhouse of the region and contains 
period furnishings and museum exhibits. It is owned by the Molly 
Stark Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. 

28. General John Sullivan House 

Location: Newmarket Road, Durham. 

This substantial country house, built in 1716, was John Sullivan's home 
for more than 10 years before the outbreak of the War for Independence. 

689-192 0-64— 16 


Sullivan was a member of the Second Continental Congress, which ap- 
pointed him brigadier general in June 1775, and he served with distinc- 
tion under Washington and in independent command. He retired from 
the Army in 1779, health broken after a punitive campaign against the 
Iroquois and Tories of Western Pennsylvania and New York, but later 
served New Hampshire in important posts, including that of Governor 
from 1786 to 1790. A monument near the house commemorates Sul- 
livan's services to State and Nation. The home is privately owned. 

29. John Paul Jones House 

Location: Middle and State Streets, Portsmouth. 

John Paul Jones lived in this building, then a boardinghouse, from Oc- 
tober 4 to November 7, 1782. He was in Portsmouth to supervise the 
outfitting of the America, a ship of the line being constructed for the 
Continental Navy. It was awarded to France before completion, how- 
ever, to replace a French ship wrecked off Boston through fault of a 
local pilot. The house was built in 1758 and became the property of 
the Portsmouth Historical Society in 1920, which maintains in it an 
extensive collection of items relating to Portsmouth history. 

30. Moffatt-Ladd House 

Location: 154 Market Street, Portsmouth. 

John Moffatt built this three-story house for his only son, Samuel, in 
1763, and then "rescued" the house and lived in it to the age of 94 
after creditors forced Samuel to flee from Portsmouth. The structure is 
square, with pedimented windows and quoins at the corners that lend 
interest to the somewhat plain facade. The most distinctive features 
of the house are its large paneled entrance hall and handsome staircase, 
although the interior is characterized throughout by rich ornamentation. 
It is leased from the Ladd family, collateral descendents of the builder, 
and administered by the National Society of the Colonial Dames of 
America in the State of New Hampshire. It is open to the public. 
Because its principal significance rests on its architecture, the Moffatt- 
Ladd House will be evaluated further in the architectural study. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 207 

31. Wentworth-Coolidge Mansion (Gov. Bcnning Wentworth 


Location: Off U.S. I A on Little Harbor, 2 miles south of Ports- 

The earliest part of this rambling framehouse dates from about 1695. 
Later additions gave it a total of 40 rooms, but several rooms have been 
removed and placed elsewhere. The house has considerable architec- 
tural interest, reflecting the several periods of its construction. Its his- 
torical interest is as the home and headquarters of Benning Wentworth, 
Royal Governor, 1740-67, an able defender of royal interests. He died 
here in 1770. The last private owner presented the house to the State 
of New Hampshire in 1954, and it is maintained for public benefit. 

32. Wentworth-Gardner House 

Location: Gardner and Mechanic Streets, Portsmouth. 

Madame Mark Hunking Wentworth built this exceptional Georgian 
house in 1760 as a present to her son, Thomas, a younger brother of 
John Wentworth, last Royal Governor of New Hampshire. The house 
is two stories high, with hipped roof and rusticated wood facade. The 
front door has an unusual broken-scroll pediment, and the windows in 
the lower floor are pedimented. The interior is distinguished by a 
wealth of paneling and carved woodwork. Many of the fireplaces retain 
their original Dutch tiles. The house is the property of the Wentworth- 
Gardner & Tobias Lear Houses Association, and is open to the public. 
It will receive further treatment in the study of architecture. 


33. Boxwood Hall (Boudinot House) 

Location: 1073 East jersey Street, Elizabeth. 

Elias Boudinot occupied Boxwood Hall from 1772 to 1795. He was a 
lawyer, served during the War for Independence as commissary for 


American soldiers held by the British, was President of the Continental 
Congress, a signer of the Treaty of Paris ( 1783 ), and later Superintend- 
ent of the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia. The house was built about 1750. 
It had several owners and many alterations after Boudinot moved to Phil- 
adelphia. In 1870 the two lateral wings were demolished, the gabled roof 
removed, two stories superimposed, and a service wing added at the rear. 
The Boxwood Hall Memorial Association was formed in the late 1930's 
to save the structure from demolition. It was purchased, turned over 
to the State, restored through a WPA project, and opened to the public 
in 1943 as a historic house museum. 

34. Fort Mercer 

Location: 1 mile from town of National Park, on Delaware River 
at the end of Hessian Avenue, Gloucester County. 

Fort Mercer, at Red Bank, guarded the New Jersey side of a line of 
underwater obstructions intended to close the Delaware River to British 
ships bringing supplies to the enemy garrison in Philadelphia. Two 
thousand Hessians assaulted the fort on October 22, 1777, but the 400 
defenders held firm. The attackers lost their commander and 400 men; 
the besieged fewer than 50. Fort Mifflin, on the Pennsylvania side, was 
evacuated a few weeks later after a heavy bombardment, however, 
making Mercer's position untenable. A 20-acre reserved area includes 
a monument commemorating the action of October 22 and traces of the 
fort's moat; also the Whitall House, which dates from the same period. 
The U.S. Government owns the site, which is administered by the Board 
of Chosen Freeholders. Gloucester County administers the Whitall 
House except for two rooms in the charge of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution. 

35. Middlebrook Encampment 

Location: North edge of Bound Brook on Mountain Avenue, 
Somerset County. 

George Washington's army used the Middlebrook area as a main base 
and encampment in May-June 1777 and from November 1778 to June 
1779. The Continentals covered Philadelphia and balked British opera- 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 209 

tions in New Jersey during the earlier period without risking a major 
engagement, contributing to General Howe's decision to withdraw from 
New Jersey. The use of Middlebrook as one of several army camps in 
winter and spring, 1778-79, is an interesting episode of the war. The 
Washington Camp Ground Association owns a part of the surviving camp 
area, a 23-acre tract at the north edge of town, at the foot of First 
Watchung Mountain. The tract includes a small summer cabin used 
by Girl Scouts, a speaker's stand, and a memorial flagpole. 

36. The Old Barracks 

Location: South Willow Street opposite West Front Street, Trenton. 

Colonial authorities began the construction of Trenton Barracks in 1758 
because of public resentment over the quartering of soldiers in private 
homes during the French and Indian War. The structure originally had 
a main section 130 feet long, and two wings, each 58 feet long. Officers' 
quarters were added later to the north wing. British, Hessian, and 
Continental soldiers were housed here at various times during the War 
for Independence — Hessians, for instance, at the time of Washington's 
surprise attack in December 1776. The building was sold after the war 
to private owners, and much was demolished later to provide right-of- 
way for Front Street, but in 1902 the Old Barracks Association was 
organized to preserve what remained. The property was given to the 
State in 1917, although the association continued to administer it. The 
building is maintained with public funds, and various patriotic and 
historical groups have furnished the rooms partitioned from the original 
large barracks rooms. 

37. "Rockingham" (Berrien House) 

Location: Rocky Hill, Somerset County. 

General and Mrs. George Washington lived in Berrien House, which is 
nearly 225 years old now, in 1783 while Continental Congress met at 
Princeton. Washington wrote his Farewell Address to the Army in a 
second-floor room. The house changed hands many times after the war 
until it was purchased and restored by the Washington Headquarters 
Association of Rocky Hill. Nearby quarrying operations necessitated 


removal of the structure to a site about one-quarter mile distant. In 1935 
the property was deeded to the State, and in 1956 the house was moved 
again. At this writing restoration was nearly complete and opening to 
the public anticipated soon. 

38. Wallace House 

Location: 38 Washington Place, Somerville, Somerset County. 

General and Mrs. George Washington lived in this house while part of 
the Continental Army camped at Middlebrook (see pp. 208-209), about 
5 miles to the east. The owner, William Wallace, had not completed its 
construction when the Washingtons moved in. Sullivan's expedition 
against the Iroquois in 1779 was planned here. The white clapboard 
house has had no major alteration over the years. It was acquired and 
furnished by the Revolutionary Memorial Society, and in 1946 was 
presented to the State of New Jersey as a historic-house museum. 

39. Westminster 

Location: 149 Kearny Avenue, Perth Amboy, Middlesex County. 

The Proprietory House ( Westminster) , erected in 1 764, was the residence 
of the last Royal Governor of New Jersey, Benjamin Franklin's son, 
William. It was also the headquarters of General Howe during the Brit- 
ish occupation of Perth Amboy. Soon after the Revolution the interior 
was destroyed by fire, and during most of the 19th century it served under 
various ownerships as a resort hotel. The Presbyterian Board of Relief 
for Disabled Ministers and Widows and Orphans of Deceased Ministers 
took possession in 1883, naming the structure "Westminster." Since 
1911 it has been a roominghouse and has suffered a number of alterations. 
It remains under private ownership. 


40. Conference House (Billopp House) 

Location: The foot of Hylan Boulevard, Tottenville, Staten Island. 
A British naval officer, Capt. Christopher Billopp, built this two-story, 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [211 

stone house sometime before 1 688, and in September 1776a "peace" con- 
ference was held here between Admiral Lord Howe and an American 
delegation consisting of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Edward 
Rutledge. Even though it came after the British victory on Long 
Island, the conference ended without agreement because the patriots in- 
sisted on independence and Howe required the withdrawal of the Decla- 
ration of Independence. The city of New York acquired the house in 
1926 and 3 years later placed it in custody of the Conference House As- 
sociation under whose auspices it has been restored and furnished in the 
Revolutionary period. 

41. Field of Grounded Arms 

Location: West bank of Hudson River, Schuylerville, Saratoga 

General John Burgoyne's army was stopped by Horatio Gates' American 
Army at Bemis Heights and retreated northward, to be brought to bay at 
the settlement of Saratoga, now called Schuylerville. Convinced that his 
position was hopeless, he surrendered the 6,300 men remaining under his 
command, who laid down their weapons on the Field of Grounded Arms 
on October 17, 1777. Most of the original field, 50 to 60 acres on the 
river plain, has survived as open ground, partly owned privately and the 
remainder by the Village of Schuylerville for bathing and other recrea- 
tional purposes. 

42. Fort Crown Point (Amherst) 

Location: N.Y. 8, east of intersection with N.Y. 9N and 22, at west 
end of Champlain Bridge, Essex County. 

French, British, Americans — all in turn have claimed this strategic point, 
which juts into Lake Champlain. The French built Fort St. Frederic at 
Crown Point in 1731 as a base for attacks on the northern British colonies. 
Gen. Sir Jeffrey Amherst forced them to evacuate the ruined fort in 1759. 
The new British fort, called Crown Point or Amherst, was located nearby. 
It was destroyed by fire in 1773 and played a minor role during the War 
for Independence as an outpost of Fort Ticonderoga, about 12 miles to 
the south. The stabilized ruins of barracks and earthworks are preserved 


at Crown Point in an unusual manner. The outlines of the post can be 
traced easily, and 18th-century colonial warfare is illustrated graphically 
by the ruins and their setting. Crown Point State Reservation includes 
the ruins of the French fort, also. Fort St. Frederic has been declared 
eligible for the Registry of National Historic Landmarks in connection 
with French exploration and settlement. Fort Crown Point will be 
evaluated further in the study on architecture, as a superior example 
of 1 8th-century military engineering. 

43. Fort Johnson 

Location: N.Y. 5, in village of Fort Johnson, 3 miles west of 
Amsterdam, Montgomery County. 

Sir William Johnson, Crown Superintendent of Indian Affairs, made 
Fort Johnson his home and headquarters for more than 10 years, before 
moving to Johnson Hall. (See pp. 128-130, 213.) It is a two-story 
square stone mansion with hipped roof, completed in 1 749. The interior 
woodwork is largely original, and furnishings include a number of pieces 
which belonged to Sir William. His son, John, occupied Fort Johnson 
when he moved to Johnson Hall, and as a loyalist lost the property during 
the War for Independence. Fort Johnson is now a museum maintained 
by the Montgomery Historical Society. 

44. Fort Ontario (Fort Oswego) 

Location: Oswego, right bank of the Oswego River where it flows 
into Lake Ontario. 

Fort Ontario was a key post in the colonial struggle between England and 
France, in the American Revolution, and in the War of 1812. It was 
established in 1755 and deactivated in 1945. Because it threatened the 
French fur trade, Marquis de Montcalm destroyed the original fort in 
1756; it was rebuilt by the British and burned by American troops in 
1778; rebuilt again by the British and not surrendered by them until 
1796; used as an American supply depot in the War of 1812, to be 
destroyed by the British in a raid in 1814. The final rebuilding was 
accomplished between 1839 and 1842, and the buildings remodeled 
between 1863 and 1872; however, while serving over the years as a 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [213 

military installation, prisoner-of-war camp, and emergency housing unit, 
many buildings were erected and removed. Fort Ontario is now a 
State-owned historic site, with a museum on the second floor of the 
enlisted men's barracks constructed in 1839-42. 

Fort Oswego was established in 1726-27 by the British at a site across 
the Oswego River from the later Fort Ontario, about a quarter mile 
distant, and was the first direct English encroachment into the lakes 
region claimed by the French. It was headquarters for English fur 
agents, competing with the French among the Iroquois. The site is 
marked by a stone monument surrounded by an iron fence in a commer- 
cial and industrial zone. 

45. Fort William Henry 

Location: Lake George Village, U.S. 9 near Lake George Battle- 
ground Park. 

Sir William Johnson (see p. 212) established Fort William Henry 2 
days after his September 1 755 victory on the shore of Lake George over 
the French and their Indian allies. The site was a valuable military 
prize, controlling the portage between Lake George and the Hudson 
River. The French were repulsed easily in March 1757, but succeeded 
that summer in recapturing the fort after a 6-day assault led by Marquis 
de Montcalm with nearly 8,000 regular troops, Canadians, and Indians. 
Montcalm's terms were generous, but his Indian allies could not be con- 
trolled. They fell on the occupants of the fort and murdered many. 
The fort itself was burned and leveled. Recent archeological investiga- 
tion has uncovered a wealth of 18th-century objects. The New York 
State Education Department has assisted the Fort William Henry Corp., 
formed in 1953, in reconstructing the fort. Along with nearby Lake 
George Battleground, it constitutes an interesting exemplification of 18th- 
century wilderness warfare. 

46. Fraunces Tavern 

Location: 54 Pearl Street, Manhattan, New York City. 

This is the oldest building in Manhattan, built in 1719 and acquired 
some years before the War for Independence by William Fraunces, whose 


tavern became and still is a popular meeting place. The restaurant on 
the building's first floor carries on a tradition of 200 years. It was the 
scene on December 4, 1783, of Washington's farewell to the officers of 
the Continental Army. It was restored in 1907 by the Sons of the 
American Revolution and serves as their headquarters. Exhibits, relics, 
paintings, and furnishings of the period preserve the flavor of Revolution- 
ary times. It will be considered in more detail in the study of 

47. Herkimer Home 

Location: South Bank of Mohawk River near Little Falls, on N.Y. 
58, Herkimer County. 

This dwelling was the home of Nicholas Herkimer, hero of the Battle of 
Oriskany. (See pp. 131-132.) A comfortable, two-story, brick house, 
it reflects his solid prosperity as farmer and trader. Herkimer died 10 
days after the battle from the effects of a wound and is buried in a ceme- 
tery adjacent to the General Herkimer Monument, on land that was once 
part of his estate. The house is owned by the State of New York and 
administered by the State Education Department. It contains a number 
of furnishings that belonged to him. 

48. Knox Headquarters 

Location: 4 miles southeast of Newburgh, on N.Y. 94, Orange 

General Henry Knox, distinguished officer and trusted friend of George 
Washington, made this house his headquarters on several occasions dur- 
ing the War for Independence. In addition to them, Generals Horatio 
Gates and Nathanael Greene were seen here. The earliest part of the 
building was constructed in 1734 as the hunting lodge of John Ellison; 
more was added in 1754; and the 2-story-and-attic stone structure was 
built in 1782 by William Bull. The house is well furnished with period 
furniture, and equipped with original woodwork, open fireplaces, and 
paneling which still serve as models for craftsmen. The grounds now 
include only 50 acres, chiefly woodland. Knox Headquarters is owned 
by the State of New York and administered by the State Education 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 215 

49. Newtown Battlefield 

Location: 6 miles south of Elmiia. Chemung County, on N.Y. 17. 

Generals John Sullivan and James Clinton marched through Iroquois 
country in the summer of 1779, laying waste everything in their path. 
The only open combat came as the expedition moved along the 
Chemung River and approached the Indian village of Newtown. Over 
1,500 loyalists and Iroquois led by Sir John Johnson and Joseph Brant 
attempted to ambush the Americans but were routed in a sharp battle 
on August 29. The defeat at Newtown and the widespread destruction 
caused by the expedition struck a heavy blow at the Iroquois' waning 
prestige. The Finger Lakes State Park Commission controls a 300-acre 
park which includes part of the battle site, on high ground overlooking 
the Chemung River. Traces are preserved here of the earth fortifica- 
tions thrown up as the Americans approached. A monument was 
erected in 1912 to commemorate the battle. 

50. New Windsor Cantonment (Temple Hill) 

Location: Temple Hill Road between V ail's Gate and Newburgh, 
town of New Windsor, Orange County. 

Six to eight thousand Continental Army veterans encamped here during 
1 782-83, while negotiations were completed which ended the War for 
Independence. Temple Hill, with its log "temple," built by the troops 
for a meeting place, was a central feature, where Washington quelled 
an attempt by the discontented troops to coerce Congress into settling on 
the issue of overdue pay. A fieldstone pyramid marks the approximate 
site of the log structure. The National Temple Association, Inc., owns 
two tracts totaling 67 acres and has laid plans to reconstruct the temple 
and other features of 1 782-83. A hut, moved to the site some years ago, 
is identified as an officers' quarters from the period. Washington 
maintained headquarters in Newburgh at the Hasbrouck House (see 
pp. 137-138) while his army camped here. 

51. Old Fort Niagara 

Location: N.Y. 18F, mouth of Niagara River, Youngstown, Niagara 


This location was strategic because it controlled fur-trade routes from the 
eastern Great Lakes and afforded an entry to the Northwest frontier. 
Here are found : a bronze cross honoring Father Pierre Millet and the 
French garrison who suffered exceedingly here in the winter of 1688; 
the "stone castle" built by the French in 1726 as a fortified barracks; 
several other structures dating from the colonial period, and earthworks 
from the British occupation ; a stone platform commemorating the Rush- 
Bagot Agreement of 1817, which limited armament on the Great Lakes; 
earthworks and brick casements constructed during the Civil War; and 
restorations of other Old Fort Niagara buildings, completed in the 1930's 3 
along with interpretive exhibits and dozens of mounted cannon. The 
Old Fort Niagara Association administers the site under a lease from 
the Secretary of the Army and under license from the Niagara Frontier 
State Park Commission. The site has been approved for the Registry 
of National Historic Landmarks in the study of French exploration and 

52. Schuyler Mansion 

Location: Clinton and Catherine Streets, Albany. 

Philip Schuyler, later a major general, member of the Second Conti- 
nental Congress, and U.S. Senator, one of New York's foremost land- 
owners, built this Georgian mansion in 1762. He was in command of 
the American Army that fought the delaying action down the Hudson 
Valley in the summer of 1777, against Burgoyne's invasion. Schuyler's 
Albany home, once the center of a large estate, was acquired by the 
State in 1911, restored by 1950, and is administered by the State Edu- 
cation Department. It contains many of Schuyler's personal objects and 
furnishings. It will be considered in more detail in the study of 

53. Senate House 

Location: Clinton Avenue and North Front Street, Kingston, Ulster 

This stone building dates from 1676 and served as the meeting place 
for the first session of the New York State Senate, elected under the 
constitution of April 1777. A British Fleet approached during this 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 217 

session, in September, forcing the delegates to flee to Hurley while the 
British burned Kingston, leaving only the shell of the Senate House. 
Rebuilt, it served as a private home until 1888, when the State acquired 
it as a historic property. It is administered by the State Education De- 
partment and furnished with belongings of early settlers of the region. 
A nearby museum, built in 1927, displays among other items a collection 
of paintings by the Kingston-born artist, John Vanderlyn. 

54. Thomas Paine Cottage 

Location: Corner of North and Paine Avenues, New Rochelle. 

Thomas Paine, pamphleteer of the War for Independence, lived at 
several periods in the last years of his stormy life in this two-story frame 
cottage, built about 1800. He returned to America in 1802 after 15 
years in England and revolutionary France. From 1803 to 1806 he 
lived intermittently at his home in New Rochelle, on the 300-acre farm 
given him by the State of New York. He moved to New York City in 
1806, where he died 3 years later. This New Rochelle house, moved 
from its original location nearby, serves today as a museum and head- 
quarters of the Huguenot and Historical Association of New Rochelle. 


55. Alamance Battleground 

Location: 8 miles southwest of Burlington on N.C. 62, Alamance 

The Battle of Alamance took place near the western frontier of North 
Carolina on May 16, 1771. Gov. William Tryon's militia force de- 
feated overwhelmingly a numerically superior mob of rebellious frontiers- 
men, climaxing the 7-year socioeconomic-political struggle called the 
"War of the Regulation." The battle is sometimes viewed as a pre- 
liminary engagement of the War for Independence, but it was not that. 
Instead, it was the most dramatic example of the rising struggle between 
the frontier West and the conservative East. Conditions common to the 
American frontier along with local complaints produced the Regulator 


Movement and this battle. Alamance Battleground State Historic Site, 
40 acres, administered by the State Department of Archives and History, 
includes the central part of the battlefield. A small visitor center and 
several field exhibits and markers tell the story of the struggle. 

56. Bethabara 

Location: Bethabara Road, 2 miles northwest of Winston-Salem, 
Forsyth County. 

Bethabara, or "Oldtown," was the place settled by the Moravian sect 
that came from Pennsylvania in 1753 to found the Wachovia Colony 
on land purchased from the proprietor. The town throve at first, but 
in the latter 1760's Salem, nearby to the southeast, was established as the 
Moravian "capital" and gradually drew settlers away from Bethabara. 
Little remains today except the church, built in 1788, and a few houses, 
of which only two antedate the church. Churchyard markers indicate 
the sites of the first cabin of Bethabara and the fort (erected 1756). 
Headstones in the burial ground date from 1 754. 

57. Brunswick Town 

Location: East of N.C. 40, on Cape Fear River just south of Orton 
Plantation, Brunswick County. 

Brunswick was the largest North Carolina port throughout the colonial 
period. It was important not only commercially but also politically 
after its establishment in 1726, although Wilmington soon became more 
powerful politically. Brunswick could claim to be the capital of North 
Carolina from 1758 to 1770, however, because of the residence here of 
the Royal Governor. Two important events in the town's history were 
a 4-day siege by Spanish privateers in 1748 and the "Stamp Act De- 
fiance" in February 1766, a spontaneous uprising in which vessels were 
released which had violated the Stamp Act and the Governor was placed 
under virtual house arrest. Brunswick's exposed location led to its 
abandonment and destruction during the War for Independence. A 
few families moved back into the area after the war, but it was aban- 
doned completely by 1830. 

Until 1958 the site was marked only by the empty walls of St. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [219 

Philip's Episcopal Church (built 1740-65), a few exposed foundations 
covered with underbrush, and the remains of a huge Civil War earth- 
work, Fort Anderson, overlying a corner of the town. Now established 
as Brunswick Town State Historic Site on 24 acres of donated land, the 
area is being excavated, producing many 18th-century artifacts. Trail- 
side exhibits have been set up and the foundations stabilized. 

58. Cupola House 

Location: 408 South Broad Street, Edenton, Chowan County. 

The Cupola House, probably built about 1715, combines features of 
both colonial and Georgian architectural styles, thus affording an out- 
standing example of the transition from the one to the other. The 
second-story overhang (of which no other example survives in the 
South), beaded clapboards, steeply pitched roof, and great end chim- 
neys are of colonial origin. Georgian features include the octagonal 
cupola, sliding-sash windows, and notable interior paneling. The house 
is utilized as the Edenton Public Library. 

59. Historic Halifax 

Location: Halifax, Halifax County. 

The Historical Halifax Restoration Association, Inc., has undertaken the 
restoration of the historic section of Halifax. The site has been marked 
of the courthouse in which the "Halifax Resolves" were adopted on 
April 12, 1776, the first official State action for independence. The 
Resolves were passed by the Fourth Provincial Congress of North Caro- 
lina and sent to Continental Congress where they added impetus to the 
independence movement. The colonial clerk's office and the gaol, both 
built in 1 758, still survive. Constitutional House, in which the first State 
constitution was drafted in 1776, has been moved from its original site 
and restored by the Daughters of the American Revolution. 

60. Try on Palace 

Location: Pollack and George Streets, New Bern. 

Tryon Palace was one of the finest mansions of its time and place, and 


has been compared with the Governor's Palace at Williamsburg as a 
painstaking reconstruction of an important 18th-century building. It 
was built, 1767-70, to the late Georgian design of John Hawks, an 
English architect brought to America for this purpose. The two-story 
central block contained a full basement and attic, and was used for the 
Governor's residence and assembly meetings; of the two connecting 
wings, the west was stables and the east the kitchen and Governor's 
secretary's office. The building passed into colonial control in May 
1775, and was the seat of North Carolina's State government until the 
capital was moved to Raleigh in 1 794. Deserted, the palace fell rapidly 
into ruin. In 1944 Mrs. Maude Moore Latham established a trust fund 
for its reconstruction, and next year the Tryon Palace Commission was 
established. The fund has been increased by other gifts including the 
bequest of Mrs. Latham's entire estate, making possible a comprehen- 
sive research project and careful reconstruction of the structure. With 
buildings furnished and grounds landscaped, Tryon Palace has proved 
to be the object of great visitor interest. 

61. Schoenbrunn Village 

Location: South edge of New Philadelphia, off U.S. 250 and Ohio 
16, Tuscarawas County. 

Schoenbrunn Village was founded in 1772 by a group of Moravian mis- 
sionaries and Indian converts from Pennsylvania, and was the first white 
settlement in what is now Ohio. The War for Independence spelled the 
end of the prospering little community of 60 cabins, church, school, and 
cemetery. The Moravians had of course renounced war and refused to 
bear arms for either side, and they suffered by raids from both sides. 
Rev. David Zeisberger, the leader, decided in 1777 to abandon Schoen- 
brunn and concentrate all the Ohio missions elsewhere. Members of 
the Moravian Church relocated the forgotten village in the present cen- 
tury by means of a map preserved by the mother church at Bethlehem, 
Pa. The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society acquired 
the site in 1923 and soon reconstructed a number of buildings on their 
original sites. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 221 


62. Fort Augusta 

Location: 1 mile north of Sunbury on Pa. 14, Northumberland 

The log walls of Fort Augusta, constructed in 1756-57 at the confluence 
of the North and West Branches of the Susquehanna, helped protect 
the Pennsylvania frontier against French invasion. During the War for 
Independence the fort was a base for men and supplies, headquarters 
of American forces in the upper Susquehanna Valley. Afterward, its 
usefulness ended, it fell into ruins, except for the commanding officer's 
quarters where the former commander, Col. Samuel Hunter, continued 
to reside after obtaining title to the property. This structure burned in 
1852 and was replaced by the colonel's grandson with the present Hunter 
Mansion. In 1920 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania acquired land, 
including the well and powder magazine, the only surviving features of 
the original fort. Eleven years later the tract was expanded to include 
the Hunter Mansion, which serves now as a museum. A carefully 
researched one-sixth scale model of the fort has been placed in front 
of the mansion. 

63. Fort Mifflin 

Location: On Delaware River at foot of Fort Mifflin Road, just 
east of Philadelphia International Airport, South Philadelphia. 

Fort Mifflin preserves much of its character as an example of 18th-century 
military engineering, despite modifications over the years. It was begun 
by the British, just below the mouth of the Schuylkill River, in 1772, to 
defend river approaches to Philadelphia, and completed by Maj. Gen. 
Thomas Mifflin after the War for Independence started. After the 
British captured Philadelphia in September 1777 their water trans- 
portation was blocked by Forts Mifflin and Mercer (see p. 208) and 
a series of obstructions of the Delaware River. The forts were attacked 
in October and November and defended stubbornly. Mifflin was evacu- 

689-192 0-64 — 17 


ated and destroyed by the Americans on November 16, Mercer (at 
Red Bank, N.J. ) a few days later. A new Fort Mifflin was started in the 
1790's, of stone faced with brick and banked with earth. Further con- 
struction and repairs were carried out during the War of 1812, during 
the 1830's and 1840's, during the Civil War, and during the 1930's. It 
was used for military storage in World War II. Its transfer to the City of 
Philadelphia as authorized by Congress in 1956 was pending when this 
was written. 

64. Golden Plough Tavern and Gates House 

Location: Market Street and Pershing Avenue, York. 

Continental Congress was forced to flee from Philadelphia in Septem- 
ber 1777 when the city fell to the British. York, west of the Susquehanna 
River, became the temporary seat of government, its courthouse the 
Capitol through the autumn and winter of 1777-78. This building 
has been lost, but the Golden Plough Tavern and the Gates House are 
being restored to preserve the story of formative and crucial years of 
York's past. The former, built probably about 1750, is a Germanic 
half-timber structure of great architectural interest, possibly the only 
surviving example of a form of construction once common in this area. 
The latter is identified as the quarters of Gen. Horatio Gates, who came 
to York as the victor of Saratoga and President of the Board of War in 
October 1777. A local organization, Historic York County, is carrying 
on the restorative work. Both buildings will be considered further in the 
study of architecture. 


65. General James Mitchell Varnum House 

Location: 57 Pierce Street, East Greenwich. 

James Mitchell Varnum was a lawyer, Revolutionary general, member of 
the Continental Congress, director of the Ohio Co., and Federal judge for 
the Northwest Territory. Colonel of the 1st Rhode Island Infantry in 
1775, he served with distinction before Boston and at the Battles of Long 
Island and White Plains, in command of Forts Mifflin and Mercer (see 
pp. 208, 221-222) , and at Valley Forge. He died in Marietta, Ohio, in 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 223 

1789. The Varnum House is a handsomely furnished, two-story town- 
house of the late colonial period. It is owned and administered by the 
Varnum Continentals. 

66. General Nathanael Greene Homestead 

Location: 20 Taft Street, Arnold Village, Coventry. 

Nathanael Greene built this substantial frame house a few years before 
the outbreak of the War for Independence, while he was in charge of his 
family's ironworks in Coventry. He rose rapidly in military rank during 
the war, proving himself one of Washington's ablest officers and exerting 
a major influence on the victory in the South after receiving command 
of that theater in October 1780. The State of Georgia presented him 
with a plantation for his services, and until his death in 1786 he divided 
his time between that and the Rhode Island "Homestead." The latter, 
sometimes called the "Mount Vernon of the North," is a 2 I / / 2-story 
structure with gable roof. It is owned by the Nathanael Greene 
Homestead Association and has been restored and furnished in the period 
of his residence. 

67. Vernon House 

Location: Clark and Mary Streets, Newport. 

The Vernon House was headquarters for the French general, Count de 
Rochambeau, while his army was in Newport, July 1780 to June 1781. 
Washington was a guest here from March 6 to 13 while future operations 
were planned. The Vernon House was built in 1758, a two-story frame 
building with hipped roof surrounded by a "captain's walk." It will 
be given attention in the architectural study. 


68. Belleville Plantation and Associated Sites 

Location: Along upper Santee River east of the crossing of U.S. 
601 , Calhoun County. 

Colonel William Thomson's Belleville Plantation was occupied by the 
British in 1 780. They built a supply base here and a fortified post over- 

689-192 0-64— 18 


looking the Santee River. Belleville and nearby fortified supply points 
changed hands several times in the course of fierce partisan warfare in 
which the South Carolina patriot leaders Thomas Sumter and Francis 
Marion were prominent. The Battle of Eutaw Springs (see p. 226) 
brought this seesaw conflict to a climax. Among the historic remains at 
and near the plantation are earthwork fortifications overlooking the 
Santee; the Thomson Cemetery, said to contain the remains of troops 
who died in the area; a camp and hospital site; McCord's Ferry, a 
strategic crossing of the Camden Road over the river; and Gillon's 
Retreat, plantation of Alexander Gillon, a commodore of the South 
Carolina Navy during the War for Independence. 

69. Colonel John Stuart House 

Location: 106 Tradd Street, Charleston. 

John Stuart, recently arrived from Scotland, became Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs for the Southern District in 1762 — the counterpart of 
Sir William Johnson of the Northern District. He became an 
influential member of various colonial councils and in 1772, at 
the height of his career, at a cost of £18,000, he built a fine three- 
story white frame residence in Charleston. He lived here until the out- 
break of the War for Independence when he fled to British Florida where 
he continued to manage British-Indian relations in the South until his 
death in 1779. The Stuart House is surmounted by a hip roof with a 
captain's walk. The house is privately owned and has been remodeled 
in the original style. 

70. Colonel William Rhett House 

Location: 54 Hasell Street, Charleston. 

William Rhett came to South Carolina in 1698 and soon achieved high 
rank as a colonial leader. He commanded the flotilla that repulsed 
a Franco-Spanish attack on Charleston in 1706 and led the expedition 
that captured Stede Bonnet, a notorious pirate. He acquired a planta- 
tion outside the fortified walls of the town and, by 1716, had completed 
the present house. Wade Hampton, famed Confederate cavalry leader, 
was born here. The exterior of the house has been altered greatly since 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 225 

it was built. The original entrance was probably on the west. Some- 
time after Hasell Street was built the south side was made into the 
entrance, and two-story piazzas were added on east and west. The 
house has been restored and is privately owned. 

71. Colonial Powder Magazine 

Location: 21 Cumberland Street, Charleston. 

The powder magazine was erected, several years after it was authorized 
in 1703, near the northwest bastion of the city's fortifications. It held 
the public powder supply for the rest of the colonial period, and shortly 
before the fall of Charleston in 1780 the powder was removed and 
successfully concealed in The Exchange. The Powder Magazine is 
owned by the Colonial Dames and used as a public museum. The low, 
single-story structure is of unusually small brick covered with stucco. A 
massive arch supports the central portion of the heavy tile roof. 

72. Daniel Elliott Huger House 

Location: 34 Meeting Street, Charleston. 

Lord William Campbell, South Carolina's last Royal Governor, lived in 
this house in 1775. Shortly after the Revolution it came into the posses- 
sion of the Huger (pronounced "U-Gee") family, members of which 
still own it. Hugers have been prominent in South Carolina for genera- 
tions. The Huger House is a good example of the unique Charleston 
"double house." A flight of stone steps leads from the street to the 
elevated first floor, through which runs a large center hall, to the back 
door that opens onto a garden. The three-story piazza on the south 
side is a recent addition. The Huger House is in excellent condition, a 
showplace of the historic area of Charleston. 

73. The Exchange (Custom House) 

Location: East Bay and Broad Streets, Charleston. 

The Exchange was built 1767-71, following adoption of the Townshend 
Acts which were designed to tighten the system for collecting customs 
duties. Confiscated tea was stored here in 1774, and the Provincial 


Congress met here in the same year. The Exchange was used as a military 
prison when the British captured Charleston during the War for Inde- 
pendence. The Federal Government purchased the property in 1818 
for use as a customhouse and post office. It was damaged badly by the 
Federal bombardment of the city during the Civil War, and in 1913 
the Daughters of the American Revolution acquired it for museum pur- 
poses. The elaborate building has undergone extensive modification over 
the years. The classic portico facing the Cooper River has been removed, 
leaving the secondary facade on Bay Street as the main entrance and the 
riverfront setting destroyed by land reclamation. The cupola and monu- 
mental urns are gone from the attic parapet and the spacious arcades 
have been walled in. The building still presents a solid, imposing appear- 
ance, however, and could be restored at least partially. 

74. Eutaw Springs Battlefield 

Location: 3 miles east of Eutawville, Orangeburg County, on 
S.C. 6. 

Eutaw Springs was the last major engagement of the War for Inde- 
pendence in South Carolina. Here, on September 8, 1781, Gen. Na- 
thanael Greene's Continentals shattered Col. Archibald Stuart's British 
command. This led to the British evacuation of Orangeburg, leaving 
the American Army in undisputed possession of the interior of South 
Carolina. The battlefield is now a State park. 

75. French Protestant Huguenot Church 

Location: 136 Church Street, Charleston. 

Huguenots fled from France after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes 
in 1685, many coming to the larger cities of the English Colonies and 
especially to South Carolina. The sizable Huguenot population of 
Charleston gave the city a distinctly French flavor by the early 18th 
century. The first Huguenot congregation had been formed in Charles- 
ton in 1680, and they erected a church soon afterward. The present 
handsome Gothic structure, third on the site, was constructed in 1845. 
For years it was the only Huguenot church in the United States, but it no 
longer has an active congregation. Badly damaged by an earthquake in 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 227 

1886 and a tornado in 1938, it has been restored and appears to be in 
excellent condition. The neatly kept church plot includes a small burial 
ground which, together with the church, is open to visitors. 

76. Jacob Motte House 

Location: 69 Church Street, Charleston. 

Richard Capers built this brick "double house" about 1745 which later 
was the home of Col. Jacob Motte, longtime public treasurer of the 
colony. Through his 19 children he became father-in-law to a number 
of notable individuals, including Mrs. Rebecca Motte, Thomas Lynch, 
and William Moultrie. The house was damaged by shellfire during the 
Civil War and has been altered inside somewhat. Adam-style mantel- 
pieces were installed and the two upstairs front rooms were combined 
into a single drawing room about 1780. The house is privately owned. 

77. Star Fort and Village of Ninety Six 

Location: 2 l /i miles south of present Ninety Six, Greenwood 
County, on S.C. 246. 

Ninety Six began as a trading post in 1730 and continued during the 
colonial period as an important trading center and seat of justice for 
much of upcountry South Carolina. The sizable village was fortified 
during the Cherokee outbreak of 1759-60, and was predominantly Tory 
as the Revolution came on. Patriot forces were besieged at Ninety Six 
for 3 days inconclusively in November 1775, but in December the Tories 
were defeated and dispersed. The British captured Charleston in 1780 
and, later in the year, established an outpost and built the Star Fort 
at Ninety Six. The fort was an earthwork with eight salient and eight 
reentrant angles, enclosing about one-half an acre northeast of the village. 
Gen. Nathanael Greene's American force invested and assaulted the fort 
unsuccessfully in May- June 1781 but withdrew as British reinforce- 
ments approached. The British evacuated the fort, however, relinquish- 
ing their foothold in inland South Carolina. 

The Star Fort outlines are still readily discernible as earthwork em- 
bankments 4 or 5 feet high. Scattered brick fragments mark the loca- 
tion of the town, which was burned by the British, later rebuilt, but lost 


its court in 1800 and declined in importance. Some identifiable re- 
mains include the knoll on which the 1775 siege occurred and on which 
stood the British stockade fort of 1781, the ravine in which flowed the 
stream supplying water to the garrison, the jail site, the old Charleston 
Road, and, some distance from the village site, the site of the 1 759 forti- 
fication. A stone monument stands on S.C. 246 at the junction of a 
dirt road leading to the fort. At this writing the Greenwood County 
Historical Society is negotiating for the property and laying plans for 
developing the site. 

78. Bean Cabin Site (lost site) 

Location: 6 miles north of Johnson City, Washington County, l l /i 
miles east of U.S. 23. 

William Bean initiated permanent settlement in eastern Tennessee when 
he arrived from Virginia in 1 769 and built a rude cabin on Boone's Creek 
near its junction with the Watauga River. He was joined soon by 
others from Virginia to form a tiny community, the nucleus of the 
Watauga settlements. Bean's son, Russell, the first child born to perma- 
nent white settlers in Tennessee, was born in the cabin. The site has 
been inundated by Boone's Lake but a monument stands on the lake- 
shore above the site. 

79. Fort Loudoun 

Location: 1 mile east of U.S. 411 at the crossing of the Little 
Tennessee River, Monroe County. 

Fort Loudoun existed for only 4 critical years of the French and Indian 
War, 1756-60. The southwestern outpost was built for the benefit and 
at the request of the Overhill Cherokee, but they forced the surrender 
of the garrison in August 1760. The Indians' later massacre of many of 
the departing whites created new strains for the future. The earthwork 
fort was diamond-shaped with log palisades inside a honeylocust hedge, 
including a blacksmith shop, guardhouse, barracks, magazine, officers' 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 229 

quarters, and storehouses. A partial reconstruction has been accom- 
plished, based on archeological work, sponsored by the Fort Loudoun 
Association which was formed in 1933 when private owners donated 
about 6 acres of the site to the State of Tennessee. 

80. Sycamore Shoals and (lost site) Fort Watausa 

Location: 2 miles west of Elizabcthton, on the Watauga River, 
Carter County. 

Sycamore Shoals was chosen as the administrative center of the Watauga 
settlements under the leadership of James Robertson. The valley was 
first leased and then (1775) purchased from the Cherokee, and Fort 
Watauga erected. The Indians attacked the fort unsuccessfully in 1776. 
The frontiersmen gathered at Sycamore Shoals in 1780 and marched 
into South Carolina where they dealt the Tory leader, Patrick Ferguson, 
a crushing defeat at Kings Mountain. The traditional site of Fort 
Watauga is on a low ridge beside Tenn. 67, about one-half mile south- 
west of the lower end of Sycamore Shoals. A concrete and stone marker 
has been placed nearby, by the Daughters of the American Revolution. 
The site is in a developed residential area. 


81. Hubbardton Battlefield 

Location: Near Hubbardton, 18 miles northwest of Rutland, Rut- 
land County. 

Colonels Seth Warner and Ebenezer Francis, in charge of the rearguard 
of the American force retreating after the fall of Fort Ticonderoga, re- 
mained overnight at Hubbardton without taking proper security measures 
for their encampment. The British attacked very early the next morning, 
July 7, 1777, and brought on a short but very severe fight. The Ameri- 
cans scattered with instructions to reassemble at Manchester. Francis 
was killed. The British advance was delayed, but the cost was exorbitant. 
This was the only battle of the War for Independence fought on Vermont 
soil. The site is included in a 50-acre State park. 



82. Berkeley Plantation 

Location: 7 miles west of Charles City, south of Va. 5, Charles 
City County. 

Harrison's Landing, a part of the Berkeley Hundred grant of 1619, was 
the site of the first Thanksgiving service in America, December 4, 1619; 
of an Indian massacre in 1622; and of Civil War Gen. George B. Mc- 
Clellan's army supply base in the Seven Days' Battle campaign. One of 
the early owners of Berkeley Plantation was Giles Bland, who was exe- 
cuted for complicity in Bacon's Rebellion. Benjamin Harrison, the 
third of this name in Virginia, next acquired the property. His son, 
Benjamin IV, began building the present mansion (later to be General 
McClellan's headquarters) in 1726. Benjamin V was a Governor of 
Virginia and a signer of the Declaration of Independence; Benjamin VI 
installed the handsome interior woodwork; his brother, William Henry, 
who went to Ohio, became famous as soldier and politician and, as Presi- 
dent, revisited Berkeley Plantation as did William Henry's grandson- 
President, Benjamin. The mansion is a plain early Georgian building 
of brick, two stories, with a massive roof, two tall chimneys, and six 
widely spaced dormers. The interior features notable woodwork and 
plaster-tinted walls. Flanking the house are two dependencies, altered 
to two stories about 1800. The plantation, acquired by the present 
owner's father about 50 years ago, was restored beginning in 1937 and 
is open to the public. 

83. Carter's Grove Plantation 

Location: 6 miles southeast of Williamsburg, James City County, 
on U.S. 60. 

This Georgian mansion was built by Carter Burwell in 1750-53 to the 
design probably of Richard Taliaferro. David Minitree, of Williams- 
burg, was the contractor-builder. The interior paneling was expertly 
restored in 1927-29 and certain alterations were made, including an 1 1- 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 231 

foot elevation of the rooftree, the addition of dormers, and reconstruction 
of the dependencies. Carter's Grove is privately owned and not normally 
open to visitors. 

84. Castle Hill 

Location: 2 miles north of Cismont, Albemarle County, on Va. 231 . 

In 1765, Dr. Thomas Walker built the original lJ/ 2 -story framehouse at 
Castle Hill, 15 years after his discovery of Cumberland Gap. He owned 
about 17,000 acres of surrounding land. The present main house was 
built about 1840 by William Cabell Rives, U.S. Senator and Minister 
to France under President Andrew Jackson, who married one of Walker's 
granddaughters. The earlier structure is joined to the rear of the later 
brick building by a short passageway. The property is privately owned. 

85. Christ Church 

Location: 3 miles south of Kilmarnock on Va. 3, Lancaster County. 

Christ Church is an outstanding example of its particular architectural 
style and period, and is unusually well preserved. It combines typical 
early Georgian features with several which are unique, and is valuable 
also for the integrity of its interior furnishings. Robert "King" Carter, 
leading Virginia enterpreneur of his generation, built the present Christ 
Church at his own expense in 1732. His tomb and those of other 
members of the Carter family are here. The Foundation for Historic 
Christ Church, Inc., was established in 1958 and has laid careful plans 
for restoration and preservation of the church and its surroundings. 
The 1-acre church tract and 12 surrounding acres are owned by Christ 
Church Parish, Irvington, Va. The church is recognized as a Registered 
National Historic Landmark under the architectural category in the 
National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings. 

86. Gadsby's Tavern 

Location: 132 Royal Street, Alexandria. 

The older portion of this brick building, known for years as City Tavern, 
was built about 1752 and used intermittently by Washington as military 


headquarters during the French and Indian War. A taller brick addi- 
tion was built onto the two-story tavern in the last decade of the 18th 
century. Washington reviewed the Alexandria militia from the tavern 
steps in November 1 799, one of his last public appearances; and a quarter 
century later a reception was held here for Lafayette during his triumphal 
tour of the United States. The tavern has been restored and is open to 

87. George Wythe House 

Location: Palace Green, in Williamsburg. 

George Wythe pursued here the brilliant career that gave him a perma- 
nent niche in American legal history : member of the House of Burgesses, 
mayor of Williamsburg, Revolutionary statesman, and first professor of 
law in an American college. The house was built for Wythe in 1755 by 
his father-in-law, the noted Virginia architect, Richard Taliaferro, and he 
lived here until 1790. It is a simple, rectangular brick house with hip 
roof, based on William Salmon's Palladio Londinensis (1734), and 
is one of the exhibit homes of Colonial Williamsburg, which as a historic 
district is eligible for the Registry of National Historic Landmarks. 

88. G 


Location: Va. 3, at the crossing of the Rapidan River, Orange 

Alexander Spotswood (1676-1740) bought 85,000 acres in Spotsylvania 
County, of which the Germanna tract was the first, while he was Lieuten- 
ant Governor and actual executive head of the Virginia government. 
In this capacity, between 1710 and 1722, he carried out his famous Blue 
Ridge expedition and promoted many reforms and improvements. He 
established a colony of German immigrants on the Germanna tract in 
1714, partly for frontier defense but mainly to operate his newly devel- 
oped ironworks. Germanna was the seat of Spotsylvania County from 
1 720 to 1 732. Spotswood erected a palatial home and, after the Germans 
moved away, continued the ironworks with slave labor. In his later years 
he served as Deputy Postmaster General for the Colonies. 

The site of Germanna now is mostly open fields with intervening 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 233 

thickets of second-growth timber. Traces of the terraces of Spotswood's 
mansion are still discernible. The Memorial Foundation of the Ger- 
manna Colonies in Virginia owns about 270 acres, and the rest of the 
original tract is in various private ownerships. 

89. Hanover Courthouse 

Location: 18 miles north of Richmond, Hanover County, on U.S. 

Patrick Henry came to prominence when he successfully pleaded the Par- 
sons' Cause in Hanover Courthouse in 1763. Still used as a courthouse, 
the building is a one-story, T-shaped brick structure with an arcaded 
piazza across the front. The small, contemporary clerk's office, and 
other appurtenances typical of a small Virginia courthouse group are 
nearby. Henry lived across the road at Hanover Tavern for some time 
after his father-in-law acquired the building in 1760, and Lord Corn- 
wallis stayed there briefly during the Yorktown campaign. The tavern 
is a rambling, two-story frame building over a high basement, built in 
stages beginning in 1723. It is now used by the Barksdale Theater. 

90. Mount Vernon 

Location: 7 miles south of Alexandria, on the Potomac River, 
Fairfax County. 

More than a million Americans visit Mount Vernon each year, making it 
with the White House one of the best-known residential houses in the 
United States. Washington inherited Mount Vernon upon the death of 
his half-brother in 1752, and it remained his home until his death in 
1 799. Both he and his wife Martha are buried on the grounds. 

Official duties kept Washington away from his home for long periods, 
but by 1787 he succeeded in completing his program for enlarging 
the house and developing the grounds in accordance with a plan he 
drafted before the War for Independence, the plan which has been 
adhered to painstakingly by the present owner, the Mount Vernon Ladies' 
Association of the Union. The original 8,000-acre plantation was 
divided into five farms, four of which were subdivided after Wash- 
ington's death so that only the 500-acre Mansion House Farm remains 


as an entity. The association acquired title to Mount Vernon in 1858 
from Washington's great-grandnephew. 

House, outbuildings, and grounds, where a large number of original 
Washington possessions may be seen, are well maintained and open to 
visitors every day of the year. Mount Vernon is classified as a Registered 
National Historic Landmark in the study spanning the years 1 783-1830. 

91. Pohick Church 

Location: 12 miles south of Alexandria, Fairfax County, on U.S. 1. 

George Washington, as a vestryman of Truro Parish, was instrumental 
in choosing the location for the "new" Pohick Church in 1772. He 
attended services here while residing at Mount Vernon, until the begin- 
ning of the War for Independence. The building is typical of the late 
Georgian parish church of Virginia, having a simple rectangular plan 
with no tower, resembling Christ Church in Alexandria. It has a low- 
pitched hip roof with modillioned cornice, and was constructed of brick 
with sandstone angle quoins and door trim. The symmetrical facades 
show an unusual feature — rectilinear windows on the first floor and 
arched windows on the second. Badly damaged during the Civil War, 
the church has been restored and is used for regular services. 

92. Scotchtown 

Location: 1 mile north of Negro Foot, Hanover County, on Va. 

Scotchtown was the home of Patrick Henry from 1771 to about 1777, 
and later of Dolley Payne, the future Mrs. James Madison. Henry lived 
here and was a member of the general assembly in March 1775 when he 
spoke the words, "Give me liberty or give me death," at an assembly 
session in Richmond. He left from Scotchtown for Philadelphia to serve 
in the First and Second Continental Congresses and, as Governor of 
Virginia, he met at Scotchtown with George Rogers Clark to discuss 
Clark's proposed campaign against British posts west of the Appalachians. 
The house was built probably about 1719 and has particularly note- 
worthy paneling. It is 93 feet long and 35 wide. The main floor is 
bisected by a large central hall running the width of the structure. Each 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 235 

end is divided into four rooms, with one chimney serving each group of 
rooms. The Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities 
acquired the house in 1958, has finished most of the structural restora- 
tion work, and is concentrating now on furnishings and landscaping. 

93. Shirley Plantation 

Location: 17 miles southeast of Richmond, Charles City County, 
on Va. 5. 

Shirley Plantation was one of the earliest Virginia tobacco plantations, 
originally settled in 1613 and producing for export by 1616. Col. 
Edward Hill II acquired the property in 1660, and his descendants own it 
still. Edward Hill III built the present house perhaps as early as 1723. 
His great-granddaughter, Ann Hill Carter, was Robert E. Lee's mother. 
More than 200 slaves lived at the plantation in the early 1800's, when it 
was part of a complex of about 170,000 acres. The house is Georgian, 
with two-story porticos on both main facades; a double-hipped roof with 
a single pineapple finial; gabled dormers on all four sides of the roof; 
and a square, three-story, brick central bulk with deep, denticulated 
cornice. The interior contains an unusually large entrance hall, a hang- 
ing stair rising three flights, full paneling in several rooms, and mantels, 
overmantels, and ornate broken pediments over interior doorways. The 
house has all original furnishings, and portraits of prominent members 
of the Carter family. About eight of the original dependencies remain. 
Shirley Plantation is open daily to visitors, although it is still an agricul- 
tural operation and a private home. 

94. Springdale (Hite's Fort) 

Location: 2 miles north of Stephens City, Frederick County, on 
U.S. 11. 

Jost Hite, an Alsatian, came to America in 1 7 \0 and settled in Pennsyl- 
vania before obtaining contracts in 1731 for 140,000 acres in the Shenan- 
doah Valley. Next year he settled 1 6 families on Opequon Creek, south 
of present Winchester, thus initiating the westward movement of German 
settlers from Pennsylvania, an important aspect of late colonial develop- 
ment. Springdale is a two-story structure of gray stone, built by John 


Hite in 1753. It is in good condition, privately owned, and not open to 
visitors. A short distance south of the house are some crumbling, un- 
stabilized stone walls believed to be the remains of Hite's Fort, built by 
Jost Hite soon after he arrived in Virginia. 

95. Tuckahoe Plantation 

Location: 7 miles west of Richmond, Goochland County, on Va. 

Thomas Jefferson spent 7 of the first 9 years of his life and began his 
schooling at Tuckahoe, home of his cousins, the Randolphs. Through 
his mother, nee Jane Randolph, Jefferson inherited a firm standing in 
Virginia society, and at Tuckahoe the intellectual curiosity was aroused 
that remained with him all his life. The house was constructed be- 
tween 1712 and 1730, with its present H-plan achieved through the 
construction of a T-shaped addition onto the earlier central-hall house. 
There are elaborately carved interior woodwork of pine and black walnut, 
a delicate stairway, and small formal entrance porches on the land and 
river facades. A number of original outbuildings survive, including the 
schoolhouse in which Jefferson studied. The plantation is privately 


96. Point Pleasant Battlefield 

Location: City of Point Pleasant, at junction of Ohio and Kanawha 
Rivers, Mason County. 

Early in 1774 Dr. John Connolly occupied Fort Pitt in the name of 
Virginia and began to encourage nearby frontiersmen to aggression 
against the Indians, thereby bringing on "Lord Dunmore's War." Col. 
Andrew Lewis, with about 1,100 men from southwestern Virginia, 
marched up the Kanawha to Point Pleasant where Chief Cornstalk with 
a large force of Shawnee attacked him early in the morning of Octo- 
ber 10, 1774. The Indians withdrew in the late afternoon, after heavy 
fighting which produced severe casualties: 50 Virginians killed, 100 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings [ 237 

wounded. The Shawnee were thereafter unable to halt the settlement 
of Kentucky or to destroy the weak Kentucky stations during the crucial 
early years of the War for Independence. Tu-Endie-Wei State Park, 
a 2-acre reservation, includes part of the battlefield as well as the graves 
of Col. Charles Lewis, Chief Cornstalk, and "Mad Ann" Bailey, a noted 
frontierswoman, and an 84-foot granite shaft commemorating the battle. 
Mansion House, built in 1796 as a tavern, is maintained as a historic- 
house museum. The rest of the battlefield is covered by the city of Point 


Sites Also Noted 

The historic sites listed in this group were noted in the course of 
the survey but were considered to be of less importance in this phase of 
history than those already given. 


Eels-Stowe House, Milford Nathan Hale School, East Haddam 

Ethan Allen Birthplace, Litchfield Nathan Hale School, New London 

Fort Griswold, Groton Pardee-Morris House, New Haven 

Mystic Seaport, Old Mystic Putnam Cottage, Greenwich 


Fort George, Pensacola Fort Tonyn, Nassau County 


Hardwick, Bryan County Spring Hill Redoubt Site, Savannah 


Boonesborough Site, Madison Bryan's Station Site, Fayette County 
County Fort Harrod, Harrodsburg 


Fort George, Castine "Montpelier," General Henry Knox 

Fort Pownall, Stockton Springs House (Replica) , Thomaston 

[ 238 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 



Cresap's Fort, Oldtown 
Fort Cumberland, Cumberland 
"The Hermitage" and Hollings- 
worth Tavern, Elkton 

Old State House, Annapolis 
Smallwood's Retreat, Mason 


Cushing House, Quincy 
Mission House, Stockbridge 

Quincy Homestead, Quincy 


Fort Rosalie, Natchez 


Cincinnati Hall, Exeter 

Fort Constitution, New Castle 

Governor Meshech Weare House, 
Hampton Falls 


Cannonball House, Springfield "Morven," Governor's Mansion, 

Hankinson Mansion, Freehold Princeton 

Hulse House and Village Inn, Eng- Pluckemin (Village) 

lishtown Steuben House, North Hackensack 
Indian King Tavern, Haddonfield 


Bush Homestead, Port Chester 

Constitution Island, Hudson River 
off West Point 

Elijah Miller House and "Washing- 
ton Headquarters House," White 

Fort Ann, Washington County 

Fort Brevverton, Brewerton 

Fort Crailo, Rensselaer 

Fort Edward, Washington County 

Fort Frey, Palatine Bridge 
Indian Castle Church, Fort Plain 
Lake George Battleground, Lake 

Old Stone Fort, Schoharie 
Raynham Hall, Oyster Bay, Long 

"76 House," Tappan 
Ten Broeck Mansion, Albany 

689-192 0-64— 19 




Charles Thomson Home, Lower Fort Zeller, Lebanon County 

Marion Township 
The Cloisters, Ephrata 
Fort Augusta, Sunbury 
Fort Le Boeuf, Waterford 
Fort Ligonier, Ligonier 

General Greene Inn, Buckingham 
Main Magazine, Carlisle 
Market Square Presbyterian 
Church, Germantown 


Blackstock Battlefield, Union 

Fort Dorchester, Dorchester County 
Fort Johnson, Charleston 
Fort Moultrie, Mount Pleasant 

Musgrove's Mill Battlefield, Union 

St. Helena Episcopal Church, Beau- 

Tamassee (Andrew Pickens Home) , 
Oconee County 


Battle Monument, Bennington 
Crown Point Military Road, Spring- 
field to Chimney Point 

Ethan Allen Park, Burlington 
Old Constitution House, Windsor 


Bellefont, Staunton 
Chiswell Lead Mines, Wythe 

Claremont, Surry County 
Draper's Meadows, Blacksburg 
Elsing Green, King and Queen 

Fort Chiswell, Wythe County 
Fort Egypt, Page County 
Green Spring Battlefield, Toano 

John Paul Jones House, Fredericks- 
Manakintown, Powhatan County 
Matthew Jones House, Fort Eustis 
Monticello, Albemarle County 
Soldier's Rest (Daniel Morgan 

Home) , Berry ville 
Tubal Furnace, Spotsylvania 


Harewood, Jefferson County 
Logan Massacre Site, Ohio Count 
Prato Rio (Charles Lee Home) , Jef- 
ferson County 

Traveler's Rest (Horatio Gates 
Home), Jefferson County 


/. The English Colonies, 1700-1775 

Adams, James Truslow. Provincial Society, 1690-1763. Vol. Ill of A 
History of American Life, ed. by Arthur M. Schlesinger and Dixon 
R. Fox. New York: Macmillan, 1927. One of a series attempting 
to portray the history of America in social terms, this volume focuses 
on colonial society while minimizing the political and military 
aspects of colonial history. 

Andrews, Charles M. The Colonial Period of American History. 4 
vols. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1934-38. A detailed 
and scholarly study of the American Colonies, written from the 
"English end," i.e., considering the Colonies integral parts of the 
British imperial system rather than as embryo States. An advanced 
work, useful for its examination of the interrelationship between 
the Colonies and the mother country. 

Andrews, Charles M. The Colonial Background of the American 
Revolution. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1931. Andrews 
here analyzes the forces and events that produced the Revolution. 
As in his later and larger work, listed above, he treats all the 
American Colonies, not just the 13 that revolted. 

Bridenbaugh, Carl. Cities in the Wilderness: The First Century of Urban 
Life in America, 1625-1742. 2d ed. New York: Alfred Knopf, 
1955. Cities in Revolt: Urban Life in America, 1743-1776. New 
York: Alfred Knopf, 1955. Through the medium of five repre- 
sentative cities, Bridenbaugh surveys the cultural, political, eco- 
nomic and social life of urban colonial America, and concludes that 
the influence of towns upon colonial development has been greatly 
underrated by historians. 

r 24i 


Channing, Edward. A History of the United States. 6 vols. New 
York: Macmillan, 1932-36. Vols. 1 and 2. One of the standard 
authorities, Channing was nevertheless a rather discursive historian. 
The information and interpretation are there, but are sometimes 
difficult to locate. 

Gipson, Lawrence H. The British Empire Before the American Revo- 
lution. 11 vols. Caldwell, Idaho, and New York, 1936- . A 
monumental project, of which 10 volumes have been completed, 
this study is especially valuable for its discussion of the Anglo- 
French struggle for the North American Continent. 

Greene, Evarts Boutell. The Revolutionary Generation, 1763-1790. 
Vol. 4 of A History of American Life, ed. by A. M. Schlesinger and 
D. R. Fox. New York: Macmillan, 1943. Like Adams' Provincial 
Society, this volume accents social and economic aspects of Ameri- 
can history. 

Morgan, Edmund S. and Helen M. The Stamp Act Congress: Prologue 
to Revolution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 
1953. This book stands as the best study of the subject. 

Morrison, Hugh.. Early American Architecture, from the First Colonial 
Settlements to the National Period. New York: Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1952. Morrison creditably performs a rigidly defined 
task: to write "a comprehensive account in one volume of architec- 
ture in the American colonies from St. Augustine in 1565 to San 
Francisco in 1848." This book, profusely illustrated, is invaluable 
for the study of 18th-century colonial architecture. 

Osgood, Herbert L. The American Colonies in the Eighteenth Century. 
4 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1924. As in his 
earlier study of the Colonies in the 17th century, Osgood focuses 
on political and institutional history and on the "intercolonial" 

Parkman, Francis. History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac. Boston, 1851, 
and many subsequent editions. This classic work surpassed every- 
thing previously written on Pontiac's War and all writers since 
1851 have drawn on Parkman. The book is outstanding not only 
for its wealth of accurate detail but also for its literary quality. 

Savelle, Max. The Foundations of American Civilization: A History of 
Colonial America. New York: Henry Holt and Co., c. 1942. 
In this college textbook, Savelle undertakes a comprehensive dis- 
cussion of the colonial period and the beginnings of the United 
States. Although it contains a few minor errors, it is a lucid dis- 
cussion of a complicated subject. 

Suggested Reading [ 243 

2. The American Revolution, 1775-1783 

Abernethv, Thomas P. Western Lands and the American Revolution. 
New York: Appleton-Century for the Institute for Research in the 
Social Sciences, University of Virginia, 1937. Basic study of the 
western land policies of the Colonies during the Revolution and of 
the political consequences of the westward movement. 

Alden, John R. The American Revolution, 1775-1783, in "The New 
American Nation Series," New York: Harper and Bros., 1954. 
This work is especially valuable for its treatment of the military 
aspects of the Revolution. It also discusses quite fully the British 
and European situations of the period and gives a briefer treatment 
of the colonial home front. An excellent one-volume treatment 
of the entire Revolutionary episode. 

Allen, Gardner W. A Naval History of the American Revolution. 2 
vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1913. Detailed narrative, based 
on exhaustive archival research, of the operations of all Continental 

Bemis, Samuel Flagg. The Diplomacy of the American Revolution. 
New York: Appleton-Century, 1935. Basic study of American 
foreign policy during the war, this book has as a central theme the 
progressive involvement of the United States in European diplo- 
macy as a result of the alliance with France. 

Burnett, Edmund C. The Continental Congress. New York: Macmil- 
lan, 1941. Burnett details the activities of the Continental Con- 
gress and assesses its role in the conduct of the war, and in laying 
the foundation for the governmental forms that sprang from it. 

Freeman,, Douglas South all. George Washington: A Biography. 7 
vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1948-57 (Vol. 7 by 
John A. Carroll and Mary W. Ashworth). The definitive biog- 
raphy of the great American leader, produced by painstaking re- 
search into all available sources by one of the most gifted of mili- 
tary historians. The fourth and fifth volumes deal exclusively 
with Washington's career during the War for Independence. 

Gipson, Lawrence H. The Coming of the Revolution, 1763-1775, in 
"The New American Nation Series." New York: Harper and 
Bros., 1954. Gipson here traces the clash between British efforts 
to tighten imperial administration and the colonial effort to achieve 
greater autonomy. 

Montross, Lynn. Rag, Tag and Bobtail: The Story of the Continental 
Army, 1775-1783. New York: Harper and Bros., c. 1952. A 
fine study of the military phases of the war, notable for thorough 


research and the quality of the numerous maps. The author is 
an admirer of Horatio Gates and considers that Benedict Arnold's 
pre-treason services to the American cause have been overrated. 

Scheer, George F., and Hugh F. Rankin. Rebels and Redcoats. Cleve- 
land and New York: World Publishing Co., c. 1957. Described 
by the authors as "a mosaic that tells a developing story," this is 
an absorbing history of the war told largely in the words of partici- 
pants. Much of the value and interest of the narrative is due to 
skillful editing and the informative narration that links the excerpts. 

Van Tyne, Claude H. The Causes of the War of Independence: Being 
the First Volume of a History of the Founding of the American 
Republic. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1922. The War of Inde- 
pendence, American Phase: Being the Second Volume of a His- 
tory of the Founding of the American Republic. Boston: Hough- 
ton Mifflin, 1929. In the first volume, the author surveys the 
forces that produced the Revolution, and in the second he carries 
the war to the entry of the French, where death interrupted his 

Ward, Christopher. The War of the Revolution, ed. by John R. Alden. 
2 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1952. Ward had nearly com- 
pleted his history of land operations in the Revolution when he 
died in 1943, and it was finished by Alden. The book excells in 
narrative description of battles and movements. 


1. Max Savelle, The Foundations of American Civilization (New York, 
1942), p. 644. 

2. Edward Channing, A History of the United States (6 vols. New York, 
1905-29), 11,411. 

3. One result of this tide of immigration was the passage by Parliament 
of an act in 1740 providing for naturalization of foreign Protestants in the 
American Colonies. This law, which required 7 years' residence and certain 
oaths (or affirmations), formed the basis of the first naturalization act of 
the United States. Ibid., II, 414-15. 

4. Hugh Morrison, Early American Architecture (New York, 1952), 
p. 291. 

5. Imperial and colonial authorities attempted to give the appearance 
of legality to all their dealings with the frontier problem, particularly with 
regard to the acquisition of Indian land. A succession of treaties negotiated 
by colonial and imperial authorities delivered to the whites vast tracts of 
Indian territory extending from southwestern New York to Tennessee. 
Whether the Indians who disposed of this land had clear title was of little 
concern to the land companies and the colonial administrators, who worked 
closely with, and sometimes for, the speculators. The fiction of honorable 
negotiation was upheld, although neither Indians nor whites had illusions 
about the justice or legality of the treaties. 

6. The significance of Clark's campaigns in the winning of the Northwest 
is controversial. As some histories have pointed out, much that he won was 
later lost, and postwar diplomatic negotiations did not recognize Clark's 
operations as a successful conquest. Nevertheless, Clark kept alive American 
claims to the Northwest and protected the new frontier in its most critical 
period. See John Bakeless, Background to Glory: The Life of George Rogers 
Clark (New York, 1957). 

[ 245 

NOTES [246 

7. Webb House, Conn. : Henry Steele Commager and Richard B. Morris, 
The Spirit of 'Seventy-Six: The Story of the American Revolution as Told 
by Participants (2 vols. Indianapolis, 1958), II; Historic American Buildings 
Survey (hereafter HABS), one photograph, 1938; Henry P. Johnston, The 
Yorktown Campaign and the Surrender of Cornwallis, 1781 (New York, 
1881), reprinted June 1958; Benson J. Lossing, The Pictorial Field-Book of 
the Revolution (2 vols. New York, 1859), I; "Webb House Built in 1752, 
Wethersfield, Connecticut" : pamphlet published by Connecticut Society of 
the Colonial Dames of America (n.p., n.d.) . 

8. Paul L. Ford, "The Writings of John Dickinson," Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania Memoirs, XIV ( 1895), preface. 

9. C. J. Stille, "The Life and Times of John Dickinson, 1732-1808," 
ibid., XIII (1891), 236-37. 

10. John Dickinson House, Del. : Roy E. Appleman, "The John Dickinson 
House, Kent County, Delaware," MS. report, National Park Service, Oct. 
31, 1950; Jeannette Eckman, Delaware, A Guide to the First State, American 
Guide Series (Rev. ed. New York, 1955) ; Ford, "Writings of John Dickin- 
son"; Stille, "Life and Times of John Dickinson"; Moses C. Tyler, The 
Literary History of the American Revolution, 1763—1783 (2 vols. New York, 
1897), I; Memorandum of Daniel J. Breslin, Architect, National Park 
Service, to Regional Director, Region One, National Park Service, Dec. 19, 
1952; "The Home of John Dickinson, 'Penman of the Revolution,' " Infor- 
mation Leaflet (n.p, n.d.) ; HABS, one photograph, 1936. 

11. Gundelo Philadelphia, D.C.: L. F. Hagglund, "A Page from the 
Past: The Story of the Continental Gundelo Philadelphia on Lake Cham- 
plain— 1776-1949," pamphlet (Lake George, N.Y., 1949) ; Alfred T. Ma- 
han, Major Operations of the Navies in the War of American Independence 
(Boston, 1913); R. G. Skerrett, "Another Revolutionary War Vessel Re- 
covered," Compressed Air Magazine, vol. 41, no. 7 (July 1936), 5072-75. 

12. Lady Pepperrell House, Maine: John Meade Howells, The Archi- 
tectural Heritage of the Piscataqua (New York, 1937) ; Morrison, Early 
American Architecture. 

1 3. Morrison, Early American Architecture, p. 400. 

14. Hammond-Harwood House, Md.: ibid.; Rosamond Randall Beirne 
and Edith Rossiter Beran, The H ammons-H arwood House and Its Owners 
(Annapolis, 1954) ; Deering Davis, Annapolis Houses, 1700-1775 (n.p., 
1947) ; HABS, seven photographs, 1936-37. 

15. Whitehall, Md. : Morrison, Early American Architecture; Thomas 
T. Waterman, Dwellings of Colonial America (Chapel Hill, 1950) ; HABS, 
six photographs, 1936. 

16. Buckman Tavern, Mass.: Interim Report of the Boston National 
Historic Sites Commission Pertaining to the Lexington-Concord Battle Road, 

Nofes [ 247 

House Docs., 86th Cong., 1st sess., no. 57 (Washington, 1959) . 

17. Bunker Hill Monument, Mass.: J. R. Alden, The American Revo- 
lution, 1775-1783 (New York, 1954) ; Final Report of the Boston National 
Historic Sites Commission to the Congress of the United States (June 16, 
1960) (hereafter Boston NHSC Report) ; Christopher Ward, The War of 
the Revolution (2 vols. New York, 1952), I. 

18. Christ Church, Mass. : Boston NHSC Report; HABS, eight sheets and 
four photographs, 1934; George F. Marlowe, Churches of Old New Eng- 
land (New York, 1947) ; Morrison, Early American Architecture; Edward 
F. Rines, Old Historic Churches of America (New York, 1936). 

19. Faneuil Hall, Mass.: Boston NHSC Report; HABS, three sheets and 
six photographs, 1935 and 1937; Morrison, Early American Architecture; 
Rogers W. Young, "Preliminary Survey of Historic Sites in Boston," MS. 
report, National Park Service, July 17, 1951. 

20. M. H. Northend, Historic Homes of New England (Boston, 1914), 
p. 229. 

21. Isaac Royall House, Mass.: Boston NHSC Report; Fiske Kimball, 
Domestic Architecture of the American Colonies and of the Early Republic 
(New York, 1922) ; HABS, five photocopies; Morrison, Early American 
Architecture; Northend, Historic Homes of New England. 

22. Jeremiah Lee Mansion, Mass. : Kimball, Domestic Architecture; 
"Lee Mansion, Marblehead, Massachusetts" (pamphlet, n.p., n.d.) ; Mor- 
rison, Early American Architecture; Northend, Historic Homes of New 

23. Morrison, Early American Architecture, p. 452. 

24. King's Chapel, Mass.: Boston NHSC Report; Carl Bridenbaugh, 
Peter Harrison, First American Architect (Chapel Hill, 1949) ; Morrison, 
Early American Architecture. 

25. Lexington Green, Mass.: Interim Report of Boston NHSC. 

26. Massachusetts Hall, Mass.: Samuel E. Morison, Three Centuries 
of Harvard, 1636-1936 (Cambridge, 1936) ; Edwin W. Small, Boston NHSC 
survey card, Aug. 17, 1956. The quotation is from Morrison, Early Amer- 
ican Architecture, p. 463. 

27. Old North Church, Mass.: Alden, American Revolution; Esther 
Forbes. Paul Revere and the World He Lived In (Boston, 1942) ; Boston 
NHSC Report; HABS, two photographs, 1941 ; Morrison, Early American 
Architecture; Edwin W. Small, "Old North Church," MS. report, National 
Park Service, Dec. 19, 1940. 

28. Old South Meeting House, Mass.: Boston NHSC Report; John C. 
Miller, Origins of the American Revolution (New York, 1943) ; Morrison, 
Early American Architecture. 

29. Paul Revere House, Mass.: Boston NHSC Report; Forbes, Paul 

NOTES [248 

Revere; HABS, one photograph, 1941 ; Morrison, Early American Architec- 

30. Second Boston Town House, Mass.: Boston NHSC Report; Charles 
F. Read, "The Old State House and Its Predecessor, the First Town House," 
Proceedings of the Bostonian Society, 1908. 

31. Shirley-Eustis House, Mass.: Boston NHSC Report; Morrison, Early 
American Architecture. 

32. Wright's Tavern, Mass.: Interim Report of Boston NHSC. 

33. Macpheadris-Warner House, N.H. : Howells, Architectural Heritage 
of the Piscataqua; Morrison, Early American Architecture; Northend, His- 
toric Homes of New England; "The Warner House, Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire," leaflet (n.p., n.d.) . 

34. Monmouth Battlefield, N.J. : Douglas S. Freeman, George Washing- 
ton, vol. 5, Victory with the Aid of France (New York, 1952) ; Leonard 
Lundin, Cockpit of the Revolution: The War for Independence in New 
Jersey (Princeton, 1940) ; W. S. Stryker, The Battle of Monmouth (Prince- 
ton, 1927). 

35. Nassau Hall, N.J. : HABS, two photographs, 1936; Morrison, Early 
American Architecture; Princeton University Department of Public Infor- 
mation, "Facts About Princeton," 1957-58; Henry L. Savage (ed.), Nassau 
Hall, 1756-1956 (Princeton, 1956). 

36. Princeton Battlefield, N.J. : Alfred H. Bill, The Campaign of Prince- 
ton, 1776-1777 (Princeton, 1948) ; Alden T. Cottrell, "The Trenton Battle 
Monument and Washington's Campaign, December 26, 1776, to January 
3, 1777," pamphlet (New Jersey Department of Conservation and Economic 
Development, Trenton, 1951); Lossing, Field-Book, II; Lundin, Cockpit 
of the Revolution; Ward, War of the Revolution, I. 

37. Washington Crossing, N.J. and Pa.: Bill, Campaign of Princeton; 
George Athan Billias, General John Glover and His Marblehead Mariners 
(New York, 1960) ; Cottrell, "Trenton Battle Monument"; "Washington 
Crossing State Park," leaflet (Pennsylvania Department of Forests and 
Waters, n.p., n.d.) ; Lundin, Cockpit of the Revolution; Ward, War of the 
Revolution, I. 

38. Bennington Battlefield, N.Y.: "Historic Sites of New York State," 
pamphlet (New York State Education Department, n.p., n.d.) ; Edward J. 
Lowell, The Hessian and Other German Auxiliaries of Great Britain in the 
Revolutionary War (New York, 1884) ; Howard P. Moore, The Life of 
General John Stark (New York, 1949) ; Hoffman Nickerson, The Turning 
Point of the Revolution (Boston, 1928) . 

39. Fort Stanwix, N.Y. : "Historic Sites of New York State" ; Nickerson, 
Turning Point; The American Revolution in New York: Its Political, Social 
and Economic Significance, New York State Division of Archives and His- 

Notes [ 249 

tory (Albany, 1926) ; Melvin J. Weig and Charles S. Marshall, "Historic 
Sites Connected with the Siege of Fort Stanwix and the Battle of Oriskany," 
MS. report, National Park Service, Aug. 15, 1938. 

40. Fort Ticonderoga, N.Y.. S. H. P. Pell (ed.), Fort Ticonderaga: A 
Short History ( 1951 ) ; Guide Book to Fort Ticonderoga (n.p., n.d.) ; Nicker- 
son, Turning Point; Francis Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe (2 vols. Boston, 
1893), ch. 32. 

41. Johnson Hall, N.Y. : Melvin J. Weig, "Johnson Hall, New York," MS. 
report, National Park Service, Oct. 1, 1937; HABS, 16 photographs, 
1936 and 1940; Arthur Pound and Richard Day, Johnson of the Mohawks 
(New York, 1930). 

42. Morris-Jumel Mansion, N.Y. : Lossing, Field-Book, II; Morrison, 
Early American Architecture; John Kent Tilton, "Roger Morris-Jumel 
Mansion Built in 1765: Washington Headquarters in New York," pamphlet 
(New York, n.d.) ; Ward, War of the Revolution, I. 

43. Oriskany Battlefield, N.Y. : Same references as 39. 

44. St. Paul's Chapel, N.Y. : Aymar Embury, Early American Churches 
(New York, 1914) ; HABS, 37 photographs, 1937; Morrison, Early Amer- 
ican Architecture; Rines, Old Historic Churches of America. 

45. George F. Scheer and Hugh F. Rankin, Rebels and Redcoats (Cleve- 
land, 1957) , p. 364. 

46. Stony Point Battlefield, N.Y. : Henry P. Johnston, The Storming of 
Stony Point (New York, 1900) ; Scheer and Rankin, Rebels and Redcoats; 
Ward, War of the Revolution, I. 

47. Mahan, Navies in the War of American Independence, p. 25. 

48. Valcour Bay, N.Y. : Richard M. Ketchum (ed.), The American 
Heritage Book of the Revolution (New York, 1958), pp. 132-33, has a con- 
temporary map of the action and a watercolor sketch of the battle; Hag- 
glund, "Page from the Past"; Lossing, Field-Book, I; Mahan, Navies in the 
War of American Independence; letter from William G. Tyrrell, Historian, 
New York State Education Department, to National Park Service, Region 
Five, April 14, 1960. 

49. Washington's Headquarters, N.Y. : Freeman, Washington, V; E. 
Irvine Haines, "When Washington Sealed the Republic," New York Times 
Magazine, March 19, 1933; "Historic Sites of New York State"; HABS, 26 
photographs and 3 sheets, 1940; Melvin J. Weig, "Historic Sites and Build- 
ings of the Colonial-Revolutionary Period Located in and Around New- 
burgh, New York," MS. report, National Park Service, Feb. 25, 1937. 

50. Brandywine Battlefield, Pa.: "The Brandywine Story, 1777-1952," 
published by Brandywine Battlefield Park Commission (n.p., 1952) ; Willard 
M. Wallace, Appeal to Arms — A Military History of the American Revolu- 
tion (New York, 1951) ; Melvin J. Weig, Historic Sites Survey report, 1938. 

NOTES [ 250 

51. Bushy Run Battlefield, Pa.: "Brief History of Battle of Bushy Run, 
1763," pamphlet issued by Bushy Run Battlefield Historical Park Commis- 
sion (n.p., n.d.) ; Ray A. Billington, Westward Expansion: A History of the 
American Frontier (New York, 1949) ; Howard H. Peckham, Pontiac and 
the Indian Uprising (Princeton, 1947). 

52. Orville T. Murphy, "The Battle of Germantown and the Franco- 
American Alliance of 1778," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biog- 
raphy, vol. 82 (January 1958) , 63-64. 

53. George O. Trevelyan, The American Revolution, III (London, ca. 
1910) , 249, quoted in Ward, War of the Revolution, I, 371. 

54. Chew House, Pa.: Alden, American Revolution; Morrison, Early 
American Architecture; Murphy, "Battle of Germantown." 

55. Conrad Weiser House, Pa. : Carl Bridenbaugh, "Johann Conrad 
Weiser," Dictionary of American Biography, XIX (New York, 1936), 614— 
615; Conrad Weiser Park, pamphlet issued by Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania (Harrisburg, 1956) ; J. S. Walton, Conrad Weiser and the Indian 
Policy of Colonial Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1900). 

56. Forks of the Ohio, Pa. : John P. Cowan, "Fort Pitt, Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania," MS. report, National Park Service, 1937; letter from John J. 
Grove, Coordinator, Point State Park, Pittsburgh, Pa., to Region Five, 
National Park Service, Dec. 28, 1961 ; Alfred P. James and Charles M. Stotz, 
Drums in the Forest (Pittsburgh, 1958) ; "Part One of the Report of the 
Point Park Commission" (Mimeo. Pittsburgh 1943) ; "Report on Forests 
and Waters: Land and People," brochure of Pennsylvania Department of 
Forests and Waters (n.p., 1958). 

57. Graeme Park, Pa.: Harold D. Eberlein and Horace M. Lippincott, 
The Colonial Homes of Philadelphia and Its Neighbourhood (Philadelphia, 
1912) ; Morrison, Early American Architecture; Nancy V. Wosstroff, 
"Graeme Park, an 18th Century Country Estate in Horsham, Pennsylvania," 
MS. thesis, University of Delaware, June 1958. 

58. John Bartram House, Pa. : Emily Read Cheston, John Bartram, 1699- 
1777, His Garden and His House (2d ed. N.p., 1953) ; Brooke Hindle, The 
Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789 (Chapel Hill, 

59. Mount Pleasant, Pa.: Eberlein and Lippincott, Colonial Homes of 
Philadelphia; Luther P. Eisenhart (ed.), "Historical Philadelphia from the 
Founding until the Early 19th Century," Transactions of the American 
Philosophical Society, vol. 43 (1953) ; HABS, 6 photographs, 1938-39, 31 
sheets, 1940; Morrison, Early American Architecture. 

60. Valley Forge, Pa.: Alden, American Revolution; Roy E. Appleman, 
"Historical Report, Valley Forge Proposed National Park," MS. report, 

Notzs [251 

National Park Service, n.d., HABS, seven photographs, 1937; Harry E. 
Wildes, Valley Forge (New York, 1938). 

61. Brick Market, R.I.: Bridenbaugh, Peter Harrison; Antoinette F. 
Downing and Vincent J. Scully, Jr., The Architectural Heritage of New- 
port, Rhode Island, 1640-1915 (Cambridge, 1952) ; HABS, one photo, 1937 ; 
Morrison, Early American Architecture. 

62. First Baptist Meeting House, R.I.: Brown Alumni Monthly, vol. 58 
(May, 1958) ; Embury, Early American Churches; Marlowe, Churches of 
Old New England; Morrison, Early American Architecture; Rines, Old 
Historic Churches of America; HABS, 28 photographs, ca. 1900, 1937, 1939, 
and including copies of drawings of 1 774 and 1 789. 

63. Old State House, R.I.: Downing and Scully, Architectural Heritage 
of Newport; John H. Green, The Building of the Old Colony House at New- 
port, Rhode Island (Newport, 1941) ; Morrison, Early American Architec- 
ture; Roderick Terry, "History of the Old Colony House at Newport," 
Newport Historical Society Bulletin, No. 63 (October, 1927). 

64. Redwood Library, R.I.: Bridenbaugh, Peter Harrison; Downing and 
Scully, Architectural Heritage of Newport; HABS, three photographs, 1937; 
Morrison, Early American Architecture. 

65. Camden Battlefied, S.C.: H. L. Landers, The Battle of Camden, 
South Carolina, August 16, 1780, House Docs., 71st Cong., 1st sess., no. 12 
(1929) ; Thomas J. Kirkland and Robert M. Kennedy, Historic Camden 
(2 vols. Columbia, 1905 and 1926) , I. 

66. Drayton Hall, S.C.: Morrison, Early American Architecture ; Samuel 
G. Stoney, Plantations of the Carolina Low Country (Charleston, 1938) ; 
Elise Lathrop, Historic Houses of Early America (New York, 1936). 

67. Waterman, Dwellings of Colonial America, pp. 81-85. 

68. Miles Brewton House, S.C.: Morrison, Early American Architecture; 
Waterman, Dwellings of Colonial America; Beatrice St. Julien Ravenel, 
Architects of Charleston (Charleston, 1945) ; Albert Simons and Samuel 
Lapham, Charleston, South Carolina (Washington, 1927) ; HABS, six 
photographs 1938-40. 

69. Mulberry Plantation, S.C. : Stoney, Plantations of the Carolina Low 
Country; Edward McCrady, The History of South Carolina, 1670-1783 
(4 vols. New York, 1897-1902) ; Morrison, Early American Architecture; 
Waterman, Dwellings of Colonial America. 

70. Robert Brewton House, S.C: Samuel G. Stoney, This is Charleston 
(Charleston, 1944) ; Junior League of Charleston, Inc., Our Charleston, 
1700-1860 (n.p., n.d.) ; Morrison, Early American Architecture; Ralston B. 
Lattimore, Historic Sites Survey card, July 10, 1937. 

7 1 . Morrison, Early American Architecture, p. 408. 

NOTES [252 

72. St. Michael's Episcopal Church, S.C.; Stoney, This is Charleston; 
Morrison, Early American Architecture; HABS, three photographs, 1939-40. 

73. Long Island, Tenn. : Billington, Westward Expansion; Archibald 
Henderson (ed.), "The Treaty of Long Island on the Holston, July, 1777," 
North Carolina Historical Review, VIII ( 1931 ) ; Samuel C. Williams, Dawn 
of Tennessee Valley and Tennessee History (Johnson City, 1937) ; Williams, 
Tennessee During the Revolutionary War (Nashville, 1944) ; Williams, 
"Fort Robinson on the Holston," East Tennessee Historical Society Pub- 
lications, no A (1932). 

74. Greenway Court, Va.: Charles W. Porter, III, "Greenway Court — 
Home of Lord Fairfax," MS. report, National Park Service, June 3, 1936; 
HABS, six photographs, 1936-39; Leonidas Dodson, "The Fairfax Proprie- 
tary," Dictionary of American History, II, 240. 

75. Mount Airy, Va. : Thomas T. Waterman, The Mansions of Virginia, 
1706-1776 (Chapel Hill, 1946) ; HABS, 17 photographs, 1934-39; 
Edith T. Sale, Manors of Virginia in Colonial Times (Philadelphia, 1909) ; 
Morrison, Early American Architecture. 

76. St. John's Episcopal Church, Va. : Roy E. Appleman, "National 
Historic Site Survey Report on St. John's Episcopal Church, Richmond, 
Virginia," MS. report, National Park Service, Oct. 4, 1946: HABS, 11 
sheets and 7 photographs 1934-35; Joseph S. Moore, History of Henrico 
Parish and Old St. John's Church, Richmond, Virginia, 1611-1904 
(Richmond, 1904). 

77. Stratford Hall, Va.: Edmund J. Lee, Lee of Virginia, 1642-1892 
(Philadelphia, 1895) ; F. W. Alexander, Stratford Hall and the Lees Con- 
nected with its History (Oak Grove, 1912) ; E. M. Armes, Stratford on the 
Potomac (1928); Morrison, Early American Architecture; Waterman, 
Mansions of Virginia; Charles W. Porter, III, Historic Sites Survey card, 
Sept. 12, 1936; HABS, 45 photographs, 1932-40. 

78. Westover, Va.: Morrison, Early American Architecture ; Waterman, 
Mansions of Virginia; Sale, Manors of Virginia; Sale, Interiors of Virginia 
Houses of Colonial Times (Richmond, 1927) ; HABS, eight photographs, 

79. Wren Building, Va. : The Restoration of Colonial Williamsburg in 
Virginia (New York, 1935) ; Morrison, Early American Architecture; 
HABS, four photographs 1937-39. 

80. Old Deerfield, Mass.: Samuel Chamberlain and Henry N. Flynt, 
Frontier of Freedom: The Soul and Substance of America Portrayed in One 
Extraordinary Village, Old Deerfield, Mass. (Rev. ed. New York, 1957) ; 
Francis Parkman, A Half-Century of Conflict, pt. 6 of France and England 
in North America (2 vols. New York, 1915), I. 

Notes [ 253 

81. Huguenot Street, N.Y. : Harold D. Eberlein and Cortlandt van Dyke 
Hubbard, Historic Houses of the Hudson Valley (New York, 1942) ; 
HABS— Bevier-Elting House (11 sheets, 1934; 3 photographs, 1910, 1937, 
1940), Freer House (8 sheets, 1934; 4 photographs, 1934, 1940), Jean 
Hasbrouck House (15 sheets, 1940; 20 photographs, 1937, 1940), Abraham 
Hasbrouck House (2 photographs, 1940) ; Morrison, Early American 

82. Elfreth's Alley, Pa.: Site descriptions from Hannah Benner Roach, 
"Elfreth's Alley, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania," MS. report, National Park 
Service, Region Five, 1961. Only recently has Elfreth's Alley received 
intensive historical research, although its architectural significance has long 
been recognized. Little of a definitive nature has been published on the 
alley, and the description given here is condensed from an authoritative 
summary generously supplied by the author, who is historian for the Elfreth's 
Alley Association. 

83. Charleston, S.C.: Stoney, This is Charleston; Simons and Lapham, 
Charleston; Morrison, Early American Architecture. 

84. Williamsburg, Va. : Colonial Williamsburg, Inc., Colonial Williams- 
burg Official Guidebook (Williamsburg, 1957) ; Morrison, Early American 
Architecture; Colonial Williamsburg: The President's Report, 1960 
(Williamsburg, 1961). 




1. Structures or sites at which occurred events that have made an out- 
standing contribution to, and are identified prominently with, or which 
best represent, the broad cultural, political, economic, military, or social 
history of the Nation and from which the visitor may grasp the larger 
patterns of our American heritage. 

2. Structures or sites associated importantly with the lives of outstanding 
historic personages. 

3. Structures or sites associated significantly with an important event that 
best represents some great idea or ideal of the American people. 

4. Structures that embody the distinguishing characteristics of an archi- 
tectural type specimen, exceptionally valuable for a study of a period style 
or method of construction ; or a notable structure representing the work of a 
master builder, designer, or architect. 

5. Archeological sites that have produced information of major scientific 
importance by revealing new cultures, or by shedding light upon periods of 
occupation over large areas of the United States. Such sites are those that 
have produced, or that may reasonably be expected to produce, data affect- 
ing theories, concepts, and ideas to a major degree. 

6. Every historic and archeological site and structure should have in- 
tegrity — that is, there should not be doubt as to whether it is the original 
site or structure and, in the case of a structure, that it represents original 
materials and workmanship. Intangible elements of feeling and association, 
although difficult to describe, may be factors in weighing the integrity of a 
site or structure. 

7. Structures or sites that are primarily of significance in the field of 
religion or to religious bodies but are not of national importance in other 
fields of the history of the United States, such as political, military, or 
architectural history, will not be eligible for consideration. 

8. Structures or sites of recent historical importance relating to events or 
persons within 50 years will not as a rule be eligible for consideration. 

[ 254 


Survey Historians (National Park Service) 

Frank B. Sarles, Jr. 

Charles E. Shedd, Jr. 

John Porter Bloom 

Robert M. Utley 

Coordinating Historian 
Contributing Historian 
Publications Editor 

Reviewing Staff (National Park Service) 

Herbert E. Kahler, Chief, Division of History and Archeology 

Charles W. Porter, III, Chief Historian, Branch of History 

John O. Littleton, Chief, National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 

Roy E. Appleman, Staff Historian, Branch of History 

J. Walter Coleman, Staff Historian, Branch of History 

Harold L. Peterson, Staff Historian, Branch of History 

John W. Walker, Staff Archeologist, National Survey of Historic Sites and 

Rogers W. Young, Staff Historian, Branch of History 

Consulting Committee (1960) 

Richard Howland, Smithsonian Institution (Chairman) 

J. O. Brew, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 

Eric Gugler, American Scenic and Historical Preservation Society 

Frederick Johnson, Robert S. Peabody Foundation for Archaeology, Phillips 

Waldo G. Leland, American Council of Learned Societies 
Earl H. Reed, American Institute of Architects 

[ 255 


S. K. Stevens, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission 
Louis B. Wright, Folger Shakespeare Library 

Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments 


Frank E. Masland, Jr., Carlisle, Pa. (Chairman) 

Harold P. Fabian, Utah State Park and Recreation Commission (Vice 

Edward B. Danson, Museum of Northern Arizona (Secretary) 
E. Raymond Hall, University of Kansas 
John A. Krout, Columbia University 
John B. Oakes, New York City 
Sigurd F. Olson, Ely, Minn. 
Earl H. Reed, American Institute of Architects 
Fred Smith, Newark, N.J. 
Robert G. Sproul, Berkeley, Calif. 
Carl I. Wheat, Menlo Park, Calif. 


The work of the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings profits 
from the experience and knowledge of many persons and organizations. 
Efforts are made to solicit the considered opinion of as many qualified 
people as possible in reaching final selection of the most significant sites. 
Assistance in the preparation of this volume from the following is 
gratefully acknowledged : 

Frank Barnes, Regional Historian, National Park Service, Philadelphia, 

James W. Holland, Regional Historian, National Park Service, Richmond, 

William T. Alderson, former Executive Secretary, Tennessee Historical 
Commission, Nashville. 

George W. Anderson, Tennessee Eastman Corp., Kingsport, Tenn. 

Mrs. Olga G. Atkins, Supervisor of Historic Sites, Trenton, N.J. 

Samuel M. Bemiss, Virginia Historical Society, Richmond. 

Mrs. E. S. Boyd, Augusta, Ga. 

Mrs. Mary G. Bryan, Director, Department of Archives and History, 
Atlanta, Ga. 

James T. Bryson, Councilman, Washington, Ga. 

Mrs. Helen D. Bullock, Historian, National Trust for Historic Preserva- 
tion, Washington, D.C. 

Orwin M. Bullock, Jr., American Institute of Architects, Williamsburg, 

Mrs. Joseph R. Caldwell, Athens, 111. 

Roderick H. Cantey, Kershaw County Historical Society, Camden, S.C. 

[ 257 

689-192 0-64 — 20 


Miss Gertrude S. Carraway, Director, Tryon Palace Restoration, New 
Bern, N.C. 

Robert D. Christie, Director, Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, 

Mrs. Frank Cogan, Executive Secretary, Antiquarian and Landmarks 
Society, Inc., of Connecticut, Hartford. 

Albert B. Corey (deceased), State Historian, Division of Archives and 
History, Albany, N.Y. 

Albert S. Davis, Jr., Trustee, Washington Campground Association, 
Somerville, N.J. 

Leon deValinger, Jr., State Archivist, Public Archives Commission, 
Dover, Del. 

Mrs. John C. Digges, White Post, Va. 

Harold J. Dyer, Director of State Parks, Augusta, Maine. 

J. H. Easterby (deceased), Director, South Carolina Archives Depart- 
ment, Columbia. 

Mrs. S. Henry Edmunds, Executive Secretary, Historic Charleston Foun- 
dation, Charleston, S.C. 

Lawrence J. Flynn, Director, Vacation/Travel Promotion, Massachusetts 
Department of Commerce, Boston. 

Henry N. Flynt, President, Heritage Foundation and Pocumtuck Valley 
Memorial Association, Deerfield, Mass. 

James W. Foster, Director, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore. 

Malcolm Gilman, State President, the New Jersey Society, Sons of the 
American Revolution, Red Bank. 

Ralph P. Grant, Kingsport, Tenn. 

C. E. Gregory, former Director, Georgia Historical Commission, Atlanta. 

John J. Grove, Coordinator, Point State Park, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

L. F. Hagglund, Middlebury, Vt. 

Dr. & Mrs. Richard Hanckel, Charleston, S.C. 

Elmore Hane, Columbia, S.C. 

H. Hobart Holley, Quincy Historical Society, Quincy, Mass. 

Richard H. Howland, former Executive Director. National Trust for 
Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C. 

Mr. and Mrs. G. E. Hoyt, Oakley, S.C. 

Mrs. Daniel Elliott Huger, Charleston, S.C. 

Miss Bessie Lewis, Pine Harbor, Townsend, Ga. 

Marshall T. Mays, President, Greenwood County Historical Society, 
Greenwood, S.C. 

Miss Helen G. McCormick, Director, Gibbes Art Gallery, Charleston, S.C. 

Kyle McCormick, Director, Department of Archives and History, Charles- 
ton, W. Va. 

Acknowledgments [ 259 

Kermit McKeever, Assistant Director, West Virginia Conservation Com- 
mission, Charleston. 

Frederick D. Nichols, University of Virginia, Charlottesville. 

Vrest Orton, Chairman, Vermont Historic Sites. Weston. 

Leonard J. Panaggio, Rhode Island Development Council, Providence. 

Earl R. Poorbaugh, Director, Maryland Department of Information. 

Mrs. Hannah B. Roach, Historian, Elfreth's Alley Asociation, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Lloyd D. SchaefFer, Alexandria, Va. 

Rev. Charles J. Shealy, former Pastor, Ebenezer Lutheran Parish, Rin- 
con, Ga. 

Anthony Slosek, Curator, Oswego County Historical Society, Oswego. 

Edwin W. Small, Superintendent, Minute Man National Historical Park, 
Boston, Mass. ; formerly Executive Secretary, Boston National Historic Sites 

S. K. Stevens, Executive Director, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum 
Commisison, Harrisburg. 

Mr. and Mrs. F. G. Stewart, Kernstown, Va. 

Mrs. Amos Struble, Westchester County Historical Society, White Plains, 

Lawrence Stuart, Director of State Parks, Augusta, Maine. 

J. Truman Swing, Secretary, Brandywine Battlefield Park Commission. 
Wynnewood, Pa. 

William S. Tarlton, Historic Sites Superintendent, Department of Ar- 
chives and History, Raleigh, N.C. 

Russell Tobey, Director of Recreation, New Hampshire Forestry and 
Recreation Department, Concord. 

Arthur L. Townsend, Haddonfleld, N.J. 

William G. Tyrell, Historian, Division of Archives and History, New 
York State Education Department, Albany. 

Mrs. Graham D. Wilcox, Curator, Stockbridge Library Association. 
Stockbridge, Mass. 

Col. Cooper D. Winn, Jr., Robert E. Lee Memorial Foundation, Inc.. 
former Resident Superintendent of Stratford Hall, Va. 

Richard G. Wood, Director, Vermont Historical Society, Montpelier. 



Frontispiece: Independence Hall, Pa. 

4 Soldiers' hut, Morristown National Historical Park, N.J. 

5 Aerial view, Charleston, S.C. 

6 Elfreth's Alley, Philadelphia, Pa. 

8 National Park Service archeologist. 

10 "Wakefield" George Washington Birthplace National Monument, Va. 

1 3 Massachusetts Hall, Harvard University. 

14 Wren Building, William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Va. 

15 H ammond-H arwood House, Annapolis, Md. 

16 Robert Brewton House, Charleston, S.C. 

18 Frary House, Deer field, Mass. 

19 Fort Frederica National Monument, Ga. 

20 The Forks of the Ohio, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

2 1 Fort Ticonderoga, N. Y. 

23 Bushy Run Battlefield State Park, Pa. 

24 Fort Watauga marker, Tenn. 

26 Hall of House of Burgesses, Williamsburg, Va. 

28 John Dickinson home, Del. 

30 Lexington Green, Mass. 

31 Bunker Hill Monument, Mass. 

32 Independence Hall, Pa. 

33 Declaration of Independence chamber, Independence Hall, Pa. 
35 Valcour Bay, Lake Champlain, N.Y. 

37 Morris- J umel Mansion, New York, N.Y. 

38 Washington Crossing State Park, Pa. 

39 Gilpin House, Brandywine Battlefield State Park, Pa. 

40 Valley Forge State Park, Pa. 

41 Major General John Stark. 

[ 260 

List of Illustrations [ 261 

43 Ford Mansion, Morristown National Historical Park, N.J. 

45 View from Kings Mountain National Military Park, S.C. 

45 Obelisk, Kings Mountain National Military Park, S.C. 

46 Major General Nathanael Greene. 

50 Yorktown Battlefield, Colonial National Historical Park, V a. 

55 Excavations at Fort Frederica National Monument, Ga. 

58 Derby House, Salem Maritime National Historic Site, Mass. 

59 Army hospital, Morristown National Historical Park, N.J. 

60 Print of City Hall, N.Y., in 1 790. 

61 City Hall National Memorial, N.Y. 

62 View from Stark's Knob, Saratoga National Historical Park, N.Y. 

63 Great Ravine, Saratoga National Historical Park, N.Y. 

64 Peter Francisco monument, Guilford Courthouse National Military 

Park, N.C. 

65 Moores Creek National Military Park, N.C. 

66 Fort Necessity National Battlefield, Pa. 

67 Ironmaster's house, Hopewell Village National Historic Site, Pa. 

67 Employees' houses, Hopewell Village National Historic Site, Pa. 

68 Excavations, Independence National Historical Park, Pa. 
70 Monument, Cowpens National Battlefield Site, S.C. 

72 Aerial view, George Washington Birthplace National Monument, Va. 

11 Gloria Dei Church National Historic Site, Pa. 

79 Touro Synagogue National Historic Site, R.I. 

82 Webb House, Wethersfield, Conn. 

87 Lady Pepperrell House, Kittery Point, Maine. 

90 Whitehall, Annapolis, Md. 

92 Buckman Tavern, Lexington, Mass. 

94 Christ Church, Cambridge, Mass. 

98 Isaac Royall House, Medford, Mass. 

99 Jeremiah Lee Mansion, Marblehead, Mass. 
101 King's Chapel, Boston, Mass. 

108 Paul Revere House, Boston, Mass. 

Ill Shirley-Eustis House proposed restoration, Roxbury, Mass. 

113 Wright's Tavern, Concord, Mass. 

114 Macpheadris-W arner House, Portsmouth, N.H. 
116 Old Tennent Church, Monmouth Battlefield, N.J. 
118 Nassau Hall, Princeton University. 

121 Princeton Battlefield, N.J. 

123 McKonkey Ferryhouse, Washington Crossing State Park, N.J. 


124 Bennington Battlefield, N.Y. 

129 Johnson Hall, Johnstown, N.Y. 

134 Stony Point Battlefield, N.Y. 

137 Hasbrouck House, Newburgh, N.Y. 

142 Chew House, Germantown, Pa. 

144 Conrad Weiser Home, Berks County, Pa. 

148 Graeme Park, Horsham, Pa. 

150 John Bartram House, Philadelphia, Pa. 

152 Mount Pleasant, Philadelphia, Pa. 

153 Washington's headquarters house, Valley Forge, Pa. 

155 The Brick Market, Newport, R.I. 

156 First Baptist Meeting House, Providence, R.I. 

158 Old State House, Newport, R.I. 

159 Redwood Library and Athenaeum, Newport, R.I. 
162 Drayton Hall, Charleston County, S.C. 

164 Mulberry Plantation, Berkeley County, S.C. 

166 St. Michael's Episcopal Church, Charleston, S.C. 

167 Long Island of the Holston, Tenn. 
170 Mount Airy, Richmond County, Va. 
174 Westover, Charles City County, Va. 

179 John Williams House, Deerfield, Mass. 

180 Daniel du Bois House, New Paltz, N.Y. 
189 Public Magazine, Williamsburg, Va. 
191 Colonial Capitol, Williamsburg, Va. 



Ackley, John B, 185 

Adam-style architecture, 187, 188, 227 

Adams, John, 109, 119, 143, 203, 211 

Adams, John Quincy, 119, 203 

Adams, Samuel, 95, 96, 106, 204 

Adams Birthplaces (Mass.), 203 

Advisory Board on National Parks, His- 
toric Sites, Buildings, and Monu- 
ments, xiii, 51, 74, 256 

Africa, 9, 57 

Agents, Indian, 20, 128, 129, 130, 212, 

Agreements, cooperative; see Coopera- 
tive agreements 

Alabama River, map, 8-9 

Alamance Battleground (N.C.), 217— 
218; map, 2-3 

Alamance Battleground State Historic 
Site (N.C.), 218 

Alamance River, 12 

Albany, N.Y., 27; Revolutionary War, 
124, 125, 126, 135; sites and build- 
ings, 52, 216, 239; map, 8-9, 22-23, 
32-33, 48-49 

Albany Congress, 27, 52 

Alexandria, Va, 52, 231-32 

Allegheny Mountains, 145 

Allegheny River, 145, 147; illus., 20 

Allen, Ethan, 31, 127 

Allen (Ethan) Birthplace (Conn.), 238 

Allen (Ethan) Park (Vt.), 240 

Altamaha River, 195, 196; map, 2-3, 
8-9, 44-45 

American Philosophical Society, 70 

American Philosophical Society Build- 
ing (Pa.), 69 

American Scenic and Historic Preserva- 
tion Society, 135 

Amherst, Gen. Jeffrey, 127, 211 

Amstel House (Del.), 195 

Ancient and Honorable Artillery Com- 
pany, 96, 97 

Anderson, Joseph Horatio, 16, 90 

Andre, Maj. John, 132 

Angue, John, 184 

Annapolis, Md., 16, 88-91, 201, 202, 
239; map, 2-3 

Annapolis Convention (1786), 84 

Appalachian Mountains, 4, 7, 20, 22, 
25,71, 145, 198, 234 

Architects and builders, 15-16, 79, 83- 
91 passim, 94-114 passim, 119, 131, 
133, 138, 140, 145, 151, 154-157 
passim, 160-163 passim, 170, 173, 
175, 182-188 passim, 201, 202, 206, 
207, 210, 214, 220, 227, 230-232 
passim, 235 

Architecture, 5, 14-17, 52, 61, 76-80 
passim, 83-91 passim, 95-115 pas- 
sim, 119, 129-133 passim, 141, 143, 
148, 149, 152, 156-166 passim, 170- 
176 passim, 181-183 passim, 186- 
188, 192, 195, 199, 201, 206, 207, 
212, 216, 219-227 passim, 230-235 

[ 263 



Ariss, John, 16, 170 

Arlington (Mass.) Historical Society, 

Arnold, Benedict, 35, 36, 37, 40, 41, 
44, 48, 85, 86, 126, 135, 136, 151 

Arnold Trail, 200, 201 

Articles of Confederation, 33, 69, 84 

Ashley House (Mass.), 179 

Ashley River, 161, 186 

"Association," The, 29, 30, 171 

Association for the Preservation of Vir- 
ginia Antiquities, 52, 190, 235 

Augusta, Me., 200, 201 ; map, 32-33 

JJacon's Rebellion, 230 

Bailey, "Mad Ann," 237 

Baltimore, Md., 10, 202; map, 2-3, 22- 
23, 32-33, 48-49 

Bank of the United States, 70, 187 

Barksdale Theater (Va.), 233 

Bartram, John, 150, 151 

Bartram, William, 151 

Bartram (John) House (Pa.), 150— 
151; illus., 150; map, 2-3 

Battle Monument (Vt.), 240 

Battlefields, 52, 62-66 passim, 70-73 
passim, 92, 93, 102-103, 115-121 
passim, 124-125, 131-135 passim, 
139-141, 160-161, 196, 198, 213- 
218 passim, 226, 229, 236-240 

Battles, xvii, 23, 31, 40, 44-48 passim, 
54, 62-65 passim, 70, 71, 72, 115- 
126 passim, 130-135 passim, 139- 
143 passim, 147, 153, 154, 160, 161, 
194-196 passim, 205, 214, 217-218, 
222, 224, 229; see also Battlefields 

Bean, Russell, 228 

Bean, William, 228 

Bean cabin site (Tenn.), 24, 228-229; 
map, 2-3 

Beaufort, S.C., 240 

Beaumarchais, Caron de, 34 

Bellefont (Va.), 240 

Belleville Plantation and associated 
sites (S.C.), 223-224 

Bemis Heights, N.Y., 211 

Bennington, Battle of, 124-125, 205 

Bennington, Vt., 41, 240 

Bennington Battlefield State Park 
(N.Y.), 124-125; illus., 124; map, 

Berkeley (Va. plantation), 175, 230 

Berkeley Hundred (Va.), 230 

Bermuda, 103 

Bernard, Gov. Francis, 16 

Berrien House (N.J.), 209-210 

Berryville, Va., 240 

Bethabara (N.C.), 218 

Bethlehem, Pa., 220 

Bevier (Louis) House, 180, 182 

Bibles, 78 

Bill of Rights, 61 

Billopp, Capt. Christopher, 210 

Billopp House (Staten Island, N.Y.), 

Bird, Mark, 66, 67 

Birthplaces, 72-73, 173, 189, 194, 203, 

Bishop White House (Pa.), 70 

Blacklock (William) House (S.C.), 

Blacksburg, Va., 240 

Blackstock Battlefield (S.C.), 240 

Blanchard, Joshua, 106 

Bland, Giles, 230 

Bland, Richard, 1 7 1 

Blodget, Samuel, 16 

Bloody Marsh, Battle of, 54, 196 

Blue Licks, Battle of, 48, 198 

Blue Licks Battlefield (Ky.), 198 

Blue Ridge, 18 

Blue Ridge expedition, 232 

"Bodleian Plate," 175 

Bonhomme Richard (ship), 34 

Bonnet, Stede, 224 

Boone, Daniel, 78, 168, 198 

Boone, Israel, 198 

Boone, Margaret, 78 

Boone's Creek, 228 

Boone's Lake, 228 

Boone's Wilderness Road ; see Wilder- 
ness Road 

Boonesborough Site (Ky.), 238 



[ 265 

Boston, Mass., 15, 28, 87, 99, 151; 
Dept. of Parks, 75 ; population, 7 ; 
port of, 29; Revolutionary War, 29, 
30, 31, 35, 36, 56, 92, 94, 102, 103, 
106, 112, 127, 204, 222; sites and 
buildings, 52, 74-75, 95-97, 100- 
102, 104-110; map, 2-3, 8-9, 22- 
23, 32-33, 48-49 

Boston Harbor, 99, 105 

Boston Latin School, 106 

Boston Massacre, 106, 109 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 97 

Boston News Letter (John Camp- 
bell's), 13 

Boston Post Road, 76 

"Boston Tea Party," 29, 52, 106 

Bostonian Society, 109, 110 

Boudinot, Elias, 207 

Boudinot House (N.J.), 207-208 

Bouquet, Gen. Henry, 140, 141, 147 

Boxwood Hall (N.J.), 207-208 

Boxwood Hall Memorial Association, 

Boyd, Col. John, 196 

Braddock, Maj. Gen. Edward, 20, 21, 
66, 90, 111, 146, 202 

Brafferton Hall, College of William 
and Mary, 190 

Brandywine, Battle of, 139-140, 141, 

Brandywine Battlefield (Pa.), 139- 
140; illus., 39; map, 32-33 

Brandywine Battlefield Park Commis- 
sion, 139 

Branford, William, 187 

Branford-Horry House (S.C.), 187 

Brant, Joseph, 215 

Braxton, Carter, 171 

Breeches Bible, 78 

Breed's Hill (Mass.), 31, 93 

Brewerton, N.Y., 239 

Brewton, Miles, 164 

Brewton (Miles) House (S.C.), 163, 
186; map, 2-3 

Brewton (Robert) House (S.C.), 164- 
165, 186; illus., 16; map, 2-3 

Brice House (Md.), 88, 201 

Brick Market (R.I.), 154-156; illus., 
155; map, 2-3 

British East India Company, 29 

Broad River, map, 44-45 

Brodhead, Col. Daniel, 47 

Brooklyn Heights (N.Y.),36 

Brooks-Sturm House (Mass.), 57 

Broughton, Thomas, 163 

Brown, Joseph, 16, 157 

Brown University, 13, 119, 156, 157 

Brumbaugh, C. Edwin, 140 

Brunswick Town, N.C., 218-219; map, 

Brunswick Town State Historic Site 

Bruton Parish Church (Williamsburg, 

Va.), 190 
Bryan's Station Site (Ky. ) , 238 
Buckingham, Pa., 240 
Buckland, William, 15, 16, 88-89, 90, 

Buckman, John, 91 
Buckman Tavern (Mass.), 91-92, 102; 

illus., 92 ; map, 32-33 
Buford, Col. Abraham, 44 
Bulfinch, Charles, 96, 104, 1 10 
Bull, William, 214 
Bunker Hill, "Battle of," 31 
Bunker Hill Monument (Mass.), 93; 

illus., 31; map, 32-33 
Bunker Hill Monument Association, 

Burgesses, Virginia House of, illus., 26, 

Burgoyne, Gen. John, 40, 41, 42, 62, 

63, 94, 124-127 passim, 132, 143, 

Burlington, Vt., 240 
Burwell, Carter, 230 
Bush Homestead (N.Y.), 239 
Bushy Run, Battle of, 23, 140-141, 

Bushy Run Battlefield (Pa.) , 140-141 ; 

illus., 23; map, 2-3 
Byrd, Col. William, 167-168, 172 
Byrd, William, I, 175 
Byrd, William, II, 173, 174, 175 

Cahokia, 111, map, 22-23 
Cambridge, Mass, 93-95, 103-104, 
205; map, 2-3 


[ 266 

Camden, Battle of, 160-161 
Camden, S.C., 44, 46; map, 44-45 
Camden Battlefield (S.C.), 160-161 
Camden Road, 224 
Campbell, Gen. Archibald, 44, 196 
Campbell, John, 13 
Campbell, Col. William, 71 
Campbell, Lord William, 225 
Campgrounds, 137, 142, 200, 208-209, 

215, 224; see also Valley Forge 
Canada, 35, 37, 40, 42, 86, 125, 126, 

135, 136; see also Louisbourg, Mont- 
real, Nova Scotia, Quebec 
Caner, Henry, 16 
Cannonball House (N.J.), 239 
Cape Breton Island, 109 
Cape Cod, map, 2-3, 32-33 
Cape Fear River, 218; map, 2-3, 

Cape Hatteras, map, 2-3, 44-45 
Capers, Richard, 227 
Capitol, The (Williamsburg, Va.), 

191;tfZ«j.,26, 191 
Carleton, Gen. Sir Guy, 37, 38, 86, 

135, 136 
Carlile, Abraham, 184 
Carlisle, Pa., 240 
Carlyle House (Va.),52 
Carolina Piedmont, 24, 71 
Carpenters' Company of Philadelphia, 

69, 119, 184 
Carpenters' Hall (Pa.), 69 
Carroll, Charles, 202 
Carroll, Mary, 202 
Carroll, Richard, 202 
Carroll-Caton House (Md.), 202 
Carter, Ann Hill, 235 
Carter, Robert "King," 231 
Carter family, 231, 235 
Carter's Grove Plantation (Va.), 230- 

Castillo de San Marcos (Fla.),54 
Castine, Me., 238 
Castle Hill (Va.), 231 
Catawba River, map, 44-45 
Cave Hill Cemetery (Ky.), 199 
Chadd's Ford (Pa.), 139, 140 
Chain of Ponds, 200 
Chandler, Joseph Everett, 108 
Channing, Edward, 5 

Charleston, S.C.: architecture, 16-17; 
French-Spanish attack, 18; popula- 
tion, 5, 6, 181; Revolutionary War, 
36, 44, 83, 160; sites and buildings, 
163-166, 186-188, 224-227 passim, 
240; illus., 5; map, 2-3, 8-9, 22-23, 
44-45, 48-49 

Charleston (S.C.) Housing Authority, 

Charleston (S.C.) Museum, 187, 188 

Charleston Road, 228 

Charlestown, Mass., 93 

Charlotte, N.C., 45; map, 2-3, 44-45 

Charter of Privileges of 1701, Wm. 
Penn's, 68 

Chase, Samuel, 202 

Chase-Lloyd House (Md.), 88, 202 

Chattahoochie River, map, 2-3, 8-9, 

Chaudiere River, 35 

Chemung River, 215 

Cherokee Indians, 47, 166, 167, 168, 
227, 229; see also Overhill Cherokee 

Cherry Valley, N.Y., 47; map, 32-33 

Chesapeake Bay, 34, 73, 83, 139; map, 
8-9, 22-23, 32-33, 44-45 

Chester, Pa., 139 

Chew, Benjamin, 142, 143 

Chew House (Pa.), 141-143; illus., 
142; map, 32-33 

Chiswell Lead Mines (Va.), 240 

Christ Church (Alexandria, Va.), 234 

Christ Church (Boston, Mass.), 105 

Christ Church (Cambridge, Mass.), 
93-95; illus., 94; map, 2-3 

Christ Church (Lancaster County, 

Christ Church (Phila., Pa.), 70 

Christ Church Parish (Irvington, Va.), 

Churches, 70, 76-78, 93-95, 100-102, 
104-107, 113, 116, 117, 132-133, 
156-157, 165-166, 170-172, 175, 
186, 187, 190, 195, 197, 218, 219, 
220, 226-227, 231, 234, 239, 240 

Cincinnati Hall (Exeter, N.H.), 239 

City Hall (Charleston, S.C), 187 

City Hall of New York, 60-62; illus., 


[ 267 

Civil War (1861-65), 216, 219, 222, 

Clampffer, Adam, 183 

Clarcmont (Va.), 240 

Clark, George Rogers, 48, 197, 198, 
199, 234, 245 

Clark (George Rogers) State Memorial 
(Ind.), 197-198 

Clarke, Elijah, 196 

Clarke, Rev. Jonas, 204 

Clarke House (N.J.), 120 

Clay, Henry, 191 

Clinch River, 7; map, 2-3 

Clinton, Gen. Sir Henry, 36, 42, 43, 44, 
49, 115, 116, 131, 134 

Clinton, Gen. James, 215 

Cliveden (Pa.), 141-143 

Cloisters, The (Pa.), 240 

Coach House (Pa.), 184 

Coburn Gore, Me., 201 

"Coercive" Acts, 29 

College of Charleston (S.C.), 187 

College of New Jersey, 117; see also 
Princeton University 

College of William and Mary; see Wil- 
liam and Mary College 

Collins, Henry, 160 

Colonial architecture, 219, 223 

Colonial assemblies, powers of, 25 

Colonial Dames of America; see Na- 
tional Society of Colonial Dames of 

Colonial National Historical Park 
(Va.), 73, 190 

Colonial Parkway, 73, 190 

Colonial Powder Magazine (S.C.), 
186, 225 

Colonial Williamsburg; see Williams- 
burg, Va. 

Colonial Williamsburg, Inc., 188 

Colonies: "debtor," 8, 11; economy, 
8-12; education, 13; population, 3- 
7; see also Frontier, French and In- 
dian War, Revolutionary War, Trade 

Columbia, S.C., map, 44-45 

Columbia University, 13 

Committee of Correspondence, 96 

Committee of Safety, 30 

Concord, Mass. : Revolutionary War, 
93, 172, 178, 204; sites and build- 
ings, 56, 112-113; map, 2-3, 32-33 
Concord, N.H., map, 32-33 
Concord Monument (Mass.), 56 
Concord River, 56; map, 32-33 
Conference House (N.Y.), 210-211 
Conference House Association, 21 1 
Congregation Jeshuat Israel (R.I.), 80 
Congress; see Albany Congress; Con- 
gresses, provincial; Continental Con- 
gress; Stamp Act Congress; and 
under U.S. Government 
Congress Hall (Pa.), 69 
Congresses, provincial, 30, 113 
Connecticut, 16, 133; sites and build- 
ings, 81-83, 193-194, 238 
Connecticut Antiquarian and Land- 
mark Society, 194 
Connecticut River, 178; map, 2-3, 32- 

Connecticut Society of the Colonial 

Dames of America, 81, 83 
Connecticut Society of the Sons of the 

American Revolution, 193 
Connecticut Valley, 177 
Connolly, Dr. John, 236 
Constitution; see under U.S. Govern- 
Constitution Island (Hudson River), 

Constitutional Convention; see Federal 

Constitutional Convention 
Constitutional House (N.C.), 219 
Consulting Committee, xiii, 255-256 
Continental Congress, 48, 61, 84, 118, 
122, 143, 173, 208, 219, 222; First, 
29, 30, 69, 171, 234; Second, 32, 
34, 68, 206, 209, 216, 234 
Cooch House (Del.), 195 
Cooch's Bridge, Battle of, 194-195 
Cooper River, 186, 226 
Cooperative agreements, 56, 74, 75, 80 
Copper mines, 194 
Cornstalk, Chief, 236,237 
Cornwallis, Gen. Lord Charles, 37, 38, 
44-49 passim, 63, 64, 73, 83, 120, 
160, 161, 190, 195,233 
Corporation of Christ Church in the 
City of Boston, 104 


[ 268 

Corporation of Trinity Church (New 

York City), 132 
County Court Building (Philadelphia, 

Pa.), 69 
Court House (Charleston, S.C.), 187 
Coventry, Conn., 194 
Cowpens, Battle of (S.C.), 46, 70-71 
Cowpens National Battlefield Site 

( S.C. ) , 70-7 1 ; illus., 70 ; map, 44-45 
Craig House (N.J.), 117 
Cresap'sFort (Md.), 239 
Croghan, Maj. William, 199 
Crown Point, 21, 31, 37, 86; map, 

8-9 ; see also Fort Crown Point 
Crown Point Military Road, 240 
Crown Point State Reservation (N.Y. ) , 

Cuba, 21,22 

Culpeper, Lord Thomas, 169 
Cumberland, Md., 239 
Cumberland Colony, 168 
Cumberland Gap, 24, 198, 231; map, 

Cumberland River, 168 
Cupola House (N.C.),219 
Cushing House (Mass.), 239 
Custom House (Charleston, S.C), 

Custom House (Salem, Mass.), 58 

JLJan River, 47 

Dana family, 205 

Dartmouth College, 13, 1 19 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, 99, 196, 198, 208, 219, 226, 
229; Hobkirk Hill Chapter, 160, 
161; Molly Stark Chapter, 205; 
Saranac Chapter, 136; Washington 
Headquarters Association, 130, 131 

Dead River, 200 

Deane, Silas, 34 

Declaration of Independence, 33, 69, 
84, 109, 158, 173, 187, 202, 211, 
230;*'//^., 33 

Declaration of Rights, 29, 84 

"Declaration of the Causes of Taking 
up Arms," 32 

Deerfield, Mass., 9, 18, 177-180; illus., 
18, 179; map, 2-3 

Deerfield Academy (Mass.), 177, 179 

Deerfield (Mass.) Heritage Founda- 
tion, 52 

De Kalb, "Baron" Johann; see Kalb, 
Johann ( "Baron de") 

Delaware, 44, 83-85, 194-195 

Delaware Indians, 144 

Delaware River, 23, 37, 38, 40, 78, 
120, 121-123, 195, 208, 221; map, 
2-3, 32-33 

Delaware State Museum, 84 

Departments of Government; see un- 
der U.S. Government 

Derby House ( Mass. ) , 58 ; illus., 58 

Derby Wharf (Mass.), 58 

Deshler-Morris House (Pa.), 70 

D'Estaing, Adm. Count, 44 

Detroit, Mich., 48; map, 8-9, 22-23, 

Deyo, Pierre, 182 

Deyo (Pierre) House (N.Y.), 182 

Dickinson, John, 29, 84, 85 

Dickinson (John) House (Del.), 83- 
85; illus., 28; map, 32-33 

Dilworth-Todd-Moylan House (Pa.), 

Disputed lands, map, 48-49 

Donelson, Col. John, 168 

Dooly, John, 196 

Dorchester Heights National Historic 
Site (Mass.), 74-75 

Douglas, Capt. John, 78 

Dover, Del., map, 32-33 

Draper's Meadows (Va.), 240 

Drayton, John, 161 

Drayton Hall (S.C), 161-162; illus., 
162; map, 2-3 

Drowne, Deacon Shem, 96 

Du Bois (Daniel) House, 181, 182; 
illus., 180 

Dunmore, Lord, 169, 171, 190, 236 

Durham, N. H., 205-206 

Dutch, 181,195 

Dutch colonial architecture, 181, 182 

iLast Granby, Conn., 194 
East Greenwich, R. I., 222 
East Haddam, Conn., 238 



[ 269 

East India Company, 29 

Eaton's Fort (Tenn.), 168 

Economic development, 8-12, 57 

Edenton, N.C., 219 

Edenton Public Library (N.G.),219 

Edict of Nantes, 226 

Edisto River, 7; map, 2-3, 44-45 

Eels-Stowe House (Conn.), 238 

Elfreth, Jeremiah, 182, 183, 184 

Elfreth, Josiah, 184 

Elfreth's Alley (Pa.), xvi, 182-186, 
253; illus.,6; map, 2-3 

Elfreth's Alley Association of Philadel- 
phia, 52, 182, 185, 253 

Elizabeth, N.J., 207-208 

Elkton, Md., 239 

Ellison, John, 214 

Elsing Green (Va.),240 

Encampments; see Campgrounds 

England: causes of friction with, 25- 
29; and colonial economy, 11; ex- 
pansion and conflicts, xvi, 7, 17-22; 
influence on colonial architecture, 
14-17 passim; and land speculation, 
1 1 ; and mercantilism, 8-9 ; Parlia- 
ment, 9, 13, 28-32 passim, 60, 95; 
and westward movement, 7, 22; see 
also French and Indian War, Revo- 
lutionary War, Tories 

Englishtown, N.J., 239 

Ephrata, Pa., 240 

Ethan Allen Park (Vt.), 240 

Eustis, Gov. William, 112 

Eutaw Springs, Battle of, 47, 224, 226 

Eutaw Springs Battlefield (S.C.), 226; 
map, 44-45 

Exchange, The (S.C.), 186,225-226 

Exeter, N.H., 239 

.Fairfax, Lord Thomas, 169 

Fairmont Park (Pa.), 151 

Fall line, 4 

Faneuil, Peter, 96 

Faneuil Hall (Mass.), 95-97, 105, 
106; map, 2-3 

Federal Constitutional Convention, 

Federal Government; see U.S. Govern- 

Federal Hall (New York City), xvi, 
27, 60-62 ; illus., 61 ; map, 2-3 

Federal Hall National Memorial (New 
York City ), 60-62 ; illus., 61 

Federal period architecture, 131, 184 

Ferguson, Maj. Patrick, 45, 71, 161, 

Fergusson, Henry, 149 

Ferry Inn (Pa.), 122 

Ferryhouses, 122, 123 

Field of Grounded Arms (N.Y.), 63, 

Finger Lakes State Park Commission 
(N.Y.), 215 

Fireproof Building (S.C.), 188 

First Baptist Church (S.C.), 187 

First Baptist Meeting House (R.I.), 
156-157; illus., 156; map, 2-3 

First Parish Church (Mass.), 113 

First Trinity Church (New York City), 

First Watchung Mountain, 209 

Fiske Farm (Mass.), 57 

Flint River, map, 44-45 

Florida, 22, 50; expansion and conflict, 
xvi, 17-18, 19; sites and buildings, 
54, 238; map, 22-23, 48-49 

"Flourbag Fort" (Bushy Run Battle- 
field, Pa.) , illus., 23 

Forbes, Gen. John, 146 

Ford Mansion (N.J.), 59; illus., 43 

Forks of the Ohio, 65-66, 145-148; 
illus., 20; map, 2-3; see also Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

Fort (at Bethabara, N.C.), 218 

Fort Amherst (N.Y.), 211-212 

Fort Anderson (N.C.), 219 

Fort Ann (N.Y.), 239 

Fort Augusta (Pa.), 221, 240 

Fort Boonesborough (Ky.), 48, 198- 

Fort Brewerton (N.Y.), 239 

Fort Carillon (N.Y.), 127 

Fort Casimir (Del.), 195 

Fort Chiswell (Va.), 240 

Fort Constitution (N.H.), 239 

Fort Crailo (N.Y.), 239 

Fort Crown Point (N.Y.), 21, 31, 37, 
86, 211-212 

Fort Cumberland (Md.), 239 



FortDarien (Ga.), 195, 196 

Fort Detroit (Mich.), 140 

Fort Dorchester (S.C.), 240 

Fort Duquesne (Pa.), 7, 21, 66, 146, 

147; illus., 20; map, 8-9 
Fort Edward (N.Y.), 124, 239 
Fort Egypt (Va.), 240 
Fort Eustis (Va.), 240 
Fort Fayette; see Fort LaFayette 
Fort Frederica National Monument 

(Ga.), xvi, 20, 54-55; illus., 19; 

map, 2-3 
Fort Frederick (Md.), 202-203 
Fort Frederick State Park (Md.), 203 
FortFrey (N.Y.), 239 
Fort Frontenac (Canada), 21 
Fort George (Me.), 200, 238 
Fort George Memorial, 200 
Fort Griswold (Conn.), 238 
Fort Halifax (Me.), 200-201 
Fort Harrod (Ky.), 199, 238 
Fort Johnson (N.Y.), 212 
Fort Johnson (S.C.), 240 
Fort King George (Ga.), 195-196 
Fort King George State Park (Ga.), 

Fort LaFayette, (Pa.), 147 
Fort Le Boeuf (Pa.), 145, 240 
Fort Lee (N.Y.), 36,37 
Fort Loudoun (Tenn.), 228-229 
Fort Loudoun Association, 229 
Fort Mercer (N.J.), 208, 221, 222 
Fort Mifflin (Pa.), 208, 221-222 
Fort Moore (S.C.),51 
Fort Moultrie (S.C.), 240 
Fort Necessity (Pa.), 21, 65-66, 146; 

illus., 66; map, 2-3 
Fort Necessity National Battlefield 

(Pa.), 65-66 
Fort (Old) Niagara (N.Y.), 21, 140, 

215-216; map, 8-9 
"Fort Nonsense" (N.J.), 59 
Fort Ontario (N.Y.), 7, 19, 40, 212- 

213; map, 8-9, 22-23 
Fort Oswego; see Fort Ontario (N.Y.) 
Fort Pitt (Pa.), 23, 47, 140, 141, 146, 

147, 236; illus., 20; map, 22-23 
Fort Plain, N.Y., 239 
Fort Pownall (Me.), 238 
Fort Robinson (Tenn.), 167 

Fort Rosalie (Miss.), 239 

Fort Sackville (Ind.), 48, 197-198 

Fort St. Frederic (N.Y.), 211 

Fort Schuyler; see Fort Stanwix (N.Y.) 

Fort Stanwix (N.Y.), 40, 41, 125-126, 

131, 132; map, 32-33 
Fort Ticonderoga (N.Y.), 21, 31, 37, 

41, 75, 127-128, 211, 229; illus., 21; 

map, 2-3, 32-33 
Fort Ticonderoga Association, 127 
Fort Vaudreuil (N.Y.), 127; see also 

Fort Ticonderoga (N.Y.) 
Fort Washington (N.Y.), 36 
Fort Watauga (Tenn.), 24, 229; illus., 

23; map, 2-3, 44-45 
Fort Western (Me.), 200, 201 
Fort William Henry (N.Y.), 213 
Fort William Henry Corp., 213 
FortZeller (Pa.), 240 
Forts; see also Cresap's Fort, Eaton's 

Fort, Hite's Fort, Louisbourg, Old 

Stone Fort, Star Fort 
Foundation for Historic Christ Church, 

Inc. (Va.), 231 
Francis, Col. Ebenezer, 229 
Francisco (Pvt. Peter) Monument 

(Guilford Courthouse National Mili- 
tary Park, N.C.), illus., 64 
Franklin, Benjamin, 34, 69, 70, 84, 151, 

183, 210, 211 
Franklin, William, 210 
Franklin Court (Pa.), 70 
Frary House (Mass.), 179; illus., 18 
Fraunces, William, 213 
Fraunces Tavern (New York City), 

Fredericksburg, Va., 240 
Freedom Bell, 76 
Freehold, N.J., 239 
Freer (Hugo) House, 181, 182 
French, Daniel Chester, 56 
French: alliance with, 42, 62, 83, 141, 

154; colonial conflict, 7, 17-22, 65- 

66, 127, 128, 145-147, 177, 178, 

196, 202, 211-212, 213, 216, 221; 

fleet, 42, 43, 44, 49, 64, 73, 82, 83; 

and Amer. Revolution, 34, 35, 48, 

49, 81, 223; settlers, 5, 181, 226; 

ship awarded to, 206 


[ 271 

French and Indian War, 7, 11, 20-22, 
65-66, 125, 145, 146, 203, 209, 228, 

French Protestant Huguenot Church 
(S.C.), 187,226-227 

Frontier, 5, 7, 8, 17, 22-25, 71, 125- 
129 passim, 140-141, 144, 145, 163, 
167-168, 169, 177-180, 195-196, 
202, 216, 217-218, 221, 228-229, 
232-233, 236, 245; see also Trading 

Frontiersmen, xvi, 5, 6, 12, 17, 47, 48, 

Fur trade, 9, 10, 11, 20, 22, 25, 212 


radsby's Tavern (Va.), 231-232 

Gage, Gen. Thomas, 30, 1 10 

Galloway, Joseph, 29 

Gates, Gen. Horatio, 37, 42-46 passim, 
62,63, 160, 161,211,214,222 

Gates (Horatio) Home (W. Va.), 240 

Gates (Horatio) House (Pa.), 222 

Gaw, Gilbert, 185 

General Greene Inn (Pa.), 240 

General Post Office for America, 52 

George II (King of England), 158 

George III (King of England), 32, 33, 

Georgia, xvi, 29, 47, 223; founding, 
19-20; Revolutionary War, 44, 71, 
196; sites and buildings, 52, 54-55, 
195-197, 238; see also Savannah 

Georgia Historical Commission, 196 

Georgian architecture, 14, 15, 16-17, 
52, 76, 80, 87-89 passim, 90-91, 96, 
99, 100, 104, 106, 114, 129, 131, 
132, 141, 149, 152, 160, 161, 165, 
173, 174, 192, 201, 207, 216, 219, 
220, 230, 231, 234, 235 

Germanic architecture, 222 

Germanna (Va.), 232 

Germans, 5, 23, 124-125, 144, 183, 

Germantown, Battle of, 141-143, 153 

Germantown, Pa., 40, 52, 141-143; 
map, 2-3, 32-33 

Gibbes (William) House (S.C.), 188 

Gibbs, James, 100, 157, 170 

Gilbert, John, 182 

Gillon, Alexander, 224 

Gillon's Retreat (S.C. plantation), 224 

Gilpin House (Brandywine Battlefield 

State Park, Fa.) , illus., 39 
Girard, Stephen, 184 
Gloria Dei Church National Historic 

Site (Pa.), 77-78; illus., 77; map, 

Glover, Col. John, 122 
Golden Plough Tavern (Pa.), 222 
Goodwin, Rev. W. A. R., 190 
Gothic architecture, 226 
Governor's Palace (Va.), 192 
Graeme, Elizabeth, 149 
Graeme, Dr. Thomas, 149 
Graeme Park (Pa.), 148-149; illus., 

148; map, 2-3 
Granby Copper Mines (Conn.), 194 
Grand French Battery (Yorktown 

Battlefield, Va.), illus., 50 
Grasse, Adm. Francois de, 34, 49, 73, 

Great Indian Warpath, 167 
Great Lakes, 125, 216 
Great Meadows (Pa.), 65, 66; illus., 

Great Ravine (Saratoga National His- 
torical Park, N.Y.), illus., 63 
Greek Revival architecture, 61, 187 
Green Mountain Boys, 127 
Green Mountain Rangers, 125 
Green Spring, Va., 49 
Green Spring Battlefield (Va.), 240 
Greene, Gen. Nathanael, 37, 42, 46, 

47, 63, 71, 139, 160, 161, 214, 223, 

226,227; illus., 46 
Greene (Gen. Nathanael) Homestead 

(R.I. ), 223 
Greene Inn; see General Greene Inn 
Greenway Court (Va.), 169; map, 2-3 
Greenwich, Conn., 238 
Greenwood County Historical Society 

(S.C), 228 
Groton, Conn., 238 
Guilford Courthouse, Battle of, 47, 

63-64, 71 
Guilford Courthouse National Mili- 
tary Park (N.C.), 63-64; illus., 64; 

map, 44-45 



Gunning-Bedford (Gov.) House 
(Del.), 195 

Haddonfield, N.J., 239 

Haines, Ephraim, 184 

Hale, Nathan, 194 

Hale (Nathan) Birthplace (Conn.), 

Hale (Nathan) Schools (Conn.), 238 
Halifax, N.C., 219 
"Halifax Resolves," 219 
Hall, Richard, 183 
Hamilton, Alexander, 69 
Hamilton, Andrew, 16 
Hammond, Matthias, 89 
Hammond-Harwood House (Md.), 

88-89; illus., 15; map, 2-3 
Hammond-Harwood House Associa- 
tion, Inc., 88 
Hampton, Wade, 224 
Hampton Falls, N.H., 239 
Hancock, John, 113, 204 
Hancock (Thomas) House, 106 
Hancock-Clarke House (Mass.), 92, 

Hankinson Mansion (N.J.), 239 
Hanover Courthouse (Va. ), 233 
Hanover Tavern (Va. ), 233 
Hardwick (Ga.),238 
Harewood (W.Va.),240 
Harlem Heights (N.Y.),36 
Harlem Heights, Battle of, 130, 131 
Harrison, Benjamin, 171, 175, 230 
Harrison, Peter, 15, 79, 94, 100, 101, 

154, 155, 156, 160, 165 
Harrison, William Henry, 230 
Harrison's Landing (Va.), 230 
Harrod, James, 199 
Harrodsburg, Ky., 199, 238 
Hartford, Conn., map, 32-33 
Hartzog, George B., Jr., xiv 
Harvard College, 13, 103 
Harvard University, 103-104, 119; 

illus., 13 
Hasbrouck, Jonathan, 138 
Hasbrouck, Joseph, 138 
Hasbrouck House (Newburgh, N.Y.), 

137-138, 215; illus., 137 

Hasbrouck (Abraham) House (New 

Paltz,N.Y.), 180, 181 
Hasbrouck (Jean) House (New Paltz, 

N.Y.), 180, 181 
Hawks, John, 15,220 
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 58 
Henderson, Richard, 168 
Henry, Patrick, 26, 28, 171, 172, 189, 

Heritage Foundation, 177 
Herkimer, Gen. Nicholas, 126, 132, 

Herkimer Home (N.Y.),214 
Herkimer (Gen.) Monument (N.Y. ), 

"Hermitage," The (Md.), 239 
Hesselius, Gustavus, 78 
Hessians, 38, 76, 120, 122, 208, 209 
Heyward, Thomas, Jr., 187 
Heyward (Thomas, Jr. ) House (S.C.), 

Hill, Col. Edward, II, 235 
Hill, Edward, III, 235 
Hillsboro, N.C., map, 44-45 
Hirst, Grove, 87 
Historic Charleston Foundation, Inc., 

52, 187 
Historic districts, 177-192 
Historic Halifax (N.C.), 219 
Historic Richmond Foundation (Va.), 

Historic site selection, criteria for, 254 
Historic Sites Act of 1935, 74 
Historic York County (Pa. organiza- 
tion), 222 
Historical Halifax Restoration Associa- 
tion, Inc., 219 
Hite, John, 235 
Hite, Jost, 235, 236 
Hite's Fort, 235-236 
Hobkirk Hill Chapter, DAR, 160, 161 
Hobkirk's Hill, Battle of, 47 ; map, 44- 

Hollingworth Tavern (Md.), 239 
HollisHall (Harvard), 119 
Holston River, 7, 166; map, 2-3 
Hopewell Village National Historic 

Site (Pa.), 9, 66-68; illus., 67; map, 

Horry, Elias, 187 


[ 273 

Horsham, Pa., 148-149 

Houses, 56-59 passim, 70, 73, 81-92 

passim, 106-117 passim, 120, 122, 

128-131, 137-138, 140-145, 148- 

154, 161-165, 169-170, 173-175, 

179-188 passim, 190-195 passim, 

202-227 passim, 231, 232, 234, 239, 

240; see also Plantations 
Howe, Adm. Lord Richard, 131, 132, 

200, 211 
Howe, Gen. Sir William, 31, 35, 36, 40, 

42, 75, 86, 126, 135, 139, 140, 141, 

209, 210 
Hubbardton Battlefield (Vt.), 229 
Hudson Bay, map, 8-9, 22-23, 48-49 
Hudson River, 36, 39, 40, 42, 62, 82, 

86, 124, 126, 133-135 passim, 138, 

195, 211, 213; illus., 62; map, 2-3, 

Hudson River Valley, 7, 23, 127, 135, 

Huger (Daniel Elliott) House (S.C.), 

186, 225 
Huguenot and Historical Association 

of New Rochelle (N.Y.), 217 
Huguenot Patriotic Historical and 

Monumental Society (N.Y.), 180, 

Huguenot Street (N.Y.), 180-182; 

illus., 180; map, 2-3 
Huguenots, 5, 180-182, 226 
Hulse House (N.J.), 239 
Hunter, Col. Samuel, 221 
Hunter Mansion (Pa.), 221 
Hutchinson, Anne, 76 
Hutchinson House (Mass.), 112 

Illinois, 48 

Illinois River, map, 48-49 

Immanuel Episcopal Church (Del.), 

Independence Hall (Pa.), 68, 69, 76; 

illus., 32, 33 
Independence National Historical Park 

(Pa.), 68-70; illus., 32, 33, 68; map, 

Indian Affairs, Superintendents; see 

Agents, Indian 
Indian Castle Church (N.Y.), 239 

Indian King Tavern (N.J.), 239 

Indian Reserve, 22; map, 22-23 

Indiana, 197-198 

"Intolerable" Acts, 29 

Irish, 5, 6 

Iron making, 9, 67, 232 

Iroquois Indians, 47, 125, 128, 129, 

144,206,210, 213,215 
Isham, Norman M., 159, 160 

Jackson, Andrew, 100, 231 
James, John, 15 
James River, 48, 49, 173; map, 2-3, 

Jamestown Island, 49, 73, 190 
Jefferson, Jane (Randolph), 236 
Jefferson, Thomas, 16, 69, 84, 90, 119, 

171, 189, 190, 191, 236, 240 
Jefferson (Thomas) Memorial (D.C.), 

Jeffs, John, 108 
Jerusalem Church (Ga.), 197 
Jews, 5, 6, 78-80, 183 
Jockey Hollow (Morristown National 

Historical Park, N.J.), illus., 4 
Johnson, Sir John, 212, 215 
Johnson, Sir William, 20, 128, 129, 130, 

212, 213, 224 
Johnson Hall (N.Y.), 128-130, 212; 

illus., 129; map, 2-3 
Jones, Ephraim, 112 
Jones, Inigo, 156, 162 
Jones, John Paul, 34, 206 
Jones (John Paul) House (N.H.), 206 
Jones (John Paul) House (Va.), 240 
Jones (Matthew) House (Va.), 240 
Jumel, Stephen, 131 
Jumonville, Coulon de, 146 


alb, Johann ("Baron de"), 44, 161 
Kanawha River, 236 
Kaskaskia, 111., 48; map, 8-9, 22-23 
Kearsley, John, 16 
Keith, Sir William, 148, 149 
Kennebec River, 35, 200; map, 2-3, 

689-192 0-64 — 2 


[ 274 

Kentucky: frontier, 24; Revolutionary 

War, 47, 48; settlement, 167, 168, 

237; sites and buildings, 198-199, 

Kentucky River, 168 
Kettle Creek, Battle of, 44 
Kettle Creek Battlefield (Ga.), 196 
Kimball, Fiske, 90 
King's Chapel (Mass.), 100-102, 105, 

133 ; illus., 101; map, 2-3 
King's Chapel Society (Mass.), 100 
Kings Mountain, Battle of, 45, 70, 71, 

72, 161, 229 
Kings Mountain National Military 

Park (S.C.), xvi, 71-72; illus., 45; 

map, 44-45 
Kingston, N.Y., 216-217 
Kitson, Henry H., 102 
Kittery Point, Maine, 87-88 
Knights of the Golden Horseshoe, 18 
Knox, Gen. Henry, 75, 127, 214 
Knox (Gen. Henry) Headquarters 

(N.Y.), 214 
Knox (Gen. Henry) House (Maine), 


Ladd family, 206 

Lafayette, Marquis de, 48, 49, 100, 

119, 139, 140, 232 
Lake Champlain, xvii, 7, 31, 35-39 

passim, 85, 86, 126, 127, 135, 136, 

211; illus., 21, 35; map, 8-9, 22-23, 

32-33, 48-49 
Lake Erie, 47; map, 2-3, 8-9, 22-23, 

Lake George, 213 
Lake George Battleground Park 

(N.Y.), 213, 239 
Lake Huron, map, 8-9, 22-23, 48-49 
Lake Michigan, map, 8-9, 22-23, 

Lake Ontario, 7, 19, 212; map, 8-9, 

22-23, 48-49 
Lake Superior, map, 8-9, 22-23, 

Land claims of colonies, map, 48-49 
Land speculation, 8, 9, 11, 20, 22, 

24, 169, 174, 245 
Latham, Mrs. Maude Moore, 220 

Latrobe, Benjamin H., 119 

Lawrence, James C, 133 

Lebanon, Conn., 193 

Lee, Arthur, 34, 173 

Lee, Gen. Charles, 37, 42, 98, 115, 

Lee, Francis Lightfoot, 173 

Lee, Col. Jeremiah, 99, 100 

Lee, Richard Henry, 171, 173 

Lee, Robert E., 173, 235 

Lee, Col. Thomas, 173 

Lee, Thomas Ludwell, 173 

Lee, William, 173 

Lee family home, 173 

Lee (Charles) Home, 240 

Lee (Jeremiah) Mansion (Mass.), 
99-100; illus., 99; map, 2-3 

Lee (Robert E.) Memorial Founda- 
tion, Inc., 173 

Leslie, Gen. Alexander, 48 

Letters of a Farmer in Pennsylvania 
to the Inhabitants of the British 
Colonies, 29, 84 

Leutze, Emanuel, 122 

Leverett, John, 103-104 

Lewis, Col. Andrew, 171, 236 

Lewis, Col. Charles, 237 

Lexington, Mass. : Revolutionary War, 
93, 102, 172, 178; sites and build- 
ings, 56, 57, 91-92, 102-103, 203- 
204; map, 2-3, 32-33 

Lexington-Concord Road, 204; map, 

Lexington Green (Mass.), 30, 91, 92, 
102-103, 204, 205; illus., 30; map, 

Lexington Historical Society, 91, 92, 
204, 205 

Lexington Minuteman Company, 91 

Lexington Minute Men, Inc., 92 

Liberty Bell, 68, 76 

Library Company of Philadelphia, 70 

Library Hall (Phila., Pa.), 70 

Licking River, 48, 198 

Lincoln, Gen. Benjamin, 44, 1 13, 160 

Lincoln, Mass., 56, 57 

Litchfield, Conn., 238 

Little Pee Dee River, map, 44-45 

Little Tennessee River, 228 

Littleton, John O., xvii 


[ 275 

Lloyd, Edward, IV, 202 

Locke, John, 26 

Locust Grove (Ky.), 199 

Log cabin architecture, 17 

Logan Massacre Site (W. Va. ), 240 

Long Island, Battle of, 36, 21 1, 222 

Long Island, N.Y, 36, 52, 211, 222, 

Long Island Flats (Tenn.), 168 
Long Island of the Holston (Tenn.), 

166-168; illus., 167; map, 2-3 
Long Island Sound (N.Y.), map, 

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 104, 

Longfellow House Trust, 205 
"Lord Dunmore's War," 236 
Lost sites, 51-52, 117, 120, 126, 222, 

Louisbourg, 21, 87, 109, 111 
Louisiana, 22 
Louisville, Ky., 199 
Lovell, James, 106 
Lowell, James Russell, 56 
Loyalists; see Tories 
Lucas, Eliza, 52 
Lucas Plantation (S.C.), 52 
Ludwell, Philip, II, 190 
Ludwell- Paradise House (Va.), 190 
Lutheran Church in Pennsylvania, 183 
Lynch, Thomas, 227 

McBean, Thomas, 15, 133 
McClellan, Gen. George B., 230 
McCord's Ferry (S.C.), 224 
McDonald, Donald, 65 
McDowell, Col. Joseph, 71 
McKonkey Ferryhouse (N.J.), 123; 

illus., 123 
Macpheadris, Capt. Archibald, 114 
Macpheadris-Warner House (N.H.), 

114-115; illus., 114; map, 2-3 
Madison, Mrs. Dolley (Payne), 234 
Madison, James, 69, 119 
Mahan, Alfred T., 135 
Main Magazine (Pa.), 240 

Maine, 7, 35-36, 47; Div. of State 
Parks, 200; sites and buildings, 87- 

Manakintown (Va.),240 

Manchester, N.H., 205 

Manhattan Island, N.Y., 36, 52, 59, 

Manigault, Gabriel, 187, 188 

Manigault (Joseph) House (S.C.), 

Mansion House (W.Va.),237 

Marblehead, Mass., 99-100, 122 

Marblehead Historical Society, 99, 

Marine Corps, U.S., 34 

Marion, Col. Francis, 45, 224 

Market Square Presbyterian Church 
(Pa.), 240 

Marshall, John, 169, 191 

Mary, Queen (of England), 102 

Maryland, 16, 33, 44; economy, 10; 
frontier, 24; Governor, 89; popula- 
tion, 6; sites and buildings, 88-91, 

Mason, George, 29, 90, 171, 189 

Mason Springs, Md., 239 

Massachusetts, xvi, 18, 76, 79; archi- 
tect, 15, 16; Assembly, 28; Gover- 
nor, 16, 28, 105, 109, 111, 112; 
population, 6, 7 ; Revolutionary 
War, 29, 34, 68, 74-75; sites and 
buildings, 52, 55-58, 74-75, 91- 
113, 177-180, 203-205, 239; see 
also Boston, Concord, Deerfield, 
Lexington, Marblehead, Massachu- 
setts Bay Colony, Salem 

Massachusetts Bay Colony, 87, 113 

Massachusetts Hall (Mass.), 103-104; 
illus., 13; map, 2-3 

Massachusetts "Minutemen," 30 

Mather (Increase) Parsonage, 108 

Maugridge, William, 183 

Maule, Thomas, 134 

Maxwell, Gen. William, 194, 195 

Medford, Mass, 97-99 

Memorial Foundation of the Germanna 
Colonies in Va, 233 

Memorial Hall (Mass.), 179 

Mercantilism, 8 

Mercer, Gen. Hugh, 120, 146 


[ 276 

"Mercer Oak," illus., 121 
Metropolitan Museum of Art (N.Y.), 

Meyer, Matthias, 183 
Middlebrook Encampment (N.J.), 

208-209, 210 
Mifflin, Maj. Gen. Thomas, 221 
Mikveh Israel Cemetery (Pa.), 70 
Mikveh Israel Congregation, 183 
Milford, Conn., 238 
Miller (Elijah) House (N.Y.),239 
Millet, Father Pierre, 216 
Mills, Robert, 187 
Minitree, David, 230 
Minute Man National Historical Park 

(Mass.), 55-57 
Mission House (Mass.), 239 
Mississippi, 239 
Mississippi River, 22, 49, 50, 145; map, 

8-9, 22-23, 48-49 
Mississippi Valley, 20, 21, 145 
Moffatt, John, 206 
Moffatt, Samuel, 206 
Moffatt-Ladd House (N.H.), 206 
Mohawk River, 23, 214; map, 2-3, 8- 

9, 32-33 
Mohawk Valley, 7, 40, 125, 126, 128, 

Molly Stark Chapter, DAR, 205 
Monmouth, Battle of, 115-117, 133, 

Monmouth Battlefield (N.J.), 115- 

117.; map, 32-33 
Monmouth Courthouse (N.J.),42, 115, 

116, 117 
Monongahela River, 145, 146, 147; 

illus., 20 
Monroe, James, 100, 190, 191 
Montcalm, Marquis Louis Joseph de, 

127, 212, 213 
Montgomery, Gen. Richard, 35, 36 
Montgomery Historical Society (N.Y.), 

Monticello (Va.), 16, 90, 240 
Montpelier, Vt., map, 32-33 
"Montpelier" (Thomaston, Me.), 238 
Montreal, Canada, 21, 35; map, 8-9, 

Moore, Col. James, 65 
Moore House (Va.), 73 

Moores Creek National Military Park 

(N.C.), 64-65; illus., 65; map, 44- 
Moravian Church, 220 
Moravians, 218, 220 
Mordecai, Moses, 183 
Moreland, John, 84 
Morgan, Gen. Daniel, 46, 71 
Morgan (Daniel) Home (Va.), 240 
Morris, Lt. Col. Roger, 131 
Morris- Jumel Mansion (New York 

City), 130-131; illus., 37; map, 32- 

Morrison, Hugh, 104, 165 
Morristown, N. J., 39, 43, 58-59 
Morristown National Historical Park 

(N.J. ), 58-59; illus., 4, 43, 59; map, 

"Morven," Governor's Mansion (N.J.), 

Motte, Col. Jacob, 227 
Motte, Rebecca, 227 
Motte (Jacob) House (S.C.), 187, 227 
Moultrie, Col. William, 36, 227 
Mount Airy (Va.), 169-170; illus., 

170; map, 2-3 
Mount Joy, 154 
Mount Pleasant (house in Pa.), 151- 

153; illus., 152; map, 2-3 
Mount Pleasant, S.C., 240 
Mount Vernon, N.Y., 76 
Mount Vernon (Va.), 16, 72, 233-234; 

map, 2-3 
Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of 

the Union, 233 
"Mount Vernon of the North" (R.I.), 

Muhlenberg, Hannah Meyer, 183 
Muhlenberg, Henry Melchior, 183 
Muhlenberg, Rev. John Peter Gabriel, 

Mulberry Plantation (S.C.), 163-164; 

illus., 164; map, 2-3 
Munday, Richard, 16, 157 
Munroe Tavern (Mass.), 92, 204-205 
Musgrove's Mill Battlefield (S.C.), 240 
Muzzey, Benjamin, 91 
Muzzey House (Mass.), 57 
Mystic Seaport (Conn.), 238 


[ 277 

iNassau Hall (Princeton Univ.), 117- 
119, 120; illus., 118; map, 2-3 

Natchez, Miss., 239 

Nathanael Greene Homestead Associa- 
tion, 223 

National Historic Sites, non-Federal 
ownership, 74-80 

National Memorial Arch (Valley 
Forge), 154 

National Park Service, xiii, xv, xvii, 53, 
54,69, 71, 74 

National Park System, xiii, xvi, 52, 74, 
190; sites in, 54-73 

National Society of Colonial Dames of 
America, 85, 225; Conn. Society, 81, 
83; in the State of N.H., 206 

National Survey of Historic Sites and 
Buildings, iv, xiii, 51-240 

National Temple Association, Inc., 215 

National Trust for Historic Preserva- 
tion, 52 

Naturalization, basis of the first act, 

Negro slaves, 7, 9 

Nelson, Thomas, Jr., 171 

Nelson (Josiah) House (Mass.), 56 

New Amstel (Del.), 195 

New Amsterdam, 195 

New Bern, N.C., 219; map, 8-9, 22-23 

New Castle, Del., 195 

New Castle, N.H., 239 

New Ebenezer, Ga., 197 

New England: architecture, 15, 112, 
114; economy, 9, 10, 57; education, 
13, 103; French attacks, 18; frontier, 
177-180; Revolutionary War, 31, 
41, 59; sites and buildings, 51, 99, 
100, 101; trade, xvi, 9 

New England Restraining Act, 30 

New France, 127, 146 

New Hall (Pa.), 70 

New Hampshire, 114-115, 205-207, 

New Haven, Conn., 16, 238; map, 8-9 

New Jersey: Dept. of Conservation and 
Economic Development, Forests and 
Parks Section, 119, 121; Governor, 
210, 239; Revolutionary War, 36-39 
passim, 43, 48, 58-59, 139, 141; 

sites and buildings, 13, 52, 58-59, 
115-123, 207-210, 239 

New London, Conn., 238 

New Orleans, La., 22; map, 8-9, 22- 
23, 48-49 

New Paltz, N.Y, 180-182 

New Philadelphia, Ohio, 220 

New Plymouth Trading Post (Me.), 

New Post (Va.),52 

NewRochelle, N.Y.,217 

New Sweden, 17 

New Windsor Cantonment (N.Y.), 

New York City, 6, 27, 28, 217; Dept. 
of Parks, 130; Revolutionary War, 
36, 37, 42, 43, 44, 49, 52, 58, 59, 
73, 83, 139; sites and buildings, xvi, 
52, 60-62, 76-77, 130, 132-133, 
211, 213-214; map, 2-3, 8-9, 22- 
23, 32-33, 48-49 

New York State, 1 1, 15, 27, 133, 206, 
144, 245; Education Dept., 124, 
128, 131, 136, 137, 213-217 passim; 
frontier, 23; Governor, 132; Revolu- 
tionary War, 36, 41, 47, 59, 62-63, 
83, 115; Senate, 216; sites and 
buildings, 52, 62-63, 124-138, 
180-182, 210-217, 239; see also 
Albany, Long Island, New York 

Newburgh, N.Y., 137-138 

Newgate Prison (Conn.), 194 

Newport, R.I., 6; architects, 16, 100; 
Revolutionary War, 37, 43; sites 
and buildings, 78-80, 154-160 pas- 
sim, 223; map, 2-3, 8-9, 22-23, 

Newspapers, 13 

Newtown, N.C. ; see Wilmington, N.C. 

Newtown Battlefield (N.Y.), 215 

Niagara Frontier State Park Com- 
mission, 216 

Niagara River, 215 

Nicholas, Robert Carter, 171 

Ninety Six, village (S.C.), 46, 47, 227- 
228; map, 44-45 

North, Lord Frederick, 30 


[ 278 

North Bridge (Concord, Mass.), 56; 

map, 32-33 
North Carolina, 6, 15, 19, 219; Dept. 

of Archives and History, 218; 

economy, 11; Governor, 217, 218, 

220; population, 6; Revolutionary 

War, 44, 45, 63-65, 71, 73, 81; 

sites and buildings, 63-65, 217-220; 

Tories, 36 
North Carolina Regulators, 12 
North Hackensack, N.J., 239 
North Holston River, map, 44-45 
Northwest, 48, 197, 216, 222, 245 
Notman, John, 119 
Nova Scotia, 35 ; map, 22-23 

wcmulgee River, map, 8-9, 44-45 
Oconee River, map, 44-45 
Ogeechee River, map, 44-45 
Oglethorpe, Gen. James, 19, 54 
Ohio, 23,48, 141, 146,220,230 
Ohio Company, 146, 222 
Ohio River, 7, 20, 21, 22, 65-66, 125, 

129, 145, 236; map, 2-3, 8-9, 22- 

23, 44-45, 48-49 
Ohio State Archeological and Histori- 
cal Society, 220 
Ohio Valley, 7, 11, 145 
Old Barracks (N.J. ), 209 
Old Barracks Association, 209 
Old City Hall (Pa.), 69 
Old Colony House (R.I.), 157-159 
Old Constitution House (Vt.), 240 
Old Court House (Va.), 190 
OldDeerfield (Mass.), 9, 18, 177-180; 

illus., 18, 179; map, 2-3 
Old Fort Niagara (N.Y.), 21, 140, 

Old Fort Niagara Association, 216 
Old Marine Hospital (S.C.), 187 
Old Mystic, Conn., 238 
Old North Church (Mass.), 104-105, 

106; mop, 32-33 
Old Saratoga ;see Schuylerville 
Old Somerset House (London), 156 
Old South Association, 105, 107 
Old South Meeting House (Mass.), 

28,52,96, 105-107; map, 2-3 

Old State House (Md.),239 

Old State House (Mass.), 109-110 

Old State House (R.I.), 157-159; 

illus., 158; map, 2-3 
Old State House in New Port, R.I., 

Inc., 157 
Old Stone Fort (N.Y.), 239 
"Old Swedes' " Church (Pa.), 77-78; 

illus., 77 
Old Tennent Church (N.J.), 116, 

117; illus., 116 
Oldtown, Md., 239 
"Olive Branch Petition," 32 
Oneida Carrying Place, 125 
Oneida Lake, N.Y., map, 32-33 
Opequon Creek, Va., 235 
Order of the Purple Heart, 138 
Oriskany, Battle of, 40, 126, 131-132, 

Oriskany Battlefield (N.Y.), 131-132; 

map, 32-33 
Oriskany State Park (N.Y.), 132 
Ormsbee, Caleb, 16 
Oswego River, 212 
Otis, James, 95, 109 
Ottawa Indians, 140-141 
Overhill Cherokee Indians, 228 
Oxford University, 175 
Oyster Point Peninsula (S.C.), 186 

L aine, Thomas, 33, 217 

Paine (Thomas) Cottage (N.Y.), 

Palatine Bridge, N.Y., 239 

Palisades Interstate Park Commis- 
sion, 133 

Palladian style architecture, 90-91, 
152, 160, 170 

Paradise, John, 190 

Paradise, Lucy Ludwell, 190 

Pardee-Morris House (Conn.), 238 

Parker, Capt. John. 57, 91, 92, 102, 

Parker, William, 183, 184 

"Parson's Cause," 26, 171, 233 

Patterson, Thomas, 183 

Paul Revere Memorial Association, 


[ 279 

Peace of Paris, 1783; see Treaty of 
Paris, 1783 

Peace of Utrecht, 5, 18 

Peale. Charles Willson, 89 

Pechin. John, 184 

Pec Dee River, map, 44-45 

Pell Stephen, 127 

Pell, William F., 127 

Pendleton. Edmund, 171 

Penn, William, 68, 77, 78, 195 

Pennsylvania, 11, 15, 29, 84, 206, 
218, 235; architect, 16; Brandywine 
Battlefield Park Commission, 139 
Dept. of Forests and Waters, 121 
140, 145; frontier, 24; Governor 
149; Historical and Museum Com 
mission, 144, 147, 148; population 

5, 6, 7, 11; Revolutionary War 
29, 32, 37, 39, 40, 42, 47, 48, 59 : 
120, 208; sites and buildings, xvi 
52, 65-70, 77-78, 121-123, 139- 
154. 182-186, 221-222, 240; Val 
ley Forge Park Commission, 153 
Washington Crossing State Park 
Commission, 121; see also German 
town Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Val 
ley Forge 

Pennsylvania, University of, 13 
Pennybacker's Mill (Pa.), 142 
Penobscot Bay, 7 ; map, 2-3 
Penrose, Samuel, 149 
Pensacola, Fla., 238; map, 22-23, 48- 

Pepperrell, Lady Mary, 87, 88 
Pepperrell, Sir William, 87 
Pepperrell (Lady) House (Me.), 87- 

88: illus., 87; map, 2-3 
Percy, Gen. Earl, 204 
Perry, Capt. William, 175 
Perth Amboy, N.J. , 210 
Phi Beta Kappa, 189 
Philadelphia, Pa., 29, 61, 84, 208, 222, 

234; architects, 15, 16; Fairmount 

Park Commission, 150; population, 

6. 7; Revolutionary War, 32, 39, 40, 
42, 115, 139-140, 141, 154, 194- 
195, 208; sites and buildings, xvi, 
68-70, 77-78, 150-151, 182-186, 
221-222; map, 2-3, 8-9, 22-23, 32- 
33, 48-49 

Philadelphia, U.S. Gundelo, xvi, 85- 
86, 136; map, 32-33 

Philadelphia architecture, 182 

Philadelphia Exchange, 70 

Philadelphia Museum of Art, 151, 152 

Philadelphia Society for the Preserva- 
tion of Landmarks, 185 

Philosophical Hall (Pa.), 69 

Pickens, Gen. Andrew, 45, 196 

Piedmont, 24, 71 

Pioneer Memorial State Park (Ky.), 

Pitcairn, Maj. John, 91, 102, 113 

Pitcher, Molly, 117 

Pitt, William, 21 

Pittsburgh, Pa., 66, 140, 145-148 pas- 
sim, 203; illus., 20; map, 48-49; see 
also Forks of the Ohio 

Plantation system, 7, 10 

Plantations, 52, 72-73, 89-91, 145, 
161-164 passim, 173-175, 223-224, 
230-236 passim 

Pluckemin (Village, N.J. ), 239 

Pocumtuck Indians, 177 

Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Associa- 
tion, 177 

Poe, Edgar Allan, 172 

Poe, Elizabeth Arnold, 172 

Pohick Church (Va.), 234 

Point Pleasant Battlefield (W. Va.), 

Point State Park (Pa.), 145-148; illus., 

Political parties, 27 

Pontiac (Ottawa chief ) , 140 

Pontiac "Rebellion," 23, 140-141, 146 

Pope's Creek, Va., illus., 72 

Population, 3-7 

Port Chester, N.Y., 239 

Port Royal, 18 

Porteus, James, 15 

Portsmouth, N.H., 114-1 15, 206-207 

Portsmouth (N.H.) Historical Society, 

Portsmouth, Va., 49 

Post offices, 13, 52, 92, 226 

Potomac River, 72, 203, 233; map, 2-3, 
32-33, 44-45 

PrataRio (W. Va.), 240 



Presbyterian Board of Relief for Dis- 
abled Ministers and Widows and 
Orphans of Deceased Ministers, 210 

Presbyterian Church (New Castle, 
Del.), 195 

Prescott, Col. William, 93 

Preservation Society of Newport Coun- 
ty (R.I.), 154, 156 

Preston, Paul, 182 

Prevost, Gen. George, 44 

Price, William, 104 

Princeton, Battle of, 1 18, 1 19-121, 122 

Princeton, N.J., 39, 122, 209; sites and 
buildings, 13, 117-121, 239 

Princeton Battlefield (N.J.), 119-121; 
illus., 121; map, 32-33 

Princeton University, 13, 117, 120 

Prisons, 194, 226, 228 

Proclamation of 7765, 22, 28; map, 22- 

Proctor, A. Phemister, 119 

Proprietory House (N.J.),210 

Protestant Episcopal Church (Md.), 

Protestant Episcopal Church of the 
Diocese of Pa., 78 

Providence, R.I., 16; map, 2-3, 32-33 

Pseudo-Renaissance architecture, 119 

Public Magazine (Va.), 190; illus., 189 

Pulaski, Casimir, 44 

Putnam Cottage (Conn.), 238 

(Quakers, 5, 150, 184 

Quebec, Canada, 21, 35, 36, 200, 201; 

map, 8-9, 22-23, 48-49 
Quebec, Province of, after 1763, 22; 

map, 22-23 
Queen Anne's War, 17, 178 
Quincy, Mass., 203, 239 
Quincy Homestead (Mass.), 239 

Raleigh, Va., map, 2-3, 44-45 
Raleigh Tavern (Va.), 192 
Randolph, Edmund, 189 
Randolph family, 236 
Rapidan River, 232 

Rappahannock River, 170; map, 44-45 

Rawdon, Lord, 47 

Rawlins, John, 90 

Raynham Hall (N.Y.), 239 

Redwood, Abraham, 159 

Redwood Library and Athenaeum 
(R.I.), 159-160; illus., 159; map, 

Registered National Historic Land- 
marks, xiii, xvi; designated, 51-53; 
districts eligible, 177-192; eligible, 
other, 81-176; ineligible, 193-240 

Registry of National Historic Land- 
marks, 51, 53, 203, 212, 216, 232; 
see also Registered National Historic 

Regulator Movement, 12, 217-218 

Renaissance architecture, 14, 175 

Renssalaer, N.Y., 239 

Revere, Paul, 56, 104, 108 

Revere (Paul) House (Mass.), 107- 
109;*7/u5., 108; map, 32-33 

Revere (Paul) Memorial Association, 

Revolutionary Memorial Society, 210 

Revolutionary War, 3, 12, 29-50; map 
32-33, 44-45, 48-49; see also Battle- 
fields, Battles, Forts, and under cities 
and states 

Rhett, Col. William, 224 

Rhett (Col. William) House (S.C.), 

187, 224-225 
Rhoads, Samuel, 16 

Rhode Island, 6; architects, 15, 16, 
100; General Assembly, 158; Legisla- 
ture, 158; Revolutionary War, 37, 
43; sites and buildings, 78-80, 154- 
160, 222-223 

Rhode Island 1st Infantry, 222 

Richmond, Va., 170-172; map, 2-3, 
22-23, 44-45, 48-49 

Rives, William Cabell, 231 

Roanoke River, map, 2-3, 44-45 

Robertson, James, 229 

Robinson, Thomas, 175 

Rochambeau, Count Jean B. de, 49, 

Rockefeller, John D., Jr., 157, 175, 

188, 190 
"Rockingham" (N.J.), 209-210 




Rocky Hill, N. J., 209-210 

Roman architecture, 160 

Rome,N.Y., 125-126, 131-132 

Roosevelt, Mrs. Sara Delano, 76 

Ross, Betsy, 78 

Roxbury, Mass., 111-112 

Royal Savage (Amer. flagship), 86 

Royall, Isaac, 97, 98 

Royall (Isaac) House (Mass.), 97-99; 

illus., 98; map, 2-3 
Royall House Association, 97 
Rupert's Land, map, 22-23 
Rush-Bagot Agreement, 216 
Russell, Jason, 204 
Russell (Jason) House (Mass.), 204 
Russell (Nathaniel) House (S.C.), 187 
Rutgers University, 13 
Rutledge, Edward, 211 

Sabine River, map, 8-9 

St. Augustine, Fla., 17, 19, 54; map, 

8-9, 22-23, 48-49 
St. Clair, Gen. Arthur, 41, 59 
Ste. Genevieve, Mo., map, 22-23 
Ste. George's Church (Pa.), 70 
St. Helena Episcopal Church (S.C.), 

St. John's College (Md.),201 
St. John's Episcopal Church (Va.), 

170-172; map, 44-45 
St. Joseph's Church ( Pa. ) , 70 
St. Lawrence River, 'map, 2-3, 8-9, 

St. Leger, Gen. Barry, 40-41, 126, 132 
St. Louis, Mo., map, 22-23, 48-49 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields (London), 

133, 157 
St. Mary's Church (Pa.), 70 
St. Marys River, 7; map, 2-3, 22-23, 

St. Michael's Church Corporation 

(S.C.), 165 
St. Michael's Episcopal Church (S.C.), 

165-166, 186; illus., 5, 166; map, 

St. Paul's Chapel (N.Y.), 132-133; 

map, 2-3 

St. Paul's Church National Historic 

Site (N.Y.), 76-77; map, 2-3 
St. Philip's Episcopal Church (N.C.), 

St. Philip's Episcopal Church (S.C.), 

St. Simons Island, Ga., 54-55 
Salem, Mass., xvi, 9, 57-58, 110 
Salem Maritime National Historic Site 

(Mass.), xvi, 9, 57-58; illus., 58; 

map, 2-3 
Salmon, William, 232 
Salzburger Memorial Parish House 

(Ga.), 197 
Santee River, 223, 224; map, 44-45 
Saranac Chapter, DAR, 136 
Saratoga, Battle of, 62-63, 143; illus., 

Saratoga campaign, 42, 62, 85, 124- 

127 passim, 132, 135, 141, 143, 222 
Saratoga National Historical Park 

(N.Y.), 62-63; map, 32-33 
Savage, Thomas, 188 
Savannah, Ga., 44, 52, 238; map, 2-3, 

Savannah River, 197; map, 2-3, 44-45 
Savelle, Max, 3 
Schoenbrunn Village (Ohio), 23, 220; 

map, 2-3 
Schoharie, N.Y., 239 
Schumo, Barney, 185 
Schuyler, Gen. Philip, 41, 63, 216 
Schuyler Mansion (N.Y.), 63, 216 
Schuylerville, N.Y., 63, 211; illus., 62 
Schuylkill River, 151, 154, 221 
Scotch, 5, 6, 196 
Scotch-Irish, 5, 6, 17, 23 
Scotchtown (Va.), 234-235 
Sebasticook River, 201 
Second Boston Town House (Mass.), 

105, 109-110; map, 2-3 
Senate House (N.Y.), 216-217 
Serapis (ship), 34 
Seven Years' War, 146,200 
"76 House" (N.Y.), 239 
Sevier, Col. John, 71 
Sewall, Judge Samuel, 87 
Sharpe, Horatio, 89 
Shawnee campaign, 169 
Shawnee Indians, 144, 236, 237 


[ 282 

Shearith Israel Trustees (New York 
City), 80 

Shelby, Col. Isaac, 71 

Sheldon-Hawks House (Mass.), 179 

Sheldon Tavern (Mass.), 180 

Shenandoah River, map, 44-45 

Shenandoah Valley, 24, 235 

Sherburne, Mrs. Nathaniel, 114 

Shippen, Dr. William, 16, 119 

Shirley, Gov. William, 109, 111, 201 

Shirley-Eustis House (Mass.), Ill — 
112; illus., Ill; map, 2-3 

Shirley-Eustis House Association, 111, 

Shirley Plantation (Va.), 235 

Simmons, Francis, 187 

Simmons-Edwards House (S.C.), 187 

Simsbury mines, 194 

Six Nations (Indian), 144 

Slaves, 7, 9 

Smallwood's Retreat (Md.), 239 

Smibert, John, 16, 96 

Smith, Robert, 16, 119 

Smithsonian Institution, 86, 87 

Society for the Preservation of New 
England Antiquities, 52, 87, 111 

Society of Friends of Touro Synagogue 
National Historic Shrine, Inc., 80 

Society of the First Parish (Mass.), 
112, 113 

Society of the National Shrine of the 
Bill of Rights, 76 

Soldier's Rest (Va.), 240 

Somerville, N.J., 210 

Sons of the American Revolution, 214 

South, 13, 51 

South Carolina, xvi, 225; economy, 11 ; 
expansion and conflict, 17, 19; Gov- 
ernor, 163, 225; population, 5, 6; 
Revolutionary War, 36, 44-48 pas- 
sim, 71, 73, 81, 196, 229; sites and 
buildings, 52, 70-72, 160-166, 186- 
188, 223-228, 240; slaves, 7; see 
also Charleston 

South Carolina Historical Society, 188 

South Carolina Society Hall (S.C.), 

South Holston River, map, 44-45 

South Philadelphia, 78 

South River, 195 

Southern Highlands, 24 

Spanish: expansion and conflict, 17-22 
passim, 54, 196; in Florida, xvi; pri- 
vateers, 218; and the American 
Revolutionary War, 34, 49; and 
westward movement, 7 

Spanish mission system, 1 7 

Spinning-Wheel House (Pa.), 184, 185 

Spotswood, Alexander, 18, 232 

Spring Hill Redoubt Site (Ga.), 238 

Springdale (Va.), 235-236; map, 2-3 

Springfield, N.J., 239 

Stamp Act, 28, 60, 61, 171, 218 

Stamp Act Congress, 60, 84 

"Stamp Act Defiance," 218 

Stamp Act riots, 109 

Star Fort (S.C.), 227-228 

Stark, Gen. John, 98, 125, 205; illus., 

Stark (Gen. John) House (N.H.), 

Stark's Knob, N.Y., illus., 62 

State parks and monuments, 93, 117- 
125 passim, 131-135 passim, 139- 
149 passim, 153-154, 157-159, 195- 
200 passim, 203, 212-219 passim, 
226, 229, 236-237 

Staten Island, N.Y., 59, 210-211 

Statue of Liberty National Monument 
(N.Y.), 54 

Staunton, Va., 240 

Stebbins (Asa) House (Mass.), 179 

Steuben, "Baron" Frederick von, 42, 
115, 151, 154 

Steuben House (N.J.), 239 

Stockbridge, Mass., 239 

Stockton Springs, Me., 238 

Stony Point (N.Y.), 43 

Stony Point Battlefield (N.Y.), 133- 
135; illus., 134: map, 32-33 

Stratford Hall (Va.), 52, 173; map, 

Strickland, William, 187 

Stuart, Col. Archibald, 226 

Stuart, Col. John, 20, 224 

Stuart (Col. John) House (S.C.), 186, 

Stuyvesant, Peter, 195 


[ 283 

Sullivan, Gen. John, 36, 43, 47, 98, 

139, 205, 215 
Sullivan (Gen. John) House (N.H.), 

Sullivan's expedition, 210 
Sullivan's Island, 36 
Sumter, Gen. Thomas, 45, 160, 224 
Sunbury, Pa., 240 
Supreme Court Building (Pa.), 70 
Susquehanna River, 221, 222; map, 

Susquehanna Valley, 221 
Swedes, 77-78, 195 
Swiss, 5, 6 
Sycamore Shoals (Tenn.), 229 

Taliaferro, Richard, 16, 191, 230, 232 

Tamassee (S.C.), 240 

Tappan, N.Y., 239 

Tarleton, Lt. Col. Banastre, 44, 46, 71 

Taverns, 91-92, 102, 112-113, 122, 

180, 192, 204-205, 213-214, 222, 

231, 233, 237, 239, 240 
Tayloe, Col. John, 170 
Taylor, Benjamin, 183 
Taylor, Enoch, 183 
Tea Act of 1773, 29 
Temple Hill (N.Y.), 137,215 
Ten Broeck Mansion (N.Y.), 239 
Tennessee, 24, 245; sites and buildings, 

Tennessee Eastman Co., 168 
Tennessee River, 125, 168; map, 2-3, 

8-9, 22-23, 48-49 
Thomas, Gen. John, 75 
Thomas Park (Mass.), 75 
Thomaston, Me., 238 
Thompson-Neely House, 122 
Thomson, Col. William, 223 
Thomson (Charles) Home (Pa.), 240 
Thorning, William, 57 
Ticonderoga, N.Y., 127-128; see also 

Fort Ticonderoga 
Tories, 36, 44, 45, 47, 96, 126, 194, 

Touro, Rev. Isaac, 79 

Touro Synagogue National Historic 

Site (R.I.), 78-80; illus., 79; map, 

Townshcnd Acts of 7 767, 28, 29, 105, 

Trade, 8-11, 145; see also Fur trade, 

Trading posts, "Triangular trade" 
Trading posts, 23, 51, 201, 227-228 
Trails and roads, 48, 73, 76, 167, 168, 

190, 198, 200, 201, 204, 224, 228, 

Transylvania Convention, 198 
Transylvanians of Henderson, Ky., 199 
Traveler's Rest (Va.), 240 
Treaties: Indian, 24, 125, 129, 145, 

168, 245; map, 8-9, 22-23, 48-49; 

other, 5, 18, 21, 27, 34, 49-50, 55, 

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 55 
Treaty of Fort Stanwix, 125 
Treaty of Logstown, 145 
Treaty of Long Island (Tenn.), 168 
Treaty of Paris: 1763, 21, 27, 200; 

map, 8-9, 22-23; 1783, 49-50, 208; 

map, 48-49 
Trent, Capt. William, 146 
Trenton, N.J. : Revolutionary War, 38, 

120, 121, 122; sites and buildings, 

52, 209 
Trenton Barracks (N.J.), 209 
Trevelyan, Sir George Otto, 143 
"Triangular trade," 9, 57 
Trinity (New Castle, Del.), 195 
Trotter, Daniel, 185 
Trumbull, John, 16 
Trumbull, Gov. Jonathan, 193 
Trumbull, Joseph, 193 
Trumbull (Jonathan) War Office 

(Conn.), 193 
Tryon, Gov. William, 217 
Tryon Palace (N.C.), 219-220 
Tryon Palace Commission (N.C.), 220 
Tubal Furnace (Va.),240 
Tuckahoe Plantation (Va.), 173, 236 
Tu-Endie-Wei State Park (W. Va.), 

Tulpehocken Valley (Pa.), 144 
Twelves, Robert, 106 
Tyler, John, 190 


[ 284 


.S. Government, 208, 226; Army, 
Dept. of, Secretary, 216; Congress, 
xvi, 55, 138, 202, 215, 222; see also 
Continental Congress; Constitution, 
69, 85, 202; Interior, Dept. of, xiii, 
69, 74, 75, 80, 81; Mint, 208; Navy, 
34; State, Dept. of, 61; Supreme 
Court, 61; Treasury, Dept. of, 61; 
War, Dept. of, 61 

Valcour Bay, xvii, 34, 38, 86, 135- 

136; illus., 35; map, 32-33 
Valcour Island, 85, 86, 135, 136; illus., 

Valley Creek (Pa.), 154 
Valley Forge (Pa.), xvi, 40, 42, 115, 

116, 153-154, 223 
Valley Forge Historical Society, 154 
Valley Forge State Park (Pa.), 154; 

illus., 40; map, 32-33 
Vanderlyn, John, 217 
Vanderspiegel tankard, 78 
Van Dyke, Gov. Nicholas, 195 
Varnum, Gen. James Mitchell, 222 
Varnum Continentals, 223 
Varnum (Gen. James Mitchell) House 

(R.I.), 222-223 
Vasa (Gustav) Bible, 78 
Vassall, Col. John, Jr., 205 
Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House 

(Mass.), 205 
Vermont, 41, 124-125, 229, 240 
Vernon House (R.I.), 223 
Verplanck's Point (N.Y.), 43, 133 
Village Inn (N.J. ), 239 
Villeponteux, Zachariah, 165 
Vincennes, Ind., 48, 197; map, 22-23 
Virginia, 6, 7, 144, 236; architects, 15, 
16, 230; economy, 10, 11; Governors, 
26, 169, 171, 173, 230, 232, 234; 
House of Burgesses, 26, 232; Revolu- 
tionary War, 36, 44, 45-49 passim, 
73, 81, 83; sites and buildings, xvi, 
13, 52, 72-73, 169-176, 188-192, 
230-236, 240; westward expansion, 
18, 24, 146 

Virginia Convention (1776), 173 
"Virginia Resolves," 28, 29, 171 

Wabash River, 48, 197; map, 22-23 

Wachovia Colony (N.C.), 218 

Wadsworth, Benjamin, 103 

Wadsworth, Gen. Jeremiah, 42 

Waite, Ezra, 163 

Wakefield National Memorial Associa- 
tion, 72 

Walker, George W., 187 

Walkill River, 180 

Wallace, William, 210 

Wallace House (N.J.), 210 

War for Independence; see Revolu- 
tionary War 

War of 1812, 147,200,212,222 

"War of the Regulation," 217 

War of the Spanish Succession, 17 

Warner, Jonathan, 114 

Warner, Col. Seth, 125, 229 

Warner House (N.H.), 114-115 

Warner House Association, 114 

Warren, Dr. Joseph, 106 

Warren, Russell, 187 

Washington, Augustine, Jr., 72 

Washington, D.C., 54, 85-86; map, 
32-33, 44-45 

Washington, George, 16, 69, 78, 84, 
90, 98, 100, 119, 151, 160, 169, 171, 
187, 189, 190, 206, 214, 233; birth- 
place, 72-73; headquarters, 59, 82, 
130-131; 137-138, 140, 154, 205, 
209-210, 231-232, 239; his church, 
234; farewell addresses, 209, 214; at 
Forks of the Ohio, 145-146; French 
and Indian War, 20, 65, 66; inaugu- 
ration, 61, 133; Revolutionary War, 
31, 32, 35-42 passim, 48, 49, 64, 
67, 68, 73, 74, 75, 81, 82, 83, 94, 
115, 120, 121-122, 133-135 passim, 
139-143 passim, 153-154, 158, 208, 

Washington, Martha, 94, 95, 138, 209, 

Washington (George) Birthplace Na- 
tional Monument, 10, 72-73; illus., 
10, 72; map, 2-3 


Washington Camp Ground Associa- 
tion, 209 

Washington Crossing (N.J. and Pa.), 
121-123; illus., 38; map, 32-33 

Washington Crossing Monument 
(Pa.), 122 

Washington Headquarters Association 
of Rocky Hill (N.J.), 209 

Washington Headquarters Association 
of theDAR, 130, 131 

Washington Headquarters Houses: 
N.J., 59, 209-210; N.Y., 239; Pa., 
154; illus., (N.J.) 43, (Pa.) 153; 
map, (N.Y.), 32-33 

Washington (Gen. William) House 

Washington Memorial Chapel (Val- 
ley Forge) , 154 

Washington Memorial Museum (Val- 
ley Forge), 154 

Washington Monument (D.C.), 54 

Washington's Headquarters (N.Y.), 

Watauga River, 24, 228, 229; map, 
2-3, 44-45 

Watauga settlements (Tenn.), 228, 

Watchung Mountains, 59 

Waterford, Pa., 240 

Waterman, Thomas T., 151 

Waxhaws, S.C., 44, 160 ; map, 44-45 

Wayne, Gen. "Mad Anthony," 134, 

Weare (Gov. Meshech) House (N.H.), 

Webb, Joseph, Esq., 82, 83 

Webb House (Conn.), 81-83; illus., 
82; map, 32-33 

Weiser, Conrad, 144, 145 

Weiser (Conrad) Home (Pa.), 143- 
145); illus., 144; map, 2-3 

Weiser (Conrad) Memorial Park, 

Wells, Arthur, 182, 183 

Wells, Thomas, 183 

Wentworth, Gov. Benning, 207 

Wentworth, Gov. John, 207 

Wentworth, Madame Mark Hunking, 

Wentworth, Thomas, 207 

W( ntworth-Coolidge Mansion (N.H.), 

Wentworth-Gardner House (N.H.), 

Wentworth-Gardner & Tobias Lear 

Houses Association, 207 
Wesner, Frederick, 187 
West Indies, 11, 44, 82, 83, 103; 

architectural influence, 165; trade, 

9, 10,57 
West Point (N.Y.), 44, 81, 133, 135, 

Westminster (N.J.), 210 
Westover (Va.), 173-175; illus., 174; 

map, 2-3 
Westover Church (Va.), 175 
West Virginia, 236-237, 240 
Wethersfield, Conn., 81-83 
Whisky Rebellion, 147 
Whitall House (N.J. ), 208 
White, E. B., 187 
White (Bishop) House (Pa.), 70 
White Plains, Battle of, 222 
White Plains, N.Y., 36, 222, 239 
Whitehall (Md.), 89-91; illus., 90; 

map, 2-3 
Wicaco, 78 

Wick House (N.J.), 59 
Wickes, Capt. Lambert, 34 
Wilderness Road, Boone's, 48, 168, 198 
William III (King of England), 102, 

William and Mary College (Va.), xvi, 

13 : 175-176, 189-190; illus., 14 
Williams (John) House (Mass.) , illus., 

Williams, Gen. Jonathan, 151 
Williams, Roger, 79 
Williamsburg, Va., xvi, 52, 73, 188- 

192; architects and builders, 1 6, 230 ; 

sites and buildings, 173, 175-176, 

220, 232; illus., 26, 189, 191; map, 

2-3, 8-9, 22-23, 48-49; see also 

William and Mary College 
Wilmington, Del., 84; map, 2-3 
Wilmington, N.C., map, 22-23, 44-45 
Wilson, Alexander, 78 
Wilson, Woodrow, 95, 119 


[ 286 

Winchester, Va., 235 

Windsor, Vt., 240 

Winnsboro, S.C., 45, 70; map, 44-45 

Winslow, Me., 200-201 

Winthrop, Gov. John, 97 

Womelsdorf Plantation (Pa.), 145 

World War II, 222 

Wren, Sir Christopher, 104, 105, 175 

Wren, James, 16 

Wren Building (Va.), xvi, 175-176, 

190; illus., 14; map, 2-3 
Wright, Amos, 112 
Wright's Tavern (Mass.), 112-113; 

illus., 113; map, 32-33 
Wyoming Valley, Pa., 47; map, 32-33 
Wythe, George, 171, 172, 189, 232 
Wythe (George) House (Va.), 191 

JL ale University, 13 
Yamassee War, 163 
York, Pa, 222 
Yorktown, Battle of, 34, 48-49, 63, 64, 

Yorktown, Va, 34, 48-49, 63, 64, 83, 

190, 233 
Yorktown Battlefield, Colonial National 

Historical Park (Va.), 73, 190; illus., 

50; map, 44-45 
Yorktown campaign, 83, 233 
Youngstown, N.Y, 215-216 

^eisberger, David, 220 
Zenger, John Peter, 27, 60, 76 
Zenger Memorial Museum Building 
(New York City), 76 






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